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Medical Library 







Medical Society 




JsRNnroB & Habdham, Steam Priktbbs ajxd BooKBnroxBS, 

X53 and 155 Market Street. 


OFFICERS, 1871. 




1ST. FRANKLIN GAUNTT, Burlington. 

2D. T. J. THOMASON, Perrineville. 

3D. G. H. LARISON, Lambertville. 

WM. ELMER, Jr., Trenton. 


H. R. BALDWIN, New Brunswick. 


STEPHEN WICKES, Permanent Chairman, . . Orange. 

J. E. CULVER, . Bergen. 



— '■«^'. 




An penoDB'who Bhall have 1>een, or may hereafter be, PresidentB of the 8ocltty« ihall Vank 

at Fellows, and be entitled to all the privilegea of del«f2:ated membera. 

Act qf InoorparaUon, Sec, 1. 
Thoae marked thus [*] are deceased. 

♦ROBKBT McKEAl!r 1766 

♦William Buknbtt 1767 

♦John Cockbait 1768 

♦Nathakiel Scitddbb 1770 

♦Isaac Smith 1771 

♦James Newell 1772 

♦Absalom Bainbbidgb 1773 

♦Thomas Wiggins 1774 

*Hbzekiah Stitbs. 1775 

« * 4( * * 


♦John Beatty 1782 

♦ Babbeb 1783 

♦Law Van Debyeeb 1784 

♦Moses Bloomfibld 1785 

♦William Bubnbtt 1786 

♦Jonathan Elmeb 1787 

♦James Stbatton 1788 

♦Moses Scott 1789 

♦John Gbipfith 1790 

♦Lewis Dunham 1791 

♦Isaac Habbis. 1792 

♦James Newell 1795 

♦Jonathan F. Mobbis 1807 

*Peteb I. Stbtkeb 1808 

♦Lewis Mobgan 1809 

♦Lewis Condict 1810 

♦Chables Smith 1811 

♦Matt. H. Williamson 1812 

♦Samuel Fobman 1814 

♦John Van Clevb 1815 

♦Lewis Dunham 1816 

♦Peteb J. Stbtkeb 1817 

♦John Van Cleve 1818 

♦Lewis Condict 1819 

♦James Lee 1^20 

♦WiLLL/^ G. Reynolds 1821 

♦Augustus R. Taylob 1822 

♦William B. Ewing 1828 

♦Peteb I. Stbykeb 1824 

♦Gilbebt S. Woodhull 1825 

♦Wm. D. McKissack 1826 

♦Isaac Fiebson 1827 

♦Jephtha B. Munn 1828 

John W. Cbaig 1829 

♦Augustus R Taylob 1880 

♦Thomas Yabbow 1831 

♦Fitz Randolph Smith 1832 

♦William Fobman 1833 

♦Samuel Hayes 1834 

*Abm. p. Hagebman 1835 

♦Henby Van Debyeeb 1836 

♦Lyndon A. Smith 1837 


Bkkj. H. Strattow 1888 

♦Jabkz G. Goblb 1839 

♦Thomas P. Stewart 1840 

♦Ferdinand S. Schenck 1841 

Zachariah Reed 1842 

♦Ajbraham Skillman 1848 

George R. Chetwood 1844 

Robert S. Smith. 1845 

♦Charles Hannah 1846 

♦Jacob T. B. Skillman 1847 

Samuel H. Pennington 1848 

Joseph Fithian 1849 

♦ELLA.S J. Marsh 1850 

John H. Phillifs 1851 

♦Othn'l H. Taylor 1852 

Samuel Lilly 1858 

♦A. B. Dayton 1854 

J. B. Coleman 1855 

Richard M. Cooper 1856 

Thomas Ryerson 1857 

♦Isaac P. Coleman 1858 

Jno. R. Sicklbr 1859 

Wm. Elmer 1860 

Jno. Blane 1861 

Jno. Woolverton 1862 

Theo. R. Varick 1868 

Ezra M. Hunt 1864 

Abram Coles 1865 

Bknj. R. Bateman 1866 

Jno. C. Johnson 1867 

Thob. J. Corson 1868 

Wm. PiERSON 1869 

Thob. F. Cullbn 1870 



♦David Hosagk, New York 1827 

♦J. W. Fbajtcis 1827 

♦John Condict, Orange 1880 

♦Noah Pabsons, Rhode Island 1889 

Reuben D. Mubfht, Cincinnati 1889 

Alban G. Smith, New York 1839 

WiLLABD Pabkeb, New York 1842 

♦Valentine Mott, New York 1845 

♦Jonathan Knight, New Haven " 1848 

♦Nath'l Chapman, Philadelphia 1848 

♦Alex. H. Stephenb, New York 1848 

♦Lewis C. Beck, New York 1850 

♦John C. Tobbet, New York 1850 

Geobob B. Wood, Philadelphia 1853 

H. A. Buttolph, New Jersey 1854 

Abhbel Woodwabd, Connecticut 1861 

♦Thos. W. Blatchfobd, New York 1861 

Jebemiah S. English, New Jersey 1867 

Stephen Wicees, New Jersey ; 1868 





(District Society organized Feb. 38, 1854.) 

John J. Haring, Pres% 


Wm. H. Hall, 


Abm. Hopper, 


F. M. Wright, 


Charles Hasbrouck, 


J. M. Simpson, 


Henry A. Hopper, 


R. Stuart, 

Ratherford Parh 

A. S. Burdett, 


A. P. WilUams, 


John S. DeMund, 


S. J. Zabriskie, 


H. C. Neer, 


Henry A. Crary, 


No. Members, 14. 

Chas. Habbbouck, Secretary. 


(District Society organized May xg, zSag.) 

Benj. H. Stratton, 

Mount HoUy. 

Aaron Reid, 


A. E. Budd, 


Samuel C. Thornton, 


Richard E. Brown, 


Alex. Elwell, 


Henry H. Longstreet, 


Lewis L. Sharp, 


Irene D. Young, 


Theodore T. Price, 


Lewis P. Jemison, 


George Goodell, 


• Alfred C. Stokes, 


Richard H. Page, 


J. Howard Pugh, 


E. Hollingshead, K Egypt^Ocean Co. 

Franklin Gauntt, 


Joseph H. Homer, 


D. B. Van Slyke, 


E. P. Townsend, 


No. Members, 20. 

E. P. TowKBKin), Secretary. 


Richard M. Cooper, 
John V. Schenck, 
Thomas F. Cullen, 
H. Genet Taylor, 
John R. Stevenson, 
Alexander Marcy, 
James Bl Ridge, 
Alexander M. Mecray, 
J. Orlando White, 
Randall W. Morgan, 
Richardson B. Okie, 

(Organized Aug. 14, 2846.) 












Isaac B. Mulford, Jr., 


D. Parrish Pancoast, 


John R. Haney, 


John W. Snowden, 


N. B. Jennings, 


Jona. J. Comfort, 


J. W. Hewlings, Jr., 


H. E. Branin, Blackwoodtown, 

J. W. McCuUough, 


H. A. M. Smith, 



Isaac S. Mulford, Camden, Joseph F. Garrison, Camden. 

Richard C. Dean, U. S. N., " A. D. WoodruflT, PriMess Anne, Md. 

No. Members, 21. H. Genbt Tatlob, Secretary. 


(Society organized Dec. 8, x8z8.) 

William Elmer, 


Ephraim Bateman, 


J. Barron Potter, 


Eli E. Bateman, 


Robert W. Elmer, 


Robert M. Bateman, 


Job. Sheppard, 


Thos. E. Stathems, 


Thos. J. Smith, 


Geo. Tomlmson, 


Charles H. Dare, 


A. S. Tittsworth, 


Henry W. Elmer, 


Sam'l G. Cattell, 


B. Rush Bateman, 


William L. Newell, 



Enoch Fithian, Qreenmeh. 

No. Members, 16. 

Milton Baldwin, 
A. K. Baldwin, 


(Society organized June 4, z8x6.) 

Neieairk, Jno. F. Ward, 

A. W. WoodhuU, 






J. A. Cross, 


Chas. Young, 


Jos. A. Corwin, 


Chas. M. Zeh, 


Chris'r Eyrich, 


George R. Kent, 


G. Grant, 


Alex. N. Dougherty, 


P. V. P. Hewlett, 


Wm. H. Holmes, 


Edgar Holden, 


Wm. Pierson, 


J. B. Jackson, 


Wm. Pierson, Jr. 


Charles J. Kipp, 


E. B. Thompsen, 


C. F. J. Lehlbach, 


Stephen Wickes, 


E. P. Nichols, 


L. M. Crane, 


J, A. Nichols, 


A. A. Ransom, 

South Orange, 

Wm. O^Gorman, 


Frank Wilmarth, 

Edit Orange. 

J. D. Osborne, 


Stephen Personett, 


S. H. Pennington, 


Eugene Jobs, 


E. D. G. Smith, 


J. J. H. Love, 


D. W. Smith, 


J. W. Pinkham, 


Lott Southard, 


D. S. Smith, 


C. W. Stickney, 


Robert G. Brain, 


Wm. Taylor, 


D. M. Skinner, 


M. H. C. VaU, 


E. T. Whittingham, 


Arthur Ward, 


No. Members, 45. 

Chas. Youjkg, Secretary. 


(Organized October i, 1851. ) 

Hugh H.-Abeniethy, 

Jersey CU/y. 

F. G. Payn, 

Bergen Point. 

B. A. Andrew, 


John Q. Bird, 

Hudson City. 

W. Burrows, 


John B. Burdett, 


Chas. H. Case, 


John H. Comfort, 


James Craig, 


J. E. Culver, 


H. S. Gardiner, 


Alonzo Freeman, 


Walter J. Hadden, 


B. Gilman, 


D. S. Hardenberg, 


H. L. Hammond, 


John W. Hunt, 


Thos. J. Hayes, 


A. A. Lutkins, 


F. E. Noble, 


J. H. McDowell, 


S. V. W. Stout, 


T>, McEwen, 


A. G. Avery, 




John D. McGill, 
T. J. McLoQghlin, 
M. A. MiUer, 
Henry Mitchell, 
James F. Morgan, 
Theo. F. Morris, 
James Mnlcahy, 
T. C. O'Callaghan, 
J. J. Prendergast, 
D. L. Reeve, 
F. C. Sehiow, 
J. W. Van Houten, 
Theo. R Varick, 
Job. H. Vondy, 
B. A. Watson, 
Theo. F. Wolfe, 
Geo. W. Talson, 

Jeney City, 















Emannel Bock, 
E. P. Buffett, 
E. W. Buck, 
J. M. Comelison, 
S. R. Forman, 
Chas. O. Viers, 
James Wilkinson, 
David Benson, 
Romeo F. Ghabert, 
L. W. Elder, 
• Francis Geisler, 
John Kudlich, 
E. F. Lowenthal, 
L. Welges, 
Jos. F. Finn, 
J. F. Field, 











West Ebbolm. 


Ferris Jacobs, 
No. Members, 57. 

John H. Gohfort, Secretary. 


(Society organized May 12, 1846.) 

8. Tnlley, 


N. B. Boileau, 


G. H. Larison, 


John Blane, 


T. H. Stnddiford, 


I. R. Todd, 


M. Abell, 


J. S. Cramer, 


C. W. Larison, 


A. S. Pittenger, 

Clover Mia. 

G. H. Thompson, 


G. R. Sullivan, 


0. H. Sprowl, 


J. 0. Hoff, 


W. H. Oreveling, 


A. W. Armitage, 


M. D. Night, 

LUtls York. 

No. Members, 





(Society organized 


J. B. Coleman, 


C. McCaffrey, 


J. L. Taylor, 


W. H. Coleman, 


J. Woolverton, 


W. Green, 


W. W. L. PhilUpB, 


E. H. Reed, 

u . 

T. J. Corson, 


J. I. B. Ribble, 


H. Schaffer, 


W. Elmer, 


C. Skelton, 


L. Leayitt, 


C. Hodge, 


0. H. Bartine, 


R. R. Rogers, 


J. H. Wykoff, 


C. Shepherd, 


C. F. Deshler, 


D. Warman, 


G. 8. Meeker, 


J. L. Bodine, 


E. L. Welling, 


J. B. James, 


No. Members, 


J. B. James, 



(Society organized June 13, 18x7.) 

Rush Van Dyke, New Brunswick, 

D. C. English, 

Geo. J. Janeway, 

D. Stephens, 

H. R. Baldwin, 

C. H. Vorhees, 

J. W. Meeker, 

N. Williamson, 

Chas. Dunham, 

W. C. Wile, 

No. Members, 19. 










N. Eaemmerer, 
C. Morrogh, 
S. V. D. Clark, 
H. T. Pierce, 
A. Treganowan, 
C. M. Slack, 
E. M. Hunt, 
A. J. Enappen, 
R J. Brumagen, 

New Brunswick 


Perth Amboy. 


South Amboy. 





D. Stephens, Secretary. 

William A. Newell, 
A. A. Howell, 
John Yought) 


(Society organized July 24, z8x6.) 

AUenbown. S. M. Disbrow, 
" Henry G. Cooke, 

Freehold. John Cooke, 






James S. Conoyer, 


Isaac S. Long, 


D. McLean Forman, 


Asher T. Applegate, 


Robert Laird, 

8quan VUlage. 

F. K. Trayers, 


Robert R. Conoyer, 

Bed Bank. 

Francis A. Dayis, 


J. £. Arrowsmith, 


P. B. Pumyca, 


T. L ThomaAon, 


8. H. Hunt, 


Jos. B. Goodenouirb, 




J. 8. English, Manolapcm, Edward Taylor, 

A. y. Conoyer, Lang Branch, 

No. Members, 19. Jno. Vouoht, 8ecretar7. 


(Society organiied January i6, 1844.) 

A. W. Bodgers, 

L. Burr, 


R J. Whitely, 

M. Moss, 

C. 8. Van Riper, 

H. C. Van Gieson, 

8. R Meirill, 

Wm. Blondell, 

G. W. Terreberry, 

G. H« Balleray, 

No. Members^ 21. 


E. J. Marsh, 


H. W. Reisberg, 


0. Barnes, 


John Quin, 


J. R Leal, 


Oswald Warner, 


G. Terhune, 


R A. Terhnne, 


0. Van Riper, 


A. R Randall, 







John W. Craig, 
Robt. 8. 8mith, 
A. P. Hunt, 
H. F. Vanderyeer, 
L. F. Hosier, 

No. Members, 10. 


(Society organixed .) 

W. B. Ribble, 
H. G. Wagoner, 
J. F. Berg, 
W. E. Mattison, 
Jas. 8. Enox. 

H. F. VANDBByEEB, 8ecretary. 




(Society organized August as, 1839.) 

T. H. AndreflB, 


C. R. Nelden, 


J. B. Boss, 


Wm. J. Roe, 


J. L. Allen, 


J. R Stewart, 


Carlos Allen, 


D. M. Sayre, 


F. M. Cannon, 


Franklin Smith, 


John Moore, 


P. N. JacobiiR, 


J. P. Couse, 

Franilclan Furnace, 

Wm. H. Linn, 


C. K. Dayison, 


C. V. Moore, 


John Miller, 


E. W. Mainea, 


Joseph Hedges, 


Thomas Roe, 


Jonathan Havens, 


J. H. Struble, 


L. D. Miller, 


Eugene Schumo, 


Thomas Ryerson, 



John^Titsworth, Deckertown, 

No. Members, 25. Jonathai^ Hatenb, Secretary. 


CSodety organized June 7, 1869.) 

J. S. Crane, 


Samuel Abemethy, 


L. W. Oakley, 


D. W. C. Hough, 


Jas. S. Green, 


H. H. James, 


J. Otis Pinneo, 


E. B. Silvers, 


Ph. H. Grier, 


W. U. Selover, 


S. E. Arms, 


H. C. Pierson, 


Joseph H. Grier, 


J. E. McConnell, 


Alonzo Pettit, 


F. A. Kinch, 


Thos. Terrill, Jr., 


Wm. Gale, 


Robt. Wescott, 


C. H. Stilbnan, 


Wm. M. Whitehead, 


J. B. Probasco, 


Joseph S. Martin, 


T. H. Tomlinson, 


John S. Brosnan, 


Wm. K. Gray, 


Louis Braun, 


A. M. Cory, 

Neu> Promdence, 

Thos. L. Hough, 


No. of Members, 29. 

Thos. Tbbbill, Jr.. 

^ Secretary. 




(Society organized Feb. 15, 1826.) 

P. p. Brakcdey, 


Jno. C. Johnson, 


8, 8. Clark, 


P. F. Hulshizer, 


J. M. Paul, Jr., 


8. 8. Kennedy, 


L. C. Cook, Edd^tstoion. 

L. C. Osmun, Jr., 


Jno. 8. Cook, 


Luther C. Bowl by, 


Theodore Crane, 


Wm. M. Hartpence, 


E. T. Blackwell, 


H. H. Rinehart, 




James C. Fitch, 


Roderick Byington, 


No. Members, 14. 





Bergen 14 

Burlington 20 

Camden 21 

Cumberland 16 

Essex 45 

Gloucester, (last year) 16 

Hunterdon 17 

Hudson 57 

Mercer 25 

Middlesex ..19 

Monmouth 19 

Passaic 21 

Somerset 10 

Sussex 25 

Union 29 

Warren 14 






ONB Hnin>BED Ain) fifth annual mseting. 

The Society assembled in the Court House, at Plemington, 
on Tuesday, May 23d, 1871, at eight o'clock, P. M., and was 
called to order by the President, Dr. T. P. CuUen. 

Prayer was offered by the Rev. Mr. Mott, of the Presbyte- 
rian Church, Flemington. 

Dr. C. Hodge was appointed on the Committee of Organi- 
zation, which committee subsequently reported, by the Secre- 
tary, the following as duly accredited delegates : 

Bergen — District Society — Charles Hasbrouck, Robert Stewart, Henry A. 
Craig. Members, 11. 

BwrUngton —Lewis Sharp,* Enoch Hollingshead,* S. C. Thornton, L. P. 
Jemison,* E. P. Townsend.* Members, 20. 

Camden — John F. Schenck, J. O. White, James M. Ridge,* H. E. Brannin,* 
J. W. Hewlings, Jr. Members 21. 

Otifn&^rZan^— Robert M. Bateman, Thos. J. Smith,* Samuel G. Cattell,* 
W. L. Newell * Members, 16. 

Eeaex — S. Personett, O^Gorman, Woodhull, Cross, Love, E. P. Nichols, 
Hewlett. Members, 45. 

E'udaon^Z. J. Pendergast, J. W. Hunt, Jos. H. Vondy, T. F. Morris, B. 
A. Watson, Henry Mitchell, F. G. Payne, H. H. Abemethy. Members, 57. 


Hunterdonn-T. H. Studiford,* G. R. Sullivan, R. B. BoUeau, C. W. Lariflon. 
Members, 14. 

Mercer— Q. Hodge, Jr., C. Shepherd, J. I. B. Ribble, D. Warman, W. W. 
L. Phillips. Members, 25. 

Middlesex— 'R\x%]i Van Dyke,* Cliflfbrd Morrogh,* J. W. Meeker,* H. T. 
Pierce.* Members, 19. 

Monmouth — ^Robt Laiid, Isaac S. Long, J. E. Arrowsmith,* Francis A. 
Davis.* Members, 19. 

Pawaic— A. W. Rogers,* G. W. Terreberry, H. C. Van Gieson,* G. H. 
Balleray,* C. Van Riper.* Members, 21. 

Sameraet — H. P. Vanderveer, W. B. Ribble, A. P. Hunt, J. 8. Knoz. 
Members, 10. 

Union— L. Braum, L. W. Oakley, F. A. Kinch, W. U. Selover, A. Pettit. 
Members, 29. 

Reporters — ^R. M. Cooper,* S. C. Thornton, S. G. Cattell,* 
E. D. G. Smith,* J. R. Sickler,* C. W. Larison, D. McLain 
Forman,* J. F. Berg, Jno. Havens,* S. R. Forman. 

Delegates from Corresponding Societies : — Drs. John R. 
Van Kleeck and F. Jacobs, from the Medical Society of New 

OflScers : 

Prmdent—T. F. CuUen. 
• Ut Vice-PresiderU — C. Hasbrouck. 
2d Vice-Prmdent—T. Gauntt. 
Sd Vice-President — ^T. rf. Thomason. 
Ooresponding Secreta/ry — Wm. Elmer, Jr. 
Becording Secretary — Wm. Pierson, Jr. 
Treasurer — H. R. Baldwin. 
Standing Committee— S, Wickes, J. E. Culver,* J. Woolverton. 

Fellows present or were present some time during the ses- 
sion — B. H. Stratton, Robt. S. Smith, Samuel H. Pennington, 
Samuel Lilly, J. B. Coleman, John Blane, J. Woolverton, 
T. R. Varick. 


• MINUTES. 17 

The minutes of the last annual meeting were read and 

The Committee of Arrangements, by their chairman, Dr. 
Blane, reported as follows : 

Mr, President^ Offloers and Members qf the Medical Society of New Jersey : 

Tou at your annual meeting in 1870, at the city of Trenton, voted " That 

the next annaal meeting be held at Flemington,^' and appointed Drs. Blane, 

Cramer, G. H. Lariaon, Lilly and Abel a committee of arrangements for 

that meeting. 

" Again the silent wheels of time 
Their annual round have driyen/' 

And we, by the blessing of Him whose we are, and by whom our lives 
have been spared, are permitted to assemble on this the one hundred and 
fifth anniversary of the Medical Society of New Jersey, and the fiftieth anni- 
versary of the District Medical Society of Hunterdon County. 

In the name and behalf of that committee and of our District Medical 
Society, and of the citizens of our county, who, through their boai'd of 
chosen freeholders, have so generously and kindly proffered the use of this 
hall for our accommodation, I welcome you to this place. 

To some of you, no doubt, this is a strange place. But we are not strang- 
ers to you, neither are you strangers to us ; for fifty years we have sought 
and enjoyed intercourse with you, and your counsel and advice, most of 
that time traveling in our own conveyances, and many times, over bad 
roads, to distant places, we did not wish to give you the inconvenience 
which we had experienced, and therefore felt a diffidence in inviting you 
here until now, having the facilities of railroads, and other barriers being 
removed, we ventured to invite you, and have the honor and the pleasure 
of your presence here to-day ; and none but those who have enjoyed the 
same honor can realize how highly we appreciate it. Make yourselves as 
much at home among us, as we have been made, on like occasions, among 

Being situated in an agricultural district and in one of the border counties 
of our State, and our territory being lessened from time to time by the 
march of improvement, we have lost that portion which gave us such 
prestige during the Revolution, and for many years afterwards. We have 
nothing rare and curious, either in nature or art, or the history of our county, 


to treat you to ; even the existence of our town is of recent origin compared 
with those in which we have been accustomed to meet. It is very little 
over a century since the first practitioner of medicine settled here, viz.: Dr. 
Creed, in 1765. 

The Society has other objects in view than matters of pleasure, curi- 
osity and relaxation. Our main " object has ever been the advancement of 
science and art, and the elevation and usefulness in the profession ;" in the 
endeavor to obtain which, it becomes us individually as well as collectively, 
by our advice and example to stimulate to higher attainments, and by our 
conduct to command respect. This is still our aim, and the peaceful quiet 
of our town, I have no doubt, will give much aid in the pursuit of that end ; 
and before our meeting closes, may we be constrained to say, " It is good for 
us to be here." And we hope that we may again, in due course of time, 
be cheered by another visit from you, and this be one among the places that 
you will delight to honor with your presence. 

Tour committee of arrangements have not issued tickets for dinner, leav- 
ing that to the choice of each individual to dine where he pleases. You 
will find in our hotels (we have but two of them,) a comfortable home while 
you sojourn among us; we have the fullest confidence that you will be 
pleased, not so much perhaps with the variety and fashion of what will be 
set before you, as by the substantial and healthful fare that receives the 
recommendation of the profession to their patients ; and where they wish to 
set the example of practicing what they teach, cheerfully partaken of by 

Our District Society had it in contemplation to lay before you its history 
for the first fifty years of its existence, and to that end appointed a historian, 
but long illness has prevented the progress of the work, and it will have to 
be deferred till a future time, and most likely finished by some other hand. 

In the anticipation and hope that our meeting will be both profitable and 
pleasant, and we 

" still closer knit in Ariendahip's ties 
Each passing year," 

I again, in behalf of all present, welcome you. 

The Committee recommend that the morning session open 
at 9 o'clock. 

The Committee, by their chairman, also reported that they 


have endeavored to make ample room for all who may attend, 
and would ask the passage of the following: 

Bewlved — That the members of the profession in good standing in this 
town be invited by this Society to seats during the present session of this 
Society, as corresponding members. 

Be9oUed — That all members of the profession in good standing in their 
several counties be invited to seats during the present session of this Society, 
as corresponding members who may be recommended by the delegates from 
their respective District Societies. 

The report was accepted and the resolutions were adopted. 

On motion of Dr. Baldwin, an invitation was extended to 
the resident clergy, members of the bar, and teachers, to be 
present during the session of the Society. 

The President read the Annual Address — the subject of 
which was : " The Position, Rights and Duties of the Medical 
Expert before a Court." 

On motion of Dr. Blane, a vote of thanks was extended to 
the President, for his able and interesting address: with a 
request that he farnish the Standing Committee with a copy 
for publication. 

The President appointed as the Commitee on Unfinished 
Business — Drs. Schenck, Lifty and WoodhuU. 

Committee on Treasurer's account — Drs. Blane, White 
and Stratton. 

Committee on Nominating Officers for the ensuing year— 
Drs. Stewart, Thornton, White, Bateman, Woodhull, Watson, 
Sullivan, Hodge, Long, Terryberry and Oakley. 

The reading of the Annual Report of the Standing Com- 
mittee was, on motion, made the first order of business for 
the morning session. 

At the request of the Chairman of the Standing Commit- 
tee, it was voted that he be allowed to read, this evening, that 


portion of their report which has reference to the communi- 
cation of Dr. Quimby, of Jersey City, and the rights of per- 
sons making application for membership of the District Med- 
ical Society, which communication and subject were referred 
to them at the last annual meeting of the Society. It was 
read and accepted. 

The Committee also presented the following bills, which, on 
motion, were ordered to be paid. 

8. Wickes, balance due for publication of Transactions, $11 93 

^* expenses as Chairman, 7 18 

The Society then adjourned until to-morrow, at nine o^clock, 
A. M. 



Nine o^clock, A. M. The Society met pursuant to adjourn- 
ment. The President in the chair. 

Prayer was offered by the Rev. A. H. Brown, of the Meth- 
odist church. 

The Annual Report of the Standing Committee was read 
by the Chairman, Dr. Wickes. On motion, the report was 
accepted and referred to the Committee for publication. 

The Corresponding Secretary being called upon for a report, 
read as follows : 

Trenton, N. J., May 23, 1871. 

The Corresponding Secretary of the Medical Society of New Jersey 
would respectfully offer the following report : 

At the meeting of the Society, last year, a report was received from the 
Committee, to whom were referred certain Resolutions of the American Med- 
ical Association, in reference to the preparation of an " Annual Register " of 
all the regular practitioners of medicine in the several States ; and in accord- 
ance therewith, the Corresponding Secretary was directed to notify the 
several District Societies, through their secretaries, of the action of the State 
Medical Society, concerning it, and request that they take the neccessary 


measures to accomplish the desired result. He therefore issued the follow- 
ing circular to each of the N. J. County Societies : 

Trenton, N. J., June, 1870. 

By the action of the New Jersey State Medicjil Society at the regular An- 
nual Meeting, held in Trenton, May, 1870, the Corresponding Secretary has 
been directed " to send down to the District Societies a copy of the accom- 
panying resolution of the American Medical Association, with a request that 
they take the necessary measures to accomplish the object contemplated." 

The following is the resolution of the American Medical Association, 
passed at its meeting in New Orleans, May, 1869. 

" Besolved, That each State Medical Society be requested to prepare an 
Annual Register of all the regular practitioners of medicine in their respective 
States, giving the names of the Colleges in which they may have graduated, 
and the date of diploma or license." 

Will the Society of your county please take action in the matter ? 

W. ELMER, Jr., 

CorrenpondiTig Secreta/ry N. J. State Medical Society. 

In reply to this, he has received the list for Hudson and Mercer counties, 
which are herewith submitted. No others have as yet, been received. 

The Corresponding Secretary also sent a copy of the Resolutions passed 
by the Society at its last meeting, in reference to this same " Annual Regis- 
ter " to Doct Wm. Bibbins, N. Y. city, member of Committee of Annual 
Register from the American Medical Association, informing him of our 
action thereon. Also a copy of the report of the Committee on the " ap- 
pointment of Boards of Examiners for the several States," was forwarded to 
Doct. N. S. Davis, of Chicago, Chairman of said Committee. 

Copies of the Transactions of the Society for 1870, were sent to the Hon- 
orary Members, to the Delegates from other Societies, and to twelve of the 
leading Medical Journals of our country. A few still remain in his hands 
for general distribution. 

Respectfully submitted, WM. ELMER, Jr., 

Corresponding Secretary. 

The report was, on motion, accepted. 
The Treasurer reported as follows : 

QenUemen of the New Jersey State Medical Society — 

The Treasurer, in presenting his Annual Report, desires to congratulate 
you upon the healthful condition of its finances. 

The balance on hand at the last meeting, from year 1869, was. . .| 825 74 
From dues from District Medical Societies, for year 1870, 700 00 

$1,625 74 


The disbursements for the last year, have been as follows : 

To investment in the Newark Savings Institution | 1000 00 

Bill of Chairman Standing Committee, (for Transactions) 310 88 

Bill of Dr. C. Hodge, Chairman of Com. of Arr. (for Janitor) 6 00 

Balance due Dr. S. Wickes 13 73 

Bill of Murphy & Bechtel, Advertising 2 25 

Bill of Recording Secretary 3 60 

$ 1,885 41 
To Balance Account 190 33 

$ 1,525 74 

The Treasurer would further report that he has received the sum of six 
hundred and eighteen dollars, at the present session, and would recommend 
the investment of such surplus as may remain in his hands after defraying 
the expenses of Standing Committee and outstanding indebtedness. The 
Treasurer would further recommend that the assessment upon the District 
Societies for the next year, be one dollar per member. The following bills 
have been presented and are submitted for the action of the Society : 

Billof Corresponding Secretary $ 4 78 

Bill ot Recording Secretary 4 10 

Bill of J. M. Reuck 3 00 • 

Bill of Newark Daily Advertiser. 2 00 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

HENRY R. BALDWIN, Treamrer. 

The report was accepted and referred to the usual Com- 
mittee. The recommendation of the Treasurer that the as- 
sessment upon the District Societies for the next year be one 
dollar per member, was, on motion, adopted. The bills were 
ordered to be paid, and the surplus funds to be invested as 
recommended by the Treasurer. 

Reports from delegates to Corresponding Societies being 
called for. Dr. Watson on behalf of the delegation to the Med- 
ical Society of Connecticut, states that there had been no 
meeting of that Society since his appointment 


Drs. Oakley and Wickes, of the delegation to the Medical 
Society of New York, were unavoidably prevented from at- 
tending the meeting. They were, upon motion, excused. 

Drs. WoodhuU and Love, of the delegation to the Medical 
Society of Massachusetts, were also excused for not attending 
the meeting, as they had been unable to learn the time of the 
meeting of the Society. 

The Secretary read a letter which he had received from Dr. 
D. M. Sayre, of the delegation to the American Medical As- 
sociation, in which he stated that the Society had been repre- 
sented at the meeting of the Association at San Francisco, 
by Drs. Elmer, Crane and himself. He also sent the San 
Francisco daily papers which contained the proceedings of 
the meeting. The letter was, on motion, accepted as a report 
from the delegation. 

Dr. C. W. Larison, of the delegation to the Medical Society 
of Pennsylvania, reported as follows : 

Mr. President and Oentlemen of the Mediccd Society : 

As one of the delegates appointed to the State Medical Society of Penn- 
sylvania, I most respectfully report that I attended the last meeting of that 
Society, held in the College of Physicians and Surgeons, in the city of Phila- 
delphia. Your delegates having been empowered to substitute for vacan- 
cies, in case any of the members should fail to be in attendance. Dr. S. Lilly 
of Lambertyille, and Dr. F. Gauntt of Burlington, sat with me as delegates 
from this Society — ^Drs. T. Ryerson and W. W. L. Phillips being absent. 

Your delegates were cordially received, both oflBcially and personally ; and 
their sojourn with the members of that Society was pleasant and instructive. 
The various County Societies throughout the State were well represented, 
and the business of the session was transacted with enthusiasm. 

The subject of Female Doctors, brought forward and enthusiastically ad- 
vocated by Dr. Atlee, of Philadelphia, elicited a warm and protracted dis- 
cussion. However, their status was not finally settled. 

A resolution, setting forth the unshaken confidence of the Physicians of 
Pennsylvania, in the prophylactic virtues of Vaccination, was introduced by 


Professor Samuel D. Gross. During the discussion of this resolution, not a 
little was said showing the evil that frequently attends the practice of Vac 
cination, by way of inoculating into the system, at the same time that the 
vaccine specific is communicated, other morbid matters more to be dread- 
ed than small pox itself; but, concluding that these evil effects arise from 
the morbid materials associated with the virus obtained from diseased sub- 
jects, and not from the virus itself. The resolution received the general 
approval of the Society. 

A movement was made to request the Legislature of Pennsylvania to enact 
a law to compel manufacturers and venders of medicines of all kinds, to 
state upon the label of every bottle or package of their medicines, the con- 
stituent ingredients and their proportion in the compound, so that in pre- 
scribing them, it may be known what quantity of drugs the patient is taking. 
It appears to me that this step is in the right direction ; and that it would 
be wise for this Society to ask the Legislature of New Jersey to pass an act 
that would be of like effect, as many of the nostrums now in extensive use, 
among the ignorant, would be immediately abandoned, when their constit- 
uents were known. 

Dr. Leigh, of Philadelphia, brought before the Society a part of his ap- 
paratus for the treatment of affections of the Spine, together with a few of 
his patients at that time under treatment with his appliances. His discourse 
relative to the use of these instruments in this class of maladies, was both 
interesting and instnictive. 

On the evening of the first day of the meeting, the Society was entertained 
at the Jefferson Medical College, by an exhibition of the practical value of 
the Gas-Microscope, by Professor Meigs, and by an illustration of some of 
the peculiarities of polarized light, by Professor Rand. The gas-microscope 
— an inestimable apparatus in giving microscopic instruction — was handled 
with entire satisfaction to the audience ; and all present seemed desirous of 
expressing their feelings of gratitude to the faculty of that institution for 
the pains they had taken to make the evening^s entertainment of so much 
practical value. 

The entertainment at the University of Pennsylvania, on the following 

evening, was not less appreciated. 


The report was, on motion, accepted. 

Dr. Pennington formally introduced Drs. Jacobs and Van 
Kleeck, delegates from the Medical Society of New York. 


The President addressed the delegation as follows : 

" Gentlemen Delegates from the Medical Society of New York .- 
It aflSords me pleasure to welcome you to seats in our Society. 
In no profession is mutual support more grateful or more 
necessary than in ours, and we hope that on your re- 
turn to your homes, you may bear with you pleasant recol- 
lections of our re-union. Again on behalf of the Medical 
Society of New Jersey, I welcome you. Gentlemen, we shall 
now be very happy to hear from you." 

The gentlemen, in behalf of their Society, duly responded. 

The following persons were proposed for Honorary Mem- 
mership of the society : 

Dr. C. 0. Vanderpool, of Albany, N. T., by Dr. Oakley; 
Dr. Jos. Parrish, of Philadelphia, by Dr. Gauntt. 

Dr. Ferris Jacobs, of New York, by Dr. Varick. 

Professor C. A. Lindsley, M. D., of New Haven, by Dr. 
Pierson, Jr. 

Dr. Pennington nominated Dr.Wm. Pierson, Sr., of Orange, 
for the honorary degree of M. D. 

The Committe on Treasurer's account reported "That 
having examined the accounts of the Treasurer, they find 
them all right and correctly kept." 

Signed, JOHN BLAKE, 

B. H. STRATTON, y CammiUee. 
J. 0. WHITE. 


The Committee of Unfinished Business, by their chairman. 
Dr. Lilly, reported that they had examined the records and 
found no unfinished business, excepting a report of the com- 
mittee on insane, appointed under Dr. Pugh's resolution. 

In response to the call from the President, the Committee 
on Insane reported as follows : 


To tJke Medical Society of New Jersey : 

The undersigned members of the committee, appointed under the 8d 
resolution oflfered by Dr. Pugh, and to be found on page 25 of the minutes 
of the last annual meeting of this Society, to ascertain the number of insane 
persons in the asylum and the alms houses, to receive reports from District 
Societies and procure necessary legislation, respectfully report that Dr. Pugh, 
the chairman of your committee, who is absent from this meeting, took the 
matter entrusted to them, principally in charge ; and while we are unable to 
state specifically what his action was, we are informed that he made strenu- 
ous efforts to procure the required statistics of the number of insane in ^he 
State, as also the number in the asylum and the several alms-houses in the 
State, with only partial success. The U. S. Census Report, shortly to be 
published, will probably afford the best means of procuring the desired in- 
formation. We have been informed that while our present Lunatic Asylum 
at Trenton was built for the accommodation of 500 patients, there are at 
this time within the walls of that institution over 650 insane. Most of 
these are supported in the asylum by the several counties ; much less than 
100 being what are termed pay patients. It is believed that there are over 
1000 insane persons in the State of New Jersey, or over one in every thousand 
of population, and alas ! the number is rapidly on the increase. In view of 
the growing wants and actual necessities of the case, a State Convention was 
called, largely, if not principally, through the instrumentality of the chair- 
man of your committee, to adopt some measures for providing additional 
accommodations for the insane of the State. Resolutions were adopted 
calling on the Legislature, then in session, to enact a law for the purpose. 
A committee was appointed to urge the matter before that body, and present 
a bill for their consideration. This effort, we are happy to say, was success- 
ful, and a bill was enacted into a law (a copy of which is herewith presented) 
authorizing the appointment of a commission to select a site and build an 
additional asylum. This commission has been appointed, and are now actively 
at work upon the duties of their appointment. It is hoped and believed 
that not many months will elapse before the walls of an additional asylum 
will begin to rise, and in due course of time another monument of the 
philanthropy and public spirit of New Jersey will be finished and occupied. 
All which is respectfully submitted. 


May 26th, 1871. 


On motion, the report was accepted and the committee 

The third vice-president, Dr. Thomason, read his Essay, the 
subject of which was '^A history of the District Medical 
Society of Monmouth." 

On motion of Dr. Blane the thanks of the Society were 
voted to Dr. Thomason for his paper, and a copy requested 
for publication with the Transactions. 

On motion, the Society took a recess of ten minutes. 

On re-assembling. Dr. Garrish, of New York, was, on 
motion of Dr. Watson, invited to a seat in the Society, as 
corresponding member. Dr. Garrish, on his presentation, 
duly responded. 

Dr. E. Holden, the Essayist, read his Essay ; the subject 
of the Essay was " The Sphygmograph, and Physiology of 
the Circulation." 

The Essay was well received ; and on motion of Dr. Varick, 
the thanks of the Society were voted, and a copy requested for 
publication with the Transactions. 

Dr. Hasbrouck, by invitation of the Society, read a paper 
entitled " Notes of Country Obstetric Practice," it being an 
abstract of a record of 1135 cases of midwifery, as occurring 
in his private practice. , 

On motion of Dr. Pennington, the thanks of the Society 
were tendered to Dr. Hasbrouck for his very instructive paper, 
and a copy was requested for publication with the Transac- 

Dr. Blane offered the following as an amendment to the 
By-Laws : Amend order 4th, section 4th, of the By-Laws, as 
follows : insert after the word " your" in the third line the 
words " the first two committees," and also insert at the end 
of the order " each delegation to appoint its own member." 


On motion of Dr. Hodge, it was voted that a committee of 
three be appointed by the President to revise the fee bill. 

The President appointed the following as the committee : 
Drs. Hodge, Varick and Schenck. 

The President stated that a document with the endorse- 
ment, " Appeal of Jno. J. Bird to the State Medical Society 
from the decision of the Hudson District Medical Society of 
the county of Hudson," addressed to the President and mem- 
bers of the Medical Society of New Jersey, had been placed 
in his hands. 

On motion of Dr. Oakley, the document was received 
without being read and referred to a committee of three 
persons, members of the Society, to be appointed by the 
President, to report at the next annual meeting what action 
it is best the Society should take upon it. 

The President appointed Drs. Oakley, Woolverton and 
Cross on the committee. 

Dr.Warman oflfered the following preamble and resolutions, 
which were adopted : 

Whereas, It is a well known fact to the members of this Society that 
criminal abortion in our land is fearfully on the increase : 

Atid Whereas^ The public looks to our profession to lead the van in the 
suppression of this atrocious evil, as we are supposed to know most about 
the crime and the methods of its perpetration. 

Therefore^ Beaohedy That we, the members of this Society, consider it an 
unmistakable offence against morality, a violation of every natural sentiment, 
and in opposition to the laws of God and man. 

Besohed, That we earnestly and heartily condemn all the means and 
measures employed for this end, whether by the physician or charlatan, or 
the unprincipled druggist, who has the hardihood to advertise his remedies 
in the public prints. 

Hewhedy That it is the opinion of this Society, in view of the low moral 
sense of the community on this subject, and the growing frequency of the 


crime, that something more is needed — frigid penal enactments are indis- 
pensable, far more so than those now on our statute books ; and we would 
hereby respectfully suggest that the legal authorities exercise more vigilance 
in ferreting out and punishing the guilty perpetrators of this horrible crime. 

Sesohed^ That a committee be appointed by the President to present the 
matter before the Legislature at its coming session. 

The President appointed Drs. Warman, Hodge and Watson 
on the committee. 

The Nominating Committee reported as follows : 

Tour Committee would respectfully report that they have 
unanimously agreed upon the following : 

Place of next meeting, Paterson. 

Jh'esideat — C. Hasbrouck. 

Mrst Vtee-President — P. Gauntt. 

See(md " T. J. Thomason. 

Third " Geo. H. Larison. 

Corresponding Secretary — Wm. Elmer, Jr. 

Seeording Secretary — Wm. Pierson, Jr. 

TVeasurer — H. R. Baldwin. 

Standing Committee— B, Wickes, J. E. Culver, J. Woolverton. 

Delegates to American Medical Association — Drs. S. Lilly, C. 
Hodge, White, G. R. Sullivan, Mitchel, Terryberry, J. E. 
Culver, Long, S. C. Thornton, J. Woolverton, G. J. Jane- 
way, B. A. Watson, A. W. Woodhull, J. Wright, J. 0. 
Schenck and J. A. Cross. 

Delegates to Medical Society of Connecticut — Drs. Blane, 
Wickes and S. H. Pennington. 

Delegates to the Medical Society of New York. — ^Drs. L. W. 
Oakley, H. A. Craig and J. W. Hunt. 

Delegate to Medical Society of Massachusetts. — A. W. 


DeUgaies to Medical Society of Pennsylvania — ^Drs. C. Hodge, 
Jr., G. R. Sullivan and J. Lilly. 

The report was accepted, and the recommendation as to 
place for the next annual meeting was adopted. 

An opportunity having been given for the members to make 
other nominations, a ballot was taken, when the ticket, as re- 
ported by the committee, was declared duly elected, Drs. 
Watson and Schenck acting as tellers. 

On motion, the delegates as reported by the committee, 
were appointed, with power to appoint alternates. 

Voted, that the hour for the organization of the next annual 
meeting be at 7J o'clock, P. M. 

Dr. W. W. L. Phillips, of Trenton, was appointed Essayist 
for the next meeting of the Society. 

On motion of Dr. Baldwin, the President was instructed to 
invite the delegates from corresponding Societies and the 
officiating clergymen, to dine with him at the expense of the 

Dr. Baldwin offered the following resolutions, which were 
adopted : 

Eesohed, That the thanks of the Medical Society of New Jersey be ten- 
dered to the Board of Freeholders of Hunterdon County, for the use of their 
room at the annual session of 1871. 

Besolvedj That we tender to the Medical Profession of Hunterdon County 
our thanks and high appreciation of their courtesy and kindly reception in 
providing suitable accommodations for the Society. 

Hewked, That the thanks of the Society be tendered to the clergy of 
Flemington, who have kindly officiated at our meeting. 

Drs. Rogers, Mitchel and Terryberry were appointed a 
committee of arrangements for the next annual meeting. 



Recording Secretary. 


By Thos. F. Cullen, President. 

Gentlemen of the Medical Society of New Jersey .- 

Holding, by your, perhaps, too favorable selection, a 
position that has been so ably filled for more than a century, 
by men of the highest professional ability, moral worth and 
social standing, you will pardon me if I approach with un- 
affected diffidence, the performance of a duty imposed upon 
me as presiding officer of this Society, both by law and custom. 

Though numerous subjects of the highest importance to 
the well-being of the medical profession have been ably and 
learnedly discussed, from year to year, on like occasions, by 
my predecessors, the matter appropriate to such addresses is 
by no means exhausted, and you have a right to expect that 
your valuable time shall not be wasted now, upon questions 
of trifling interest, or words that however eloquent in phrase, 
may be found destitue of practical value. 

Tour President, is therefore, painfully conscious that the 
engrossing duties of an active professional life have rendered 
impossible, in his case, the mature reflection and deep study 
indispensable in any warrantable attempt to enlarge the bound- 
aries of the science by the detail of extended observation, 
on the one hand, or the happy condensation of the thoughts 
of previous writers, on the other, in such a manner as to render 
the treatment of any given question properly instructive, 
useful or even highly interesting to this learned Society. 


Were it within the bounds of possibility, few things would 
yield me greater pleasure than the announcement of some 
new truth, or the advancement of some new idea, calculated 
to promote the progress of our profession, either by elevating 
its character, extending its knowledge, or increasing its use- 
fulness among the people, whose ministers we are. But fully 
aware of my slender abilities for such a task, I venture to 
claim your indulgence, while presenting a few thoughts on a 
subject which seems strangely to have failed in eliciting the 
serious attention which its importance obviously demands. 

If these thoughts should arouse to earnest reflection the 
members of both professions — the legal as well as the med- 
ical — a most desirable result will be happily accomplished. 
The subject I have thus selected is — 

The positiony rights and duties of the Medical Expert before a 

The appearance of a medical practitioner in the trying and 
very undesirable character of an expert in criminal and other 
cases, is a duty often inexorably demanded by the mandate of 
court, or by the claims of justice to the public and to indi- 

Before entering upon the subject, it is therefore proper to 
define^ not only what such an expert is, but also what he should 
be, in order that he may really protect his own reputation 
and that of the profession, whose diploma certifies his abilities 
before the world. 

A medical expert^ technically, is one who professes, or is 
deemed by the oflicers of justice, to possess peculiar skill, ex- 
perience, or knowledge on certain subjects of inquiry in re- 
lation to medicine, surgery, pharmacy, therapeutics and vital 
chemistry, or in some particular branch of these Briarean 


sciences ; and he is very frequently c&Ued upon to testify as 
to fcLciSy before stating his deducUons and inferences from those 
facts. But the demands of counsel and the court upon the 
medical expert, are by no means limited to this inquiry. 

In multitudinous instances, his attention is called to the evi- 
dence elicited on former trials of a similar nature. He is re- 
quested to give his individual opinion upon the value, scienti- 
fically considered, of statements made tipon high authority, 
perhaps years before he was born, and reported, it may be in 
the shamefully careless manner in which the records of evi- 
dence in criminal cases are now habitually preserved. 

He is required to state, not only how far he deems the pub- 
lished opinions of the leading medical writers dependable, 
but also, to estimate the public opinion of the profession in 
general, as to the ability of these authorities. Nay, more ! 
The standing of fellow experts engaged in the same legal in- 
quest may be assaulted by the special pleader on one side, in 
order to lighten the weight of some convenient point in the 
evidence adduced upon the other ; and it may then become 
his legal, moral and religious duty, dispassionately to utter 
truths, fatal to a popular reputation, perhaps far greater than 
his own, under the obligation of his solemn oath. 

To this end, conscience and the law may compel him to 
trample down all obstacles raised in his trying path, by mere 
professional pride, caste or established etiquette. 

This he must do, ignoring alike the indignation naturally 
aroused by a possibly sinister attack upon a professional 
brother of undoubtedworth,the shame resulting from a com- 
pulsory acknowledgement of the too obvious deficiency of 
some other brother, the offspring of his own alma mater, or 
the mingled sorrow and contempt awakened by titled ignor- 
ance or reckless empiricism, elevated to an ill-deserved equals 
ity before the law, by legislative folly or venality. 


All of these and many other duties he must perform in the 
presence of a public generally incapable of estimating the 
value, and often equally incapable of comprehending even 
the meaning of his evidence. 

He must perform them even in the face of feed attorneys, 
ever on the watch for opportunities to befriend a client, even 
at the expense of the feelings, or careless of the character of 
the witness, and too frequently regardless of the truth itself, 
when capable of perversion by cunning or chicane. 

He must perform them under the embarrassment attendant 
upon the recondite nature of many questions and the occa- 
sional use of technical terms, extremely difficult of accurate 
explanation, even to Judges and the most learned of the bar, 
while they may be utterly incomprehensible to most jurors 
and to the excited and often prejudiced populace that crowds 
our courts. Yet he is well aware that the slightest careless- 
ness, rashness of expression, or leaning upon his part, the 
slightest misapprehension in a Judge, or the most natural 
blunder as to the true purport of his words made by an un- 
professional audience, may lessen the public estimation of his 
whole fraternity, bring deserved or undeserved disgrace upon 
the Institution whose certificate of skill he carries, or seriously 
impair his individual success in the most useful, but most 
arduous of all practical scientific occupations. 

Among the cases in which the medical expert is constantly 
called upon to bear testimony — I had almost said to decide 
by his own simple asseverations as to fact or opinion — are many 
that render his position one of great gravity and extreme 
moral responsibility, and his duties as an investigator of truth 
peculiarly onerous, and often expensive, both in time and 

In their widest sense, his duties include researches, and 
questions criminal and civil, involving principles of public 


hygiene, finance, instirance, the reBpoDBibilitieB of co 
institntions, &c., ae well as those of purely medical, i 
and metaphyBical science. But confining my remi 
present, mainly to matters anre to be presented in thi 
of every practitioner of somewhat extensive experi 
will enumerate as of almost constant oocnrrence, c 
murder, poisoning, child murder, abortion, accidental 
insanity, and feigned diseases : — all liable, under lej 
ceedingB, to endanger the liberty, and frequently the 
individuals — all, with a few exceptions, painfully affecl 
sanctity of family relatione ; and some most seriously 
ing the innocent in the meshes of criminal law, witl 
fence but the lights of science, disentangling the myi 
spider web of the strongest circumstantial testimony 
botanical test of some previously unfamiliar but bu 
drug, the chemical analysis of an altered tissue, or tht 
Bcopic display of the true source of a globule in i 

Now I hold that two things are absolutely necessa 
merely to render a medical expert useful, but even to 
him from frequently becoming positively mischievous 
investigations before a court. 

Ist. That counsel should possess the ability to propo 
appropriate questions, in definite and intelligible tern 

2d. That the expert should be able to answer the 
Idona clearly and correctly. 

Need I ask yon, gentlemen, if these essential re 
are usually fulfilled ? Alas ! you will feel reluctant 
pelled to answer emphatically, No ! 

And why is this ? It is mainly because of the wan 
proper education of one or both parties involved iu the 
legal investigation of such caseB. Neither the expert 
coDuael is usually familiar with the precise limits of i 


ciprocal duties, nor with the peculiar language of their sev- 
eral professions. While the latter, in partisan defence of his 
client or the interest of the commonwealth, too frequently 
oversteps the boundaries of courtesy in questioning, and wit- 
ingly or unwittingly strains the delicate tissue of truth in 
noting or rendering the replies, the former often feels com- 
pelled, from ignorance of his own rights and the protection 
of the court, which is, or should be always extended when 
properly invoked, to answer unanswerable questions, or to 
improvise some extemporaneous hypothesis, where true science 
humbly bows, in confession that she is not omniscient. 

It follows logically, from the propositions just announced — 
the truth of which your own experience will demonstrate — 
that the maintenance of professional respectability before the 
public, the accomplishment of the original purpose of human 
statute law, the security of pr6perty and the protection of 
personal rights, all require that the medical and legal student 
should each receive a special education, and that to no trifling 
extent, in the much neglected department of medico-legal 
jurisprudence. Each should be taught how far the peculiar 
confidence entrusted with either are to be held sacred, and 
how far obligations regulated by the oaths, or established 
ethics of either, may be interfered with by the stern but 
necessary requirements of law. 

That peculiar education should also include many matters not 
involved in the daily round of duty of the medical or legal 
practitioner in his ordinary routine. Without some knowl- 
edge of the principles of law, as they affect evidence, how 
shall the former be able to limit his replies, or to refuse an 
answer amid all the impertinence of a tricky cross-examinar 
tion, or how shall the latter be made capable of properly 
wording an interrogatory involving recondite questions in an- 
atomy, physiology, pathology, chemistry, or the botanical 


materia medica, (all of which are constantly elicited in many 
civil as well as criminal cases,) when these several sciences are 
nsnally considered so foreign to the preliminary course of 
legal study ? 

Farther than this, let us grant for the sake of argument, 
that the counsel and the expert are de facto equally competent 
to put and reply to technical questions ; it is still to be con- 
sidered that those questions are often very complex in their 
nature or deeply involved in the details of their solution — 
that they cannot be always answered correctly without much 
thought or mental reference to numerous and perhaps con- 
flicting facts and authorities. Very frequently, also, the true 
purport of the query or reply may be most seriously aflfected 
by the variable applications of a single word, or the popular 
acceptation of a doubtful phrase ; and a life or reputation 
may be suspended upon a mere grammatical construction — as 
in the celebrated death warrant of Edward the Second, or as 
might have occurred if the chemical evidence in the Mina 
trial had depended upon the evidence of a single expert. 

It has always appeared to me, therefore, that there is great 
error of system and fearful injustice to witness, jury and de- 
fendant, in the ordinary mode of eliciting and recording evi- 
dence in our courts of justice. Both question and answer — 
if not in all cases, then at least in those in which experts 
are called upon to testify — should be presented in writing, 
made the subject of deliberate examination by the witness, 
the answer returned in writing to the court, and if necessary 
submitted in like form to the jury. 

This is understood to be the custom in important trials in 
England, and — except that the court martial, by and with the 
advice of the judge advocate, constitutes in itself the jury — 
this mode of proceeding is, I believe, invariably followed in 
tribunals of that character. 


Its propriety, and indeed its necessity, if justice be the 
real intent of law, will be obvious when we reflect that the 
questions propounded to experts very frequently involve three, 
four, or more propositions, and a result often dependent, 
not upon certainties, but the doctrine of probabilities or the 
estimate of conflicting authoritative opinions. Moreover, the 
solutions of these several propositions, and the resultant con- 
clusions, must be conveyed, if possible, in language intelli- 
gible to the non-professional mind, even although their com- 
plexity may sometimes severely try the mental power or 
memory of the most expert of experts. 

The history of the wrongs resulting from the present sys- 
tem, would be made startlingly evident by a true record of 
the multitude of estates and lives that have been sacrificed to 
the weariness of juries, in the vain endeavor to recall the evi- 
dence or comprehend the incomprehensible, even since the 
irrational plan of starving men into unanimity has been dis- 
carded by the courts. At best, as juries are now constituted, 
it is extremely difficult, and often, it is to be feared, impossible 
for them to grasp many of these problems ; how then are they 
to apply them correctly to the case under consideration, when 
viewed in connection with a wearisome length of other evi- 
dence, retained by a dead effort of memory alone ? 

Again, no one would expect a chemist actually to perform 
an analysis, or a microscopist to pursue his investigations 
practically in the presence of the court, thus subjecting him- 
self to interruption from interested and perhaps impertinent 
parties during their continuance. Why, then, should it be 
demanded of the expert, who deals with things less tangible, 
and inferences drawn from a multitude of facts, that he should, 
on the spur of the moment, and without time for reflection, 
even upon the fitness of words, be forced to give utterance to 
opinions on the gravest subjects — utterance perhaps, affecting 


life, liberty, property and domestic happiness ? Why should 
he be compelled thus to risk his own character, the claims of 
real justice, and often the prosperity of innocent persons to- 
tally unconnected with the case, by expressions which, even 
if properly applicable to his subject, are at all times liable to 
considerable alterations, or even total change of meaning, from 
the habit of the bar in condensing both question and answer 
into words necessarily diflFerent from those actually used by 
the speaker ? 

In this manner, medical evidence is so constantly emascu- 
lated of its for6e, and both question and answer carelessly or 
intentionally perverted, that, in our profession, exceedingly 
little weight is allowed even to official reports of legal investi- 
gation, when medical experts are consulted. 

Not so are they regarded by the courts, and I have heard 
of cases in which both the escape and the condemnation of 
alleged criminals were apparently determined upon profes- 
sional evidence, where the assertions of the experts were ex- 
actly reversed by the language of the reports ! 

As to the statements of the daily papers in criminal trials 
and coroners' inquests, such is the greed of the press, espe- 
cially in cases of great importance, or on the occurrence of ex- 
citing accidents — occasions on which medical experts are 
peculiarly liable to be called — that our court rooms and some- 
times our coroners' offices are crowded with reporters who 
are entirely unacquainted with medical technicalities. In 
their anxious but awkward struggles after the sensational, 
the profession is often placed before the public in a highly 
ridiculous light ; what purports to have been offered as med- 
ical testimony, being so absurdly rendered as to bring con- 
tempt upon the expert, who might well be put to difficulty in 
determining what shadow of an idea the reporter meant to con- 
vey in thus " blundering round the meaning " of the words 
really spoken. 


Surrounded by a community of which a considerable por- 
tion stands ever ready to carp and cavil, the medical practi- 
tioner and his noble occupation find little protection from the 
contempt naturally engendered by such supremely ridiculous 
misrepresentations, from any reference to the official notes of 
counsel or the court ; these not Ifeing unfrequently removed 
but one degree from similar absurdity. 

How often is the honest medical man compelled to blush 
when he reads such statements in the daily journals as he 
knows in his heart were never made before a jury ! 

Nor is this all ! There ar^ numerous instances on record, 
in printed works acknowledged by the bar as dependable 
authorities, and their statements quoted in argument as con- 
clusive, in which medical experts have been made to say pre- 
cisely the reverse of what they really uttered, in flat contra- 
diction to their actual testimony as to facts or opinions. 

Now, should the witness thus misquoted, be generally re- 
garded as of high standing and esteem in science, what is 
there to prevent succeeding experts, it may be of less distinc- 
tion, from being led into false conclusions by such misrepre- 
sentations to the depression of the status of our profession, 
the confusion of future courts, the perversion of justice, and 
serious or fatal injury of those who may hereafter be subjected 
to legal prosecution ? 

It seems, then, that the legal profession owes it as a solemn 
duty to us, to the public and itself, that the counsellor should 
be prepared by appropriate scientific education, and con- 
strained by wise rules of court, to ask his questions in intel- 
ligible phrase, and when the subject of investigation is neces- 
sarily obscure tothe common mind, that he should be required 
to propound them in writing, and record verbatim the actual 
replies. I do not aspire to be the mentor of the bench or bar, 
but we urge upon both a greater degree of attention to this 


very highly important, but sadly neglected study — the art of 
properly questioning medical experts. 

I venture also to remind them of a fact, too frequently for- 
gotten or intentionally disregarded by the special pleader, and, 
for some reason, not always duly impressed upon him by the 
Court. It is this ; the expert is a witness neither for the 
prosecution nor for the defence ; called as the minister and 
spokesman of science, he has no leaning, and he knows no 
party. Truth is his only aim, and armed in the panoply of 
truth, it is a matter of indifference to him, in that capacity, 
whom that mighty power may crush ; whom it may consign 
to the gallows, or shut out from the fellowship of man, either 
behind the iron bars of the prison, or the tall walls of the 
mad house. Whatever the consequences may be, his end is 
Truth! Truth! Truth! Nothing but Truth ! 

So much to the Barrister ; and now let me more specially 
address myself to those of my own professional brotherhood. 

How great, how startling are the responsibilities of the 
medical witness to fact or opinion ! How heavily they should 
weigh upon the conscience of an honorable man ! A faith is 
placed on his every word, when summoned before a court in 
the capacity of an expert, far surpassing that reposed in 
ordinary evidence ; for the law regards his reputed learning 
in his own department as proof of superior capacity, and his 
professional character as an accessory security for its faithful, 
fearless exercise, not merely as a doctor, but as a man and as 
a Christian gentleman. That word, dependent upon what 
appear to him as facts, or inevitable deductions from these 
facts, how often does it alone decide a fate ? How fearful his 
accountability in the superior court of last appeal ! If he be 
not an Atlas with the world upon his shoulders, a hitherto 
unspotted reputation, a human life, the life-long happiness of 
a family, or what should be held more sacred still, the fair 


fame of a woman, may hang upon that word! Aye! He 
may strike the heart-chords of a hundred hearts, even to the 
breaking, with a single unguarded word ! With what awful 
caution should that word be uttered ! How terrible the 
thought, at such a moment! — Have I not neglected my 
opportunities for research? I doubt the grounds of my 
conclusion ! 

In order to render more lucid and dependable the evidence 
of medical experts, it is essential that physicians in general, 
by a better course of preliminary education specially directed 
to that end, should be rendered more capable of meeting with 
calmness and deliberation the embarrassments of legal exam- 
ination and cross examination by contending counsel, whose 
chief and acknowledged duty it is severally to elicit from the 
replies all that may favor the commonwealth, the respondent in 
criminal trials, or interests of their respective clients in civil 
cases. How far this important requisition has been, and is 
even now neglected, you are probably partially aware. We 
are living in an age of rapid scientific advancement and re- 
form. The study of medico-legal jurisprudence as a branch 
of elementary instruction has been seriously, I might say 
shamefully, neglected in most of our medical colleges. 

The time is not far distant when even in our noblest 
schools the teaching of obstetrics was made a mere appendage 
to the duties of the professor of practice, and his course of 
instruction was limited to a few interpolated lectures. Now, 
however, a special chair of instruction in this department 
exists, and is viewed as among the most important in our 
leading professional institutions of learning. ^ Is not medical 
jurisprudence equally worthy of our attention? Should not 
the establishment of a chair on this subject be rendered obli- 
gatory in all our schools, and made essential to the recognition 
of a diploma ? Even where such have been created, it appears 


to me that the field actually covered by the lecturer is far 
from being sufficiently extended. There are two widely 
different aspects presented by this branch of science — the 
medical and the legal; and each of these demands of the 
professor a peculiar kind of knowledge only to be found in 
the well qualified expert in two widely different professions ; 
or which, at least, are very rarely found effectively united in 
the mind of any single teacher. 

It is not sufficient that the medical witness should be 
thoroughly grounded in the true principles and practice of 
medicine, surgery, obstetrics, chemistry and the other sciences 
and arts directly involved in his ordinary routine of profes- 
sional practice ; it is not even sufficient that he should super- 
add the coolness that results exclusively from the conscious- 
ness of a perfect comprehension of the true limits of his 
knowledge, the manliness to confess ignorance, either from 
lack of opportunities or from the imperfection of all human 
science, and the scholastic ability to frame his answers in 
language clearly intelligible to the nonprofessional* under- 

He should also be acquainted with what might be regarded 
as the honorable finesse, or the tolerated tricks of special 
pleading ; remembering that he is not sworn merely to speak 
the truth, but the whole truth. He is not excusable for passing 
over in silence that which is relevant, because it is not elicited 
by direct question in the examination, or called forth during 
the cross examination. 

It is customary for counsel or the court to judge of the 
relevance of partially delivered testimony, even before the 
conclusion of the statement. It is the undoubted duty of a 
presiding justice to check frivolity, the brow-beating of wit- 
nesses by counsel, and the statement of obviously irrelevant 
matter in ordinary evidence) but when called upon as an expert^ 
the witness is always theoretically supposed superior in knowledge 


of his specialty to either court or counsel^ and the former rarely 
ventures to arrest him in his course while testifying. Not so 
the latter; they frequently practice interruption systematically, 
in order to embarrass and lead him into ambiguity of phrase, 
and to use that ambiguity for the benefit of a client by resort- 
ing to artful implications. In such cases, the expert should 
appeal, if necessary, to the bench, his proper legal protector. 
But the bench itself is not always to be credited with purity 
of purpose, profundity of learning or the perfection of discre- 
tion. The expert should always bear in mind that "in foro 
conscientise," he is the sole judge of the relevance of his own 
testimony, while liable, himself, to answer for his decisions 
before the supreme court of eternity. 

While holding himself aloof from the persuasions of self- 
interest, and boldly meeting the hostility of popular prejudice, 
or the fury of popular rage, he may be called upon by pro- 
fessional honor to give a flat refusal when urged to reply to 
impertinent inquiry under the penalty of protracted imprison- 
ment fcft contempt of court. 

Is it not then sufficiently clear that the interests of the 
public whom we serve, and the profession that we love, alike 
demand duplex professorships on medico-legal jurisprudence 
in all our colleges, that the lawyer may acquire the power to 
propound medical questions in an appropriate manner, and 
the elf in the divine art may learn how to defend his legal 
rights in court while framing suitable replies ? I venture to 
propose this course for the mutual benefit of both professions, 
and to invoke your individual and collective aid in bringing 
about such happy changes in our system of medical instruc- 
tion. If the chair were thus divided, as I think it should be, 
between two professors, the one chosen from our own brother- 
hood, and charged with teaching the anatomical, physiological 
and chemical branches, and the other called from the bar to 
give instruction in the purely legal bearings of the subject, 


the rights and duties of witnesses, and the rules of courts, 
the pupil would be prepared to pass through one of the most 
trying ordeals of professional life with that coolness and self- 
confidence which knowledge alone can give. 

It is true that to carry out these suggestions, it would be 
necessary materially to enlarge the several medical faculties, 
and also the duration of period of study ; but, for this reform 
the entire profession has been calling aloud for years. 

Professor Agnew says in his introductory to the medical 
class of the University of Pennsylvania, that " he hopes the 
" day is not remote when the term of study will be four or 
" five years. How long, think ye, does it require a boy at the 
" mouth of one of our great bays to complete his pupilage as 
" a pilot ? Why, seven years before he is trusted with the 
" commonest vessel, and eleven before he is formally allowed 
" to undertake a first class-bottom. Think of that ! Seven 
" years before a man is deemed competent to conduct a vessel 
"from the breakwater to the city of Philadelphia; and yet 
" three years are deemed sufficient to tide safely to port the 
" most precious thing which belongs to our humanity." 

The necessity of regular medico-legal instruction is not felt 
exclusively by those of our profession, but extends to the 
members of the bar. We need it for self-protection ; they, for 
the effective practice of their calling, and both for the main- 
tenance of an honest reputation and the furtherance of the 
ends of justice, a duty incumbent on every (iitizen, but more 
especially on the medical expert, and the pleader and coun- 
sellor at law. In proof of this I need but mention, now, that 
the late Judge Ellis Lewis, one of the ablest jurists of Penn- 
sylvania, whose decease within the last few months has caused 
wide-spread regret, endowed, by a liberal bequest, a chair of 
medical jurisprudence in one of the leading colleges of Phil- 


The past and present shortness of the term of study, 
and the ease with which mediocrity and even still slighter 
capacity finds access to the dignity of the diploma and fellow- 
ship with us, are evils very generally acknowledged ; and 
although some important attempts have been recently made 
in some of the most prominent schools, to prolong the curri- 
culum, extend the field, and bring about a more reaaonable 
arrangement of the order of studies^ it would hardly be rash 
to assert that the almost unanimous opinion of the profession 
favors a far more efiicient abatement of these evils than has 
yet been effected. 

It is incumbent upon the members of the profession itself, 
individually and collectively, to aid in promoting this import- 
ant reform, both by personal exertion and the influence of 
associations ; and I will not offend the members of this old 
and time-honored Society by supposing that it can prove 
negligent of duty in this direction. 

Abolish these evils, and we shall soon cease to hear constant 
complaint of the over-crowding in the ranks of the profession. 
Patronage would then become more equally distributed, and 
the medical practice would be no longer confined chiefly in 
the hands of a few seemingly favored ones in town or city, 
to the injury both of the patient, subjected to very hurried 
visitation, and the over-tasked physician, deprived of the time 
and reflection required to keep pace with the rapid advance 
of science, who would heartily rejoice if some other profes- 
sional brother of thorough education could bear a portion of 
his onerous and exhausting burden. 

And now, gentlemen, I commend to your indulgent notice 
and consideration these few almost unpremeditated remarks, 
promising in the full consciousness of my humble powers and 
merit, to perform, with your kindly support, the duties which 
perhaps your too partial favor has imposed upon me. 



Circulatory Physiology, and the Sphyqmograph. 


It is now nearly three years since the difficulties in the way 
of nsing the Sphygmograph of Marey, and of understanding 
its tracings, led me to devise the instrument already laid before 
the profession, through the Medical Record. I now propose 
to discuss the science of Sphygmography, from a rational stand 
point: omitting all possible technicalities, and so far as the 
subject will admit, all the abstruse speculations heretofore in- 
dulged in by the eminent gentlemen whose names have be- 
come familiar in connection with it. To this end, it will be 
necessary to describe briefly the instruments devised to carry 
on my observations, viz : 

The Sphygmograph, already referred to. 

An artificial Heart and capillary apparatus made of rubber. 

A large Sphygmograph two feet in length, adapted to 
record its workings. 

In addition to these, many interesting observations have 
been made by attaching a long flexible lever of light wood at 
one end, and passing under it, near the attachment, an ordi- 
nary india rubber one inch hose, connected with a steam en- 
gine. A lever six feet in length, produces a tracing about six 
inches in width, which may be varied by varying the weight, 


by obstructing the orifice of delivery, by ioterposiDg dilata- 
tioDB or constrictionB ia the tube, &c., &c. 

Id regard to the first point named, the drawing will be ex- 

A — A piece of Lvary to rest upon the pulse. 

B — A irire bent to impinge against C, 

C— TbB tracer. 

D— Tbe pen. 

B — TljB pnper to receiTe the tnidng. 

P — The roller to move the paper. 

Q — Starter for watch work, 

H— Piece bj which to hold tbe instrument. 

X — Spring for ascertaining the comprcssitiility of artery. 

ASpbygmograpb, aa is well known, is eBsentially and sim- 
ply a light lever with pen attached to one extremity adapted 
at the other to receive the impulse of the artery or heart ; 
with this pen or tracer must be means of moTing a paper at 
an even rate to receive the writing. 

These are the essentials ; but simple as they seem, the ex- 
perience of forty years has shown it to be a most difficult 
matter to accomplish the result desired. 

Refine the parts to a marvelous degree of delicacy, obtain 
the movements of the lever over the artery, and move the 
paper or other receiver with the utmost precision, yet, apply 
the pen to the paper and the infiuitessimal friction stops its 
movement ; a hair, even, will render it motionless. 

The pen thua £ir used in the instrument known aa Marey's, 

BS8AY. 49 

is a small triangnlar or rather conical piece of steel, — ^fric- 
tion being avoided to some extent by its movement against 
a perpendicolar instead of a horizontal plane. In the in- 
strument I have introduced, any pen may be attached, friction 
being avoided by pivoting the pen, thus requiring the paper 
and not the tracer to support its weight. The other part of 
the instrument, and which in fact constitutes its novelty, is 
based upon the foct that a cone made to impinge against a 
flexible lever, will move it a distance proportionate to the 
angle made by the periphery of the cone with its axis. In 
this case the detached periphery is used for convenience. In 
short, a lever resting near its attachment upon the pulse is 
bent at its distal extremity into an inclined plane, which im- 
pinges against another straight and very light lever, carrying 
a pen. 

The pen rests upon a strip of paper which is moved, as in 
Marey's instrument, at the rate of about three inches in ten 
seconds. A sliding pressure spring rests upon the piece of 
ivory designed to bear upon the pulse, by which the com- 
pressibility of the artery may be ascertained. 

The pen may be fed with ink, by the ordinary writing pen 
or pencil brush. 

The time required to take a tracing with this instrument, 
is from one to three minutes ; and as no fastening is required, 
the observations made have not been marred by the fears of the 
patient, or the difficulties usually experienced in maintaining 
perfect quiet. 

The artificial heart referred to, was made as near as possible 
of the natural capacity, and the capillary circulation designed 
to bear a similar correspondence between its parts, as exists 
in the arterial and venous systems of the human subject; 
its difference from the heart in propulsive and contractile 



power being compensated by the avoidance of a too great ex- 
tension or redaction in size of the smaller capillaries. 

Farther reasons for believing this artificial heart to be a 
&ir representation of the natural organ, will be hereinafter 

It is perhaps necessary to state that this heart is a single 
one ; that is, having but one auricle and one ventricle, since 
the peculiar formation of the human organ is evidently but 
to accommodate the double nature of the systemic and pul- 
monary circulation, and the partition walls between auricle 
and ventricle make it ii^ nowif ^ other than esseiltially single. 

The wonderful a^ferure of the' s^ipiHunar valves, by which 
beautifal provisirfu^ natureclbses^acii^ctUar opening by three 
segments of holWw JjmCTeB, ^d whiclifjas the perfection of 
mechanical contrivance cKSfltefi'geBujftui/admiration, has been 
successfdlly imitated ibi^fpilQl jbjfc^fejj^rollowing nature. 

Thus in examining these^valves in the heart, we observe 
that while the aorta is cylindrical above them, it is triangular 
below ; and that the line of attachment of each curtain falls 
below the plane of its free border. The curtains, moreover, 
are the segments of a hollow sphere, and being drawn in at the 
points of attachment, really form triangular instead of spheri- 
cal approximation. In imitation of these, thin rubber valves 
have been found to work admirably. 

The auriculo ventricular valve is of more easy construction, 
being simply a drop valve, and in this heart was made of 

8d. The large Sphygmograph, for recording the workings 
of this artificial organ, is so arranged that any of the tubes 
may be introduced behind the tracer, near its attached ex- 
tremity. The tracer is two feet in length. The slips of paper 
are two and one-half inches by twenty four. The pen, — 
an ordinary writing pen, pivoted on the tracer — ^the work 


for moving the paper,— clock work and the reaalt — ^tracings 
ia many instaaces, two inchee wide. 

With these meaos of obBerration, I have arri7ed at certain 
cODclnsioQs, in support of which, the time and space allotted 
for this article, are too limited to ^ve tracings in detail. The 
following, however, are snhmitted in brief, with the free ad- 
mission that some of them are very perplexing. 

Ir-ABTTFICIAL HEART. Lorse srWrieH, with no obBtruction. 

-PBOIIMATE ARTERY ; i. ■., Artery of about relativo proportloii 
of auxiliary to mbcIaviaD. Slight re{prK<tat<aii surio. vent. 

3. — Sajib, with considerable rojfmyitatioi 

— NaiT Sin Vmbbl ; proportionate to Brachial. Mo regurgitation. 


9.— TuiBt. OF MBTimi 8i™,iuMlM!yondanotofoapUlarieB. 

0r-MEDIATE ARTERY ; reUtive mie that of femoral, with Boricul ; regurgltatEot] 

?■— Sauk, with ajiBmi*. 

■•—A TsnzL ; rebtive ^m femor*!, betweea two seti of capillaries ; no obatruotion. 

9i — Ikfaibid Fobdb or ConvAcmoii. 

T ArpBoioB TO KiDui. Pdub, Bstimrd. 

U.— HTD&ANT 8TBEAU. GreMFremin; oammoii 
obatmction ; MatinDona oomnt. 

11.— Sun, bat iiiterrnpted;auTTaDt. 

ISr-S^jn, iritb Inoraued prenuro and regnrgitation. 

Two points only will at this tarns be referred to r^;arding 
the experiments made with the rabber heart The first touches 
the transmiseion of impnlse ; the second, the orij^n of the first 
and second sonndB. The violent and sadden contraction of 
the heart was observed to prodnce acceleration at the auricle^ 
or what is really the distal end of the circulating apparstns^ 


in about one second, the nsnal interval between the healthy 
beats of the normal heart ; consequently, when I caused a new 
contraction of the ventricle, the fluid from the former was 
already pouring into the auricle, as is presumed to be the case 
in the natural organ. Ifow the relative calibre of the veins 
to arteries in thid apparatus, is not, as in the human heart, as 
two to one, but considerably less, to accommodate the &r less 
distance to be traversed by the fluid, so that the fact of the 
interval of transmission of impulse I have assumed to be evi* 
dence of sufficient approximation to nature for all experimen- 
tal purposes. 

The feature of chief interest, however, relates to the 
origin of the first and second sound— the contraction of the 
ventricle closed with a dull thud the auriculo ventricular 
valve, while the interval of contraction, during which the 
obstructive circulation at the capillaries backed up, so to 
speak, the current of fluid, closed the semi-lunar valves with 
a soft note, not unlike that of the human heart We may 
have, therefore, a second sound, without the ^^ accessory 
muscular noise of contraction;" "the stroke against the 
thoracic walls," "the rush of blood through the orifices," 
or the tension of the auriculo ventricular bands. 

Prominent among the requisites to proper interpretation of 
sphygmographic hieroglyphics, is the understanding of di- 
crotism. Usually this departure from the smooth, regular 
tracing of vigorous health, of which the following is an 
instance : 

is supposed to indicate a condition of increased venous and 
diminished arterial pressure, which allows retardation of the 



current through the capillaries, and produces an irregularity 
in the descending portion of each wave thus : 


Now, while under some circumstances, and with Marey's 
instrument, this is the case, yet in the following tracings from 
persons in perfect health, there seems reason to believe that 
refinement in the delicacy of the instrument we use may 
show even a tricrotic condition to be a normal one, thus : 

MlB8 H. 


Tbicbotio Nobxal PULfB. 

Theoretically, this might be expected, if we but reflect 
upon the true cause of the phenomena. I have observed, in 
operating. with the artificial capillaries, that however long the 
circuit might be, provided always sufficient care be exercised 
in maintaining the relative calibre of the smaller tubes, the 
current of efflux from the large veins is never continuous. 
The large Sphygmograph always detected the intermission, 
even during the. most rapid contractions of the heart, yet the 
tracings from any tube on the proximate side of the capilla- 
ries and the capillaries themselves, with exception of those 
emptying directly into the larger tubes, were invariably dicro- 
tous. Were this owing to obstruction, our experiment would 


have given, as will also be found to be the case in anearism, 
a continnoas stream at the distal end of the circalation. 

Dicrotism, then, may exist, even when the circulating 
medium is so rapidly dispersed in its onward course as to 
preclude any idea of obstructive retardation from venous 
pressure ; and, therefore, it follows, that the secondary wave, 
or slight rise in the descending line, which constitutes dicro- 
tism, is to be regarded as not purely a wave of rebound, due 
to such retardation of the current. 

What, then, is the cause of dicrotism ? I believe it to arise 
simply from the fact that the capillaries are peculiarly elastic, 
their dilatability and elasticity being increased as their calibre 
diminishes. Each impulse, therefore, transmitted through 
them, produces (however briefly) a dilatation, an over-fullness, 
which re-acts upon the contained current, to produce a super- 
ficial retardation, such as is seen along the banks of a running 

Such a return current would inevitably repeat itself, as 
the circles are repeated around a pebble thrown into the 
same « stream ; our power to number these repeated waves 
depending solely upon our facilities for observation and the 
delicacy of our instruments. 

Now, if actual obstruction does exist in addition, either 
from inflammatory stasis or from a more common and general 
cause, viz.: irritation of the capillaries during fevers and the 
hyperaesthesia resulting from derangement of the great sym- 
pathetic system , this dicrotism or tricrotism will be markedly 

The following is the pulse of mild pyrexia : 

HiLD Ptbizia. 

assAY. 67 

The next are two moet interesfiDg exhibits of the effect of 
porely sympathetic aotioD. They are from the abdominal 
aorta of a patient, (Miss W.,) who suffered for several months 
from a distressing pulsation, sufficient to r^se the bed-cloth- 
ing and to be noticeable across the bed-chamber. The radials 

in this case gave similar tracings, but less wide and markedly 

This case acquired considerable additional interest, £rom 
the &ct that a year previous a supposed cancer had been 
removed from the patient's breast, by a charlatan, and there 
seemed reason to fear that similar disease might have attacked 
some abdominal organ. The diagnosis afforded by the Sphyg- 
mograph gave great relief to the anxieties of friends, whiph 
was shortly after justified by complete recovery. 

Keeping now clear, as iar as possible, of the abstruse tech- 
nicalities, which have done bo mnch to embarraae oar knowl- 
edge of Sphygmography, let us study the pulse-tracings from 
a rational, common sense stand-point. Suppose, for example, 
we have before ns the hose of the ordinary fire-en^ne, as con- 
structed in its primitive days, before the alternate pumps were 
devised, and when, as a consequence, the stream of water 
thrown was perceptibly intermittent. The tube, from the 


iuBtaQt the piston haa ceased to descend and the volume of 
water has been forced through it, begins to collapse with a 
rapidity proportioned to the size of the delivery pipe. When 
the second stroke comes, the flattening hose swells, and the 
hand or a lever placed apon it is raised ; now, if the impulse 
has been sndden and of abort dnration, and the delivery be 
nnobstmcted, the lever is raised vertically, and instantly de- 
scends, so that a pencil at the end woald describe merely an 
ascending and descending line in the same plane ; bat if a 
paper to record the pencilling be moved evenly along, the 
rise and fall of the lever wonld give a cone-shaped tracing. 
Should, however, the fallneBs be prolonged, either by the pro- 
longation of the impulse, or by some obstrnction immediately 
in front of the point of observation, the lever would remain 
raised as the paper moved along, and the wedge wonld be 
flattened at the top. 

If the force exercised had been very sudden, the tube, 
if at all elastic, would have been a little more than filled, 
(i. e., distended,) and the lever would fall back a trifle before 
entering upon the plane thus : 

Suppose, however, the obstrnction be more distant and the 
stroke of the pump slow, a regurgitant wave would result 
that would have a point of commencement in the downward 
line proportioned to the time that should elapse after subsi- 
dence of impulse and the distance of the obstruction ; thus it 
might even be in the valley between the curves, or even so 
late as the beginning of the next upward line. 

Kow, as will be seen in the tracings made with Uie large 

IBBAT. 59 

Sphygmograph already described, this is actnally the case. In 
theee instanceB, dicrotism does arise from obstractioD, although 
as stated, I cannot believe it to be the asaal canse in the hn- 
man system. It is probably, however, the explanation of the 
kind of dicrotism seen in the tracings of mitd pyrexia, already 
given. If the propnlsive power be weak, or the amount of 
fluid more than sufficient to completely fill the hose, no re- 
gnp^tant wave would be expected ; and, as will be seen by 
reference to the records of the artificial heart, none results. 
The wiry palse of carditis is of this character, thns : 

If, instead of a tnbe like the leathern fire-hose, a very elastic 
and distensible tube of robber be used, two points of differ- 
ence arise : a tremulous character of both waves and a quicker 
expenditure of propulsive force ; bnt there being no increase 
of emptying power, a rounding of the snmmits of the curves 

All these features, thns enumerated as belonging to the 
hoee of a steam fire-engine, will be found in observations 
upon the human apparatus ; but to go farther, we must sup- 
pose the tube, instead of terminating in a single delivery-pipe, 
to divide and sub-divide into numerous branches, the nnited 
calibre of which slightly exceeds that of the mun tubes. We 
have seen the results of proximate and distal obstruction, and 
it remains to inquire what would be the effect of interfering 
with the circulation through one or more of the sub-divisions. 
Kumerons experiments have shown me that so long as the 
total carrying power of the remaining branches does not veiy 
materially differ irom that of the principal vessel, there is no 


perceptible change ; but as this diminishes, the relative tension 
of the larger tube increases, and the collapse succeeding each 
impulse becomes less ; thus, what in speaking of arteries is 
termed compressibility, is diminished. 

With the human circulatory apparatus this tension of the 
arteries necessarily supposes a corresponding want of fullness 
of the veins, and the tracing exhibits characteristics similar 
to that already given for carditis. 

But not to go farther in this direction, let us inquire into 
the changes produced in certain familiar pathological states : 

IsL — TriciLspid Megurgitaiion. 

It is well known that where this morbid condition exists, 
a visible pulsation of the jugulars occurs ; not always or often 
regular, and pulse like, but tremulous and variable, and indi- 
cating two things in regard to the blood current. 1st — ^An 
intermission of impulse or almost an absence of impetus at 
the venous and distal end of the circuit ; and, 2nd, a retarda- 
tion of capillary venous circulation, sufficient to prevent full- 
ness of the large veins. To ascertain what should be the 
character of the sphygmographic tracing in this variety of 
disease, let us analyze the condition that exists. 1st. — ^As the 
right ventricle forces the blood into the lungs, a regurgitation 
into the auricle would produce the same want of vigor of im- 
pulse in the pulmonary current, as a rent in a pair of bellows 
would produce in its current of air. 2nd. — (As a consequence 
of the former) feebleness of pulmonary circulation. 8rd. — 
A retardation at the pulmonary valves, with imperfect imple- 
tion of left auricle and ventricle; and, finally, (supposing for 
the moment, the heart to be otherwise healthy) a contraction, 
with diminished resistance. So far the result would be a 
suddenness and briefness of the first stroke, similar to that 



usaally ascribed to hypertrophy; bat another factor must 
come in : retardation of pulmonary circulation involves imper- 
fect oxygenation of blood ; this, with regurgitation into the 
right auricle, produces fullness of all the venous system, and, 
as a result, the heart itself weakened, contracts against, not 
diminished, but increased resistance, and, the first part of the 
curve is fattened or rounded, while the second or smaller wave 
is more marked ; in other words, di erotism is increased, and, 
the curve would be this : 

2nd. — Mitral Begurgiiaiion. 

Incomplete closure of the valves of the left heart presents 
features somewhat similar to those of the right, with a differ- 
ence however, that will be manifest upon an analysis similar 
to that already instituted; for example, the leak into the 
auricle impairs the propulsive force of the ventricle, however 
violently the heart may beat, or however much nature may 
have endeavored to remedy the impairment by muscular 

The arterial half of the system is less powerfully distended, 
the ingress of blood to the auricle from being persistently 
checked by the regurgitant flow prevents a sufficiently rapid 
depletion of the venous half, and as a result the first half of 
the tracing would be shortened and rounded at the apex and 
increased dicrotism occurs, although to less extent than in 
case of the tricuspid valves. One curve taken from my 
record is this : 

usually, however, the tracings are quite irregular. 



Before proceeding farther it should be stated that in this 
variety of disease a great diversity exists in the sphygmo- 
graphic tracings, and only large experience will enable us to 
decide with accuracy when it is before us. The foct that a 
new and simple instrument is now available, will, it is hoped, 
result in such numerous observations that a definite key may 
be found, and what is now complex become exceedingly sim- 
ple. Beyond this diversity, moreover, there exists a source 
of error, due to a strong resemblance which the tracings often 
bear to those of other conditions ; for example, during typhus 
there is an undulatory character given to the tracing, but 
taking the following from Professor Sanderson's work, as a 
sample, it will be seen that the curves of both waves are more 
rounded, and the intermediate reversed curves are also round- 
ed, so that the writing appears the same when inverted, which 
cannot be said of that dependent upon mitral regurgitation, 

A third tracing, bearing some resemblance to these, is that 
found in cases of great vital exhaustion, in which the heart 
fails to maintain the proper relation as to arterial and venous 
pressures. This may or may not be associated with cardiac 
disease ; excitement, however, changes its character com- 
pletely, thus : 


Do. WITH Excitement. 

3rd. — Aortic SeffwrgHadon. 

Where iaBofficieDt closure of the aortic semilunar valvea 
occars, featares are presented quite distinct from those de> 
scrihed; thus, the term collapsing is peculiarly applicable to 
the pulse in this disease, which seems suddenly to yield under 
the pressure of the finger. The stroke is quick, as if indica^ 
tive of some local cardiac irritant ; it is wide from increased 
impulse, and the apex of the first part of the tracing is sharp ; 
the descent considerable, and the refiex wave, both because of 
suddenly decreased propulsion and greatly increased resis- 
tance &om venous fullness, produces a sharply defined dicro* 
tism, the line from the second prominence of the tracing itself 
dropping suddenly. The latter phenomenon would probably 
be impossible were it not for a dissemination, so to speak, of 
tiie blood back through the half emptied larger arteries ; the 
characteristic curve is therefore as follows, (from a patient) : 


Pulmonary RegurgiiaHim. 

In this form of disease, concerning which Br. DeCoata re- 
marks, very little is known from clinical observation, it would 
be difficult to form a theory since the pulmonary circulation 
and the right ventricle are chiefly, perhaps solely, involved, 
and eccentric hypertrophy is constant 

The arteries, moreover, that are accessible for tracings are 
out of the track of the impaired circulation. The condition, 



however, in which a murmur exists at the third left costal 
cartilage, near the sternum, whether with impulse or second 
sound and due to disease at the apex of the left lung, a con- 
dition in fact where pulmonary regurgitation is simulated, but 
does not not really exist, gives a tracing characteristic of ob- 
struction near the heart, and of which the following three 
cases are examples ; the first is a case of tubercular disease 
of fifteen years standing, with a marked murmur. 

MB8. h. 

The next the same disease, but of about five years duration, 
and accompanied by dilatation. 


The next a case of Phthisis fiorida, but accompanied by 
great debility, the features of which predominate in the 

G. D. 

This properly introduces the matter of obstructions, and 
inasmuch as certain features have already been referred to, it 
may be mentioned that a distinctive one, between the tra- 
cings last given and those of semilunar aortic obstruction 
with hypertrophy, is to be found in this, that the upward stroke 
of the latter is more vertical, higher and ends in a sharp point, 

ESSAY. 65 

the descent being slight and then merging with a sharp curve 
into the plateau of the first wave, thus : 

The ages of this patient and the first of the phthisical cases 
given were the same. 

This record is however apparently identical with that of 
insufficiency accompanied as it usually is by hypertrophy, the 
variety in heighth, width and definiteness of outline being 
considerable under the modifying circumstances of excite- 
ment, debility or atheromatous degeneration of arteries. 

Whether the minute shades of difference in these curves 
shall ever become significant, of course depends upon the 
number and character of multiplied investigations. One 
feature seems certainly to belong to them, viz: that the 
nearer to the ventricle the obstruction happens to be, the more 
definite, ceteris paribus^ becomes the flattening of the apex of 
the first curve of the tracing, distant obstructions as in the 
capillaries of the extremities seem to exhibit themselves in 
the second wave of the writing or in the interspace between 
the first and second, or sometimes by a tremulous waviness 
of line toward its end. In proximate obstruction, such as has 
been already described, or that produced by want of elasticity 
iu the large arterial trunks, or by congestion and disorgan- 
izing diseases of organs liberally supplied with blood, as the 
spleen or kidneys, many observations and careful study of 
the tracings will be necessary to establish rules for interpre- 
tation. Still, even to an unskilled observer, the difference 
between the following records taken from Dr. Burdon San- 
derson's work, will be sufficiently obvious. 



S*M> Disiui. 

Now, 8o far as specific diagnosis goes, the scieace we are 
coasideritig being in its infancy, ie therefore far from perfect; 
thns tracings apparently simi\^r result from very diverse Bources, 
and our knowledge is at present too limited to enable ns ta 
read the hieroglyphics at first sight, always correctly ; for ex- 
ample, in mitral obstruction the tension of the auricle neces- 
sarily reacts upon the pulmonary circulation, and this in turn 
upon the right ventricle which supplies it. If the obstruc- 
tion occur at the tricuspid orifice, a similar reaction exists 
through the venae cavae, the liver, the portal circulation, and 
thus evep upon the direct aortic current. Moreover the pres- 
sure of tumors upon large arteries, even derangement of the 
sympathetic system, produces very similar and therefore per- 
plexing records. Still, even though we may not say as yet 
just where obstruction exists in certain cases, or why, if we 
but ascertain that it does, the advantage in making a prog- 
nosis, or in estimating prospects of longevity, will be incalcu- 

ESSAY. 67 

lable. It is here proper to say that I have thus far touched 
chiefly upon cardiac pathology, that this essay may not be too 
greatly lengthened. Morbid conditions in all parts of the 
body present tracings of great interest and value, and as we 
have at command other means of certain diagnosis in cardiac 
and arterial diseases, it is perhaps even outside of these that 
sphygmography is of greatest clinical importance. At some 
future time I hope to present to the profession a more ex- 
tended and definite series of observations. In concluding for 
the present, however, permit me to express an opinion at vari- 
ance with the fears of some who have found difficulties in the 
practical application of sphygmography, remarking that 
we should not allow our rules for interpretation to be too 
hastily formed, inasmuch as hitherto the expense and com- 
plex nature of the instrument used, the experience requisite 
to acquire dexterity, the difficulty of successful application, 
and the loss of valuable time in each case, have limited the 
number of workers and their observations. 

With a new principle and a simpler and less costly instru- 
ment within reach, sphygmography will rise into a definite 
and useful science. Certain it is that by it, even now, in its 
immaturity, we may detect deviations from perfect health, not 
discernable by any other means, and consequently in at least 
one, and a growing interest in this country, namely, the esti- 
mation of possible longevity, it will be invaluable. 


BY T. J. THOMA80K, M. D. 

Mr. President and Gentlemen .- 

On him whom you have honored with the oflSlce of 3rd Vice- 
President devolves the duty of preparing for this occasion a 
suitable address. Should his efforts prove less satisfactory 
than may be desired, he will still claim the merit, and knows 
you will accord it, of having done what he could. The few 
hours that at varied intervals could be snatched from an 
active and laborious practice, have been cheerfully devoted to 
this service. 

My subject will be — A History of the District Medical Society of 
the County of Monmouth. 

I am aware that a topic presenting more general interest 
might have been selected; but in the choice I have been 
mainly governed by the expressed wishes of some members 
of the Society, to whose superior judgment I have properly 

My theme is historical, and I am naturally invited to some 
preliminary remarks upon the uses and advantages of history 
in general. 

History, it has been remarked, like the Hebrew verb, has 
no present tense. It deals only with the past, more or less 
near or remote. But it is a present companion and friend, a 
counsellor and gaide. It instructs for the passing hour, and 
prophesies for coming days. It supplies analogies, which 


have the force of fixed and reliable laws. Human nature is 
ever the same ; history, therefore, is constantly repeating 
itself. Like causes, reproduced by recurring events, are fol- 
lowed by like results. Hence the aphorism, "History is 
philosophy teaching by example,^' showing us what has been 
successfully achieved, and what has been unsuccessfully at- 
tempted. It has a voice for the listening ear, to invite, en- 
courage and stimulate on the one hand, and to warn, discour- 
age and deter on the other. At the head of the nine muses 
of Greek mythology was Clio. Her scroll was a treasury of 
carefully collected facts and events ; the phenomena and ope- 
rations of animate and inanimate nature, especially the actions 
of men, with the internal springs which impelled and governed 
them. To this well-stored historic garner the sister lii uses were 
wont to resort, to collect knowledge for use in their respective 
departments, whether of graver acquirements, or lighter ac- 

The advantages of history are almost inestimable ; without 
it, human progress would be embarrassed and slow ; escape 
from ignorance and error well nigh impossible. The same 
mistakes would be endlessly repeated, and human effort in 
all its departments would be the labor of Sisyphus. In addi- 
tion to these weighty advantages, may be mentioned the lighter 
benefits. The study has a peculiar charm ; the food is not only 
nutritious, but palatable ; especially is the interest lively when 
the events recorded are near in their relation to ourselves; then 
they gratify the egotism of our nature. If we cannot say with 
the hero of the ^neid, " Quorum pars magna fui/' we can 
modify the phrase and say, " Quorum pars parva fuiy" little 
things are great to us, when we ourselves figure in them. 
Jupiter, and the rest of the divinities, in far-off Olympus, may 
take care of the world in general, and we will note with be- 
coming reverence their illustrious doings. But the dii locij 


onr Ceres and Penates, nearer guardians, will have our ten- 
derest love. . 

This natural interest which we feel in events nearly re- 
lated to ourselves, created, and we must admit they abund- 
antly justify, the wish that each medical society and associa- 
tion in the State might have, from time to time, a place in 
our published transactions. 

My narrative opens at the period which terminated our 
second and last war with Great Britain. As a gleam of sun- 
shine through a broken storm-cloud, came the rumor of 
peace. The verification of the report occasioned universal 
joy. Scarcely had the glad echoes died away, when the 
Medical Society of New Jersey, no longer distracted by war, 
assembled in New Brunswick, on the second Tuesday in May, 
1816, for the purpose of reorganizing itself and establishing 
district medical societies, under authority of an act of incor- 
poration, by the Legislature of New Jersey, bearing date 
February 15th, 1816. On the 24th of July of the same year, 
Drs. Edward Taylor, Wm. G. Reynolds, Samuel Forman and 
Jacobus Hubbard, met at Monmouth Court House (now Free- 
hold) in conformity with instructions from the parent society, 
for the purpose of forming a district medical society, for that 
county. After having been duly organized, they proceeded 
to frame a code of laws for their government, under which 
they acted, until 1820. Of the exact nature and phraseology 
of these enactments we are ignorant, no record being in ex- 
istence. Sometime between 1816 and 1820, date unknown, 
the parent society deemed it expedient to alter and amend 
their constitution, contravening some of these laws of the new 
organization, and making alterations requisite. In conse- 
quence, a committee of three was appointed, at the annual 
meeting held June the 7th, 1819, to make the necessary 
changes, and report at the next annual meeting. This com- 


mittee, composed of Drs. Reynolds, WoodhuU and Forman, 
reported as directed, an amended constitution, which, after 
being first read and passed in sections and then as a whole, 
was adopted. This transaction bears date 24th day of April, 

The constitution is a voluminous and carefully written 
document of 25 sections, displaying the fact that the framers 
were well qualified for their task. 

The first section, rendering it the duty of the President to 
appoint two members to read addresses, was stricken out in 
1838. The times of meeting have been frequently changed, 
consequently the 10th section has as often been altered. 
From 1820 to 1838, two meetings were held annually, viz.: 
the last Monday in April and October ; after the latter date 
the fall meeting was discontinued. In 1859 the time of the 
spring meeting was changed to the last Monday in May. 
Finally in 1867, the 3rd Monday in May was selected, in 
order that the convening of the district organization should 
precede the meeting of the parent society. The 14th section 
originally fixed the fine for failure to deliver an address, by 
the president, at $2. Subsequently the same was increased to 
$5. The 17th section, which gave $5 license fee to be at dis- 
posal of the society, was expunged in 1838. 

As proof that the part of the 18th section, requiring an 
applicant to produce testimonials of good moral character, 
was not in operation in 1828, a graduate of the University 
of Pennsylvania was refused license under authority of this 
requirement. When he subsequently applied for member- 
ship he was rejected, having no license. In 1850 a licentiate 
was refused admission to the Society (and advised of the 
cause) for gross violation of medical etiquette, toward some 
of the members. The lesson was severe, but salutary. At 
the fall meeting of 1820, the secretary and treasurer were 


ordered to procure books — first a minute book, second a treas- 
urer's account book. Had the former been procured earlier 
we might have had a record of the transactions of the society 
from its birth. Owing to this omission, the acts of the first 
three years are but briefiy recorded, and are probably tradi- 

The statement of the treasurer's account at this time, and 
for some years subsequently, declares the fact that a large 
percentage of the money was worthless ; showing either that 
that oflicer was an imperfect judge of the currency, or that 
the circulating medium was in a very unstable condition. 
From collateral history we gather that the latter was probably 
the case. 

The society was scarcely six years -old when the members 
felt that the Spring meeting was the one of paramount im- 
portance ; this is evinced by the large number of absentees 
from the autumnal gatherings. An attempt was made by 
their more punctual brethren, to compel better attendance, 
by a motion offered in the Fall of 1822, to alter the penalty to 
one dollar, for absence from any regular meetings, instead of 
absence through the year. This motion when brought to vote 
on the following Spring, was lost, but the matter was agitated 
from time to time, until this resolution finally prevailed, but 
was of course in operation when the Fall meetings ceased to 
be held. 

For forty years the society has held its meetings in the same 
room of the same hotel, and have dined together at the same 

At the April meeting the necessity of a library for the use 
of the members of the society was discussed, and a nucleus 
formed, by subscribing for the New England Journal and N, F. 
Medical and Physical Journal. In 1827 the " Medico Chirur- 
gical JReview'' was added. In 1830 the members were urgently 


requested to return all the numbers of the Journals belonging 
to the society in order that they might be bound, which was 
done (so far as they came in). In 1832 a book-case was pur- 
chased. " The American Journal of Medical Scimce" in ad- 
dition to the others-before mentioned, was subscribed for, and 
a librarian chosen with instructions to collect or ascertain the 
whereabouts of the missing volumes and numbers. In 1833, 
owing to the scattered and generally unsatisfactory condition 
of the library, as reported by the libarian, a resolution was 
offered, viz : " That after the present subscription for the dif- 
ferent Journals expire, they be not renewed." October, 1836, 
all the books that were in possession, and as many as could 
be obtained during the year belonging to the society, were to 
be placed in the hands of a committee who were to put them 
up in distributive shares, in as many parcels as there were 
members. These parcels were exhibited at the next meeting 
and found satisfactorily arranged ; each member present drew 
by lot for himself, and the secretary for those absent. The 
book-case was sold to the highest bidder, for one dollar, (origi- 
nal cost not known). Thus ended the library, an excellent 
institution in conception ; but ** the best laid plans of mice 
and men gang aft aglee." 

In 1825, Dr. Samuel Forman, one of the corporators, owing 
to increasing years and infirmities, wished to withdraw from 
the society. The members, feeling that they could not spare 
so valuable a man, appointed a committee to wait upon him 
to express this sentiment. At their urgent solicitation he 
withdrew his request, and both his presence and counsel were 
secured for several succeeding years. In 1832, he and Dr. 
Jacobus Hubbard, also one of the corporators, were made 
honorary members.. These gentlemen were the first to be 
complimented in this way by the society. This custom has 
been perpetuated until the roll now contains seven names. 


From the organization of the society, the privilege of ap- 
pointing censors to examine candidates for license had been 
accorded to it. For the year 1830, however, that power was 
withdrawn and delegated to three persons appointed by the 
State Society for each of the three districts in the State, viz : 
Eastern, Middle and Western. The Monmouth Society, be- 
longed with others, to the middle district. In 1845, owing 
to a change in the by-laws of the State Society, this power re- 
verted to the District Society, and again the roll of licentiates 
was opened. This was particularly pleasing to some of the 
members who had felt aggrieved by the previous action of 
the parent society, which they regarded as an infringement 
upon their rights ; thus the matter stood until 1850, when the 
right of the censors was encroached upon by the passage of a 
law in the State legislature, (to which it would seem the State 
Society became a party, by at least a tacit consent) recogniz- 
ing the diplomas of certain well known medical schools, and 
allowing diplomas to take the place of a certificate of exam- 
ination by the board of censors. This law was a great mis- 
take ; it opened a door which could not be shut ; besides 
drawing invidious distinctions, it prepared the way for the 
sweeping law of 1854, which allowed any one a license who 
would file a copy of his diploma in the clerk's office of the 
county and pay his shilling. If the law of 1850 gave rise to 
feelings of indignation, we may imagine the disgust excited 
by the law of 1854, in the medical society of Monmouth. 
The displeasure provoked, found expression in the following 
preamble and resolutions, passed April 24th, 1854 : 

Whereas, The hurried passage of an act of the legislature, entitled 
" An amendment to an act to incorporate medical societies/' completely 
destroys the usefulness of our medical associations, and deprives the medical 
society of all its immunities and privileges : 

Therefore Besolved, That the District Medical Society of Monmouth cor- 


dially unite with other district societies in recommending an extra session 
of the State Medical Society of New Jersey, at some time early in the month 
of June, to take action in the premises. 

A copy of this resolution was ordered to be transmitted to 
the secretary of the parent society. This action of the legis- 
lature was not quite so potent for evil as the first part of the 
resolution might lead us to imagine ; but it shows the dis- 
pleasure felt at the unfair means used by certain parties, who 
were chagrined, that the diplomas of their institutions (owing 
to want of a proper curriculum of study) were not recognized 
or placed upon a par with those of a higher grade. Prompted 
by this envious spirit, they used their influence with the State 
legislature to place all medical institutions on an equally 
favorable footing before the law. Thus was the power of the 
censors cut down from time to time, until nothing was left, 
save that of the natural right of a voluntary association, to 
judge of the qualifications of applicants for membership. 

Some of the titles to annual addresses are novel, and sug- 
gest interesting subjects. In 1822 an article was read before 
the society, upon the " Moms Alba," by Dr. G. S. WoodhuU, 
who ascribed to it efficacy in renal diseases and irritation of 
the bladder. One, by Dr. A. B. Dayton, 1843, "A Review of 
the principles and practice of Thompsonianism." Another, 
by Dr. J. P. Lewis, in 1858, on " Fear in connection with the 
medical profession." 

Communications, detailing recent cases in practice, of un- 
usual character, formed an interesting and instructive part of 
the exercises of the society. We will quote a few, presenting 
prominent irregularities : — April, 1832, Dr. R. W. Cooke re- 
ported in his obstetric practice, a case of " Lusus Naturse," 
with deficiency of parts. The presentation was of the second 
order (transverse) and the rarest species, being abdominal. 
The parietes abdominis were wanting, except the peritoneum, 


which seemed to have been lacerated, early in labor, so that 
on first examination, the finger came in contact with the naked 
abdominal viscera of the foetus, which was matured and alive 
(as in attempting to reach the feet, the fingers came in con- 
tact with the heart, and the impulse was distinctly felt for a 
few seconds). The diaphragm was imperfect; pericardium 
none ; lungs in situ ; the two mediastina perfect, no ossa 
pubis. In each groin was a fleshy appendix ; the integument 
of the right resembled scrotum ; anus imperforate. The mother 
was well formed ; father had hare-lip. Their children, here- 
tofore, had been of natural shape. Foetus could not be ob- 
tained. The same member, in 1833, read a communication 
on " Intus susceptio," illustrated by specimens from a recent 
case, with portion of ilium, coecum, and part of colon invagi- 
nated. Was exhibited by the same, some time subsequently, 
a case of exsection of the head of humerus, with three inches 
of the shaft, in a boy, aged 16 years, who could carry a bucket 
of water with same arm. Dr. Dayton, in 1852, gave a history 
of a case of " Mollities Ossium ;" in 1855, a case of " Inversion 
of Uterus, with method of reduction;" and in 1859, of "Dry 
Qangrene of a single finger," in a subject apparently in perfect 
health. And in 1863, a case of " Phlegmonous Erysipelas," 
destroying the scrotum and cellular tissue of the penis, with 
repair and recovery. Dr. Vought, in 1855, related the par- 
ticulars of a case of " Extra Uterine Foetation," and exhibited 
several of the bones of the foetus, which had been expelled 
and removed from the rectum of the patient. 1829, Dr. 
C. G. Patterson, gave a case of *' Occluded Vagina, and 
Retained Catamenia, relieved by the knife. 

The subject of Temperance attracted the attention of the 
society as early as 1834. To put themselves upon the right 
side plainly before the people, a resolution waa passed, and 
ordered to be printed in the " Monmouth Inquirer^^ and 


" Mcnmouih Democrai^^ declaring that " ardent spirits is not 
needed in health; that on the contrary, it is not merely use- 
less, but pernicious, productive of disease and death." April 
80, 1855, by "ayes" and "nays" it was resolved, "That 
hereafter no more wine bills should be paid out of the funds 
of the society." A tilt at segars was made at the same meet- 
ing ; but the " weed" did not share the fate of the wine, inas- 
much as the mover for expunging wine from the bill was an 
inveterate smoker, and voted '^ nay," so they are still a luxury 
indulged in by the majority, at the general expense. 

Until 1841, delegates to the State Society were appointed 
by the chair, after which they were chosen in alphabetical 
order, with the privilege, if present, of declining, the next 
in order being selected. In 1844, it was made the duty of 
the delegates to designate one of their number to give a syn- 
opsis of the proceedings of the parent society, and report the 
same, at the following meeting of the county organization. 
This society was brought into direct connection with the 
American Medical Apsociation, by appointing delegates in 
1853; since which time they have been annually nominated, 
and some of them usually in attendance. In 1853, an officer, 
called a reporter, was appointed, the usefulness and impor- 
tance of whose duties are now too well known and defined to 
need any explanation. 

In 1870, a new feature, interesting and instructive, was 
added to the meeting. Each member's name is called, as 
it occurs alphabetically, and is required to give a written or 
verbal report of the state of health, within the past year, in 
his practice, and recount any interesting cases or novelties 
in treatment. 

An important department of the history of the district 
medical society of Monmouth is its necrology. Like obit- 
uary records in general, its office is to embalm the dead — 


not wrapping the inanimate clay in cerements and preserving 
it in mummy form, which centuries hence, sacrilegious hands 
may manipulate, exposing to curiosity's gaze, or subjecting 
to scientific examination. By a spiritual process, it embalms 
the memory of the dead. In spite of the power of Hades, 
it detains (so to speak) the spirit which would otherwise enter 
the land of forgetfulness, to move still amid the busy scenes 
of earth, and inspire by example the successive generations 
of living men. Through it, thie silent tomb has a voice, and 
" they being dead yet speak." Our little band of the Mon- 
mouth district medical society has its list of departed worthies, 
who have rested from labors well performed, and left a fra- 
grant memory behind. Our grateful task to-day, is to weave 
and hang on thezr urns, in memoriam^ affection's garland, and 
plant the cypress over graves we would not have forgotten. 
The first to whom we would invite your attention is 

Dr. Wm. G. Reynolds. He was one of the founders of the 
society; was born in Northampton Co., Pa. Of his early 
history nothing can be ascertained beyond the fact that he 
had been connected with the navy, and had travelled exten- 
sively. He was settled at Middletown Point, now Matawan, 
where he practiced for many years. He was much esteemed 
for his ability, and acted as preceptor to several, who after- 
ward became prominent practitioners. Beside his own exten- 
sive business, he had a large consulting experience. In mind 
he was decidedly intellectual. A bachelor, — remarkably 
temperate, — systematic and industrious. Apart from his 
profession, he possessed great mechanical skill ; a lady in the 
county has a work box which he made and presented to her 
while she was his patient. The workmanship is beautiful. 
On one occasion, having been disappointed by his tailor, he 
cut out and made a suit of clothes for himself, which fitted 


him admirably. He was the first president of the Monmouth 
County Medical Society, 1816; its treasurer from 1820 to 
1824 ; about which latter date he left the State and establish- 
ed in a short time a good practice in New York city, where 
he died, at what time cannot be ascertained. 

Dr. David Form an, son of Dr. Samuel For man, was born 
at Freehold in the year 1796, and died in 1826, at 30 years. 
He received a liberal school education ; studied medicine with 
his father ; graduated at the University of Pennsylvania about 
the year 1820; was licensed, after examination, by the board 
of censors of the district medical society of Monmouth. 
He was admitted a member of the society, April 30th, 1821 ; 
elected secretary in 1823-4. In 1822 he read an essay upon 
the " Causes, symptoms and treatment of Paralysis." As- 
sociated with his father, he practiced with him until his death. 
Although pursuing his avocation but a few years, he acquired 
the reputation of a skillful surgeon and successful physician, 
which, combined with fine social qualities, made him exceed- 
ingly popular. He is buried in the yard of the old Tennent 

Dr. David Forman, Sr., son of Jonathan and Hope, died 
at Middletown, Dec. 26th, 1825, aged 34 years ; was buried at 
Tennent church. Dr. Forman studied medicine with Dr. 
Samuel Forman, of whom he was a relative. He was licensed 
by the State medical society and located at Middletown, where 
he practiced until his death. He became a member of the 
district medical society in 1818; was its vice-president in 

Dr. Gilbert Woodhull, a son of the Rev. John Wood- 
hull, D. D., forty years pastor of the Tennent church, was 
born Jan. 11th, 1794, and died Oct. 13th, 1830. His literary 
studies were pursued with his father, who was a successful 


teacher, as well as preacher. His medical preceptors were 
Dr. John T. Woodhull (his brother) and Dr. Hosack, of New 
York; he graduated at the college of Physicians and Sur- 
geons, and soon after occupied the field held by his brother 
John, who declined in his favor. He acquired a large practice 
in the townships of Freehold, Manalapan, Upper Freehold, 
now called Millstone, doing the most extensive business in the 
county. He was a man of fine personal appearance, prepos- 
sessing address, manners unusually pleasing and magnetic, 
combining dignity with a genuine bonhomie. He was almost 
a centaur in his out of door life, always in the saddle, sitting 
on his horse with inimitable ease and grace ; riding at a slash- 
ing gait; shortening distances by crossing fields and fences, 
merely throwing off the top rail and jumping the rest; of 
great endurance, a stranger to fatigue. The close of a morn- 
ing ride would frequently find him forty miles away from his 
starting place. Inheriting considerable wealth from his father, 
he practiced rather from love of his profession than the desire 
of pecuniary gain. Eminently a pious man, he was chosen a 
ruling elder in the Presbyterian church at Perrineville, of 
which his nephew was pastor. 

This brilliant man died in his thirty-seventh year, leaving 
a wife and three children. His fatal illness was congestive 
fever, caused by exposure. He was admitted a member of 
the Monmouth District Medical Society in 1818. In 1822-8 
was elected president of the County and in 1825 of the State 
Society. He was interred in the burial ground attached to 
the Presbyterian church at Perrineville. A substantial mon- 
ument is erected to his memory, upon which is inscribed the 
appropriate scriptural quotation : 

" I have fought a good fight. I have finished my course. I have kept 
the faith. Henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness, 
which the Lord the righteous Judge shall give me at that day, and not to 
me only, but unto all them also that love his appearing." 


Db. Jambs English, Jr., son of Dr. James English, Br., 
was born at Englishtown, and there died of consumption, 
May 7th, 1834, in his forty-second year, and was buried beside 
his parents in the Tennent church yard. He studied medicine 
with his father ; attending one course of lectures at the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, another at the College of Physicians 
and Surgeons, New York, and was licensed by the State med- 
ical society. He had an extensive practice, inherited from 
his father and enlarged by himself. The hard work and ex- 
posure, incident to which, broke down in middle life a con- 
stitution never robust. 

Dr. James P. Kearney, studied with Dr. Samuel Forman ; 
practiced and died in early life, at Keyport. He was licensed 
by censors, October, 1823 ; admitted a member of the district 
medical society, April, 1824. His time of death and birth 
cannot be ascertained, as the vault in which his body, with 
others, had been deposited (many years), a short time since 
was entered, the plates removed, coffins broken up, and the 
remains mixed promiscuously, so that not one could be dis- 
tinguished from another. 

Dr. John B. Throckmorton, the son of James and Frances 
Barbara, was born at South River, Middlesex county, N. J., 
April 3d, 1796, and died at Freehold, Sept. 19th, 1856. He 
was educated at New Brunswick ; studied medicine with Dr, 
Wm. G. Reynolds one year, then entered the office of Dr. David 
Hosack, of New York ; attending lectures and graduating 
at the College of Physicians and Surgeons. He was licens- 
ed after examination, by the board of censors of Monmouth 
county, April 29, 1822; was admitted a member of the 
district medical society, April, 1824, and elected vice-president 
in 1830. In 1822 he located in Freehold, where he continued 
to practice until his death. 


As a physician and man, Dr. Throckmorton was judicious 
and candid, highly esteemed for his integrity of character and 
beloved for his kindness of heart. He was buried in the 
grave yard attached to the Episcopal church, of which he was 
a warm supporter. 

Dr. David 0. English, the son of Dr. James English, Sr., 
was born at Englishtown ; after being an. office pupil of his 
brother James, he attended lectures in New York, and was 
licensed by the Medical Society of New Jersey. Associated 
with Dr. William G. Reynolds of Matawan for one year ; on 
the removal of that gentleman to New York, he purchased 
his office and interest in the business, but finding his health 
inadequate, he removed to New Brunswick — afterwards to 
Springfield, Union county, where he died a few years ago. 
He joined the district medical society of Monmouth, April 
24th, 1826. 

Dr. Charles Gordon Patterson, the second son of Judge 
John Patterson, was born in Middletown, Monmouth county, 
September 4th, 1796, and died of phthisis pulmonalis, at 
Sykesville, Burlington county, N. J., February 18th, 1835, 
in his 39th year, leaving a widow with seven children and a 
posthumous son, who took his father's name. Dr. Patterson 
studied with Dr. Wilson of Middletown and Dr. Lewis of 
Eatontown; graduated at the New York University. First 
engaged in practice in the spring of 1816, at Upper Squan- 
kum — soon left, going to Colt's Neck, thence in 1817 to New 
Egypt, where he established a reputation as an able physi- 
cian and surgeon. He connected himself with the society, 
April 80th, 1827, and was its vice-president in 1829; was a 
good and ready writer — quick in his perceptions and pos- 
sessed of versatile talent. He was buried in the Baptist 
cemetery at Jacobstown, Burlington county. 


Dr. Edward Taylor, the only son of Edward Taylor, was 
born in Upper Freehold township, Monmouth county. May 
27th, 1762 and died May 2d, 1835. After graduating at 
Princeton college, he studied medicine with Dr. James ITewell 
of Allen town. During the winter he attended lectures at the 
University of Pennsylvania, and visiting the wards of the 
hospital, until he received his degree of M. D., March 25th, 
1786. He commenced practice . at Pemberton, Burlington 
county, but soon removed to his native place, where for many 
years he engaged with remarkable activity and usefulness in 
the labor and responsibilities incident to a large country prac- 
tice, often extending from the Delaware to the sea-coast ; trav- 
eling on horseback by day and night, regardless of weather. 
Notwithstanding this life of intense mental and physical ex- 
ertion, by temperate habits he preserved his medium sized 
compact frame in an unusually healthy condition until near 
the close of his life, which was terminated by a local disease 
after a short illness. About twelve years prior to his decease, 
under a conviction of duty, he accepted the position of super- 
intendent of "The Friends" Asylum, of Frankfort, Pa. 
which he ably filled for nine years, when he returned to his 
home in New Jersey. Few men have occupied a higher 
position in the estimation of those who knew him, for integ- 
rity and strict morality — adorning by his life and conversation 
the doctrines he professed— rendering himself beloved and 
honored by all — but more especially by his own " Society of 

Identified with the formation and early history of the Mon- 
mouth district medical society, he was its vice-president in 
1816 and president in 1820, when he read a valuable address 
upon the " the causes and treatment of pneumonic inflama- 

Dr. Taylor^s death^was preceded a short time by the de- 


cease of his beloved and talented wife, Sarah. He left a large 
and unbroken family of children. "His end was peace." 
In the " Friends" burying ground — near Cox's corner — ^two 
adjoining mounds, thickly covered with myrtle, attract at- 
tention. At the head of each — just appearing above the deep 
green — is a small brown stone. By depressing the surround- 
ing foliage can be seen inscribed upon one — " S. T., 1832" — 
upon the other " E. T., 1835." As full an inscription as their 
religious tenets and the society to which they belonged permit. 

Dr. John Morford, son of Thomas Morford, of Shrews- 
bury township, was born in 1803, and died at Squan village, 
December, 1839, aged 86 years. His medical preceptor was 
Dr. Jacobus Hubbard, Jr. of Tinton Falls. He graduated at 
the University of the State of New York, and was licensed 
after examination by the censors of the Monmouth 'county 
Medical society in April, 1824. The next year he commenced 
practice at Squan village, where he remained until his death. 
With an extensive practice, he was exceedingly popular and 
universally beloved. Dr. Morford connected himself with 
the society, April, 1826. 

Dr. Samuel Forman, was born at Freehold, August 3d, 
1764, and died in 1845, aged 82 years and was buried at the 
Tennent church. He studied medicine with Dr. Henderson 
of Freehold — graduated at the University of Pennsylvania 
and commenced practice in that State — ^but remained there 
for only a short period. He retiyned to his native place about 
the year 1790, where he built up a large practice, pursuing it 
diligently until 1840. The infirmities of old age necessitating 
a less active life, he retired to his farm and there passed the 
remainder of his days. 

Dr» Forman was president of the State society 1814 — ^be- 


came one of the corporators and secretary of the district med- 
ical society of Monmouth in 1816 — treasurer in 1819 and 
1824 — and president in 1821. The doctor was erect in figure, 
always well dressed — in manner gentlemanly but never stoop- 
ed to familiarity. He was descended from one of the oldest 
families of the county — staunch whigs during our revolution- 
ary struggle. A number of young men, afterward physi- 
cians, were his office students. 

Db. Jacobus Hubbabd, Jb., one of the founders of the 
district medical society of Monmouth, son of Dr. Jacobus 
Hubbard, Sr., was born upon the farm of his father near 
Holmdel, Monmouth county, N. J., April 3d, 1766, and died 
February 25th, 1847, in his 82d year, and was buried upon the 
farm where he was born. Recently his remains have been 
removed, with those of other members of his family, to the 
beautiful cemetery of " Fairview," near Red Bank, N. J. He 
studied in the office of Dr. Clark — graduated at the University 
of Pennsylvania — ^was licensed in New Jersey, and after prac- 
ticing with his father for a short time, removed to Gravesend, 
Long Island, where he remained for two or three years. At 
the solicitation of friends he returned to New Jersey and 
settled at Tinton Falls, in his native county, where he was 
actively engaged in the duties of his profession, for fifty years, 
traversing the country from Raritan Bay to Manahawkin and 
west into the adjacent counties. He was an active, industrious, 
energetic man, always at the post of duty — of considerable 
wit, and the terse humorous sayings which he uttered without 
a smile, are yet quoted in the region where he practiced — 
of kind heart, rich and poor alike received his attendance. 
After the loss of his first wife. Dr. Hubbard remained a 
widower 31 years, and then married Miss Charlotte Corlies, 
who still survives him in her 81st year. He was treasurer 


of the county society in 1816 — secretary 1819 — vice-president 
in 1820 — president in 1827-8 — and the author of an essay on 
" Venereal Disease in Infants," and upon " Irritable Ulcer." 
Five gentlemen, who afterward became well known physi- 
cians, were his pupils, viz : Drs. McKnight, Vanmater, Mor- 
ford, Lefterts, and Wm. Hubbard, his nephew. Although 
never connecting himself with any religious denomination, 
he was (when his professional duties would permit) a regular 
attendant upon the services held in the Presbyterian church 
at Shrewsbury. 

Dr. William Forman was born near New Egypt, in Mon- 
mouth county, N. J., August 17th, 1796, and died at Prince- 
ton of typhoid fever, Feb. 22d, 1848. He studied medicine 
with Dr. Samuel Holcomb, of AUentown, Monmouth county; 
attended two courses of lectures at the University of Penn- 
sylvania, but graduated at the College of Physicians and Sur- 
geons, New York, in 1819. He was examined by the board of 
censors and licensed April 24th, 1820, and admitted a mem- 
ber of the district society of Monmouth in the same year. 
He was its president in 1829, and in 1828 read an essay on 
Calomel, and in 1830 another upon " Traumatic Tetanus." 
He was president of the State society in 1833. He occupied 
in succession a number of important fields of labor. Com- 
mencing with New Egypt — removed to Spotswood, Middle- 
sex county — then Eatontown, Monmouth county — then to 
Paradise, Lancaster county. Pa. — then to AUentown, N. J. — 
then to Princeton in this State, where he died. He is repre- 
sented to have been a man of remarkable talent — a fine scholar 
and a writer of much merit; as a physician he was skillful, 
and among his patrons were some of the best families of 

Dr. Grandin Lloyd was born in Freehold, October 18th, 


1807, and died there, May 30th, 1852 — was an office pupil of 
Dr. John B. Throckmorton. He attended lectures at the 
University of Pennsylvania, was licensed by the medical so- 
ciety of ISew Jersey in June 12th, 1833 — located in Freehold, 
where he practiced until his death. He connected himself 
with the medical society of Monmouth, April, 1844 — was its 
vice-president in 1846 — president in 1846. 

Dr. Lloyd was a successful practitioner — enjoying the confi- 
dence of his patients to a great extent and his memory is still 
held in grateful remembrance for his many good qualities — 
particularly by the poor to whom he was always kind and at- 

Dr. C. C. Blauvelt was born at New Brunswick, August 
20th, 1806, and died at Hightstown, March 28th, 1856, and 
was buried in the cemetery there. 

Dr. Blauvelt received his education at Rutgers college — 
went to Virginia to teach school, and while there studied med- 
icine at the University of Virginia. He returned to New 
Jersey, was licensed by the State medical society — commenc- 
ed practice at Holmdel in this county — remaining two years — 
here he married and connected himself with the county so- 
ciety April 26th, 1831. He then removed to Hightstown, 
Mercer county, still retaining his connection with^ the Mon- 
mouth county organization, of which he was elected vice- 
president in 1883 — ^president in 1834 — and treasurer for 1840, 
and vice-president of State society, probably in 1854. The 
Doctor read several essays before the district society, em- 
bracing the following subjects, viz : — " The Liver," Oct. 29th, 
1832; "Debility," Oct. 28th, 1833; "Intermittent Fever," 
April 27th, 1835 ; "Prolapsus Uteri," April 30th, 1838. 

Dr. Blauvelt was a man of fine personal appearance — above 
the middle height — decidedly intellectual cast of face — ^re- 


markably easy and gentlemanly in manner. His deportment 
in the sick room was remarkably happy — inspiring love, re- 
spect and confidence. A good conversationalist and writer, 
a natural and cultivated musician— of social, obliging dispo- 
sition — in his profession honorable and skillful, it is not to be 
wondered at that he was popular both as a man and physician. 
Few had more or warmer friends. 

Daniel Polhbmus, M. D.,wa8 born September 28th, 1806, 
and died of pneumonia, after a short illness, at Englishtown, 
March 1st, 1868. He studied medicine in the office of Gilbert 
S. Woodhull, and graduated at the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons, New York, in the spring of 1828, and in the same 
year located at Englishtown, where he remained to the time of 
his death. He was licensed by the board of censors of the 
district society of Monmouth, in April, 1828, and admitted a 
member in October of the same year. He was elected vice- 
president in 1831, and president in 1832. He filled the office 
of secretary during 16 years. 

Dr. Polhemus, although constitutionally delicate, and of 
spare frame, yet by care and regular habits was enable to with- 
stand for 80 years the exposure incident to a country practice, 
but succumbed to a disease which he always feared would prove 
fatal to him. A man of irreproachable character, gentle- 
manly in manner — exceedingly neat in personal appearance — 
he enjoyed the respect and esteem of a community with whom 
he mingled for a lifetime. He was buried in the yard at- 
tached to the Tennent church, of which he was a consistent 
member for many years. A handsome monument marks his 
resting place. 

Dr. Wm. L. Debow was bom at Englishtown, Monmouth 
county, N. J., and died October 81st, 1858, aged 43 years ; 
studied with Dr. Daniel Polhemus, and graduated at the 


Maaaacliuaetts Medical College in 1836. He was attached to 
the Northern Dispensary of New York as apothecary and 
physician during six years. His health becoming impaired, 
he removed to Englishtown in 1840, and was associated with 
his brother-in-law. Dr. Polhemus, for several years. His 
health entirely restored — in fact becoming robust — he was 
enabled to perform the duties of his profession, and acquired 
an extensive practice, enjoying an enviable reputation for 
Bkill as a physician and surgeon — both with the community 
and the profession. As a physician he was honorable, and 
observed the ethical rules of our code with scrupulous care, 
of a generous and impulsive character, he could not tolerate 
anything like a mean professional act, and did not hesitate to 
denounce such with all the energy of his nature. His death 
was sudden and unexpected — leaving a wife, a community and 
a large circle of warm personal friends to mourn their loss ; 
an excellent speaker, of fine presence, his remarks upon any 
subject always commanded attention. In the society he often 
brought to notice cases of special interest. He joined the 
society, April 28th, 1845 — was vice-president in 1847 — 
president in 1848. He is interred at Tennent church. 

Dr. John P. Lewis was born in the Highlands of Neversink, 
in the township of Middletown, N. J., on the first of October, 
1788, and died February 27th, 1861. At seven years of age 
he was adopted by his maternal aunt and moved to Shelburn, 
Nova Scotia, where he remained enjoying the benefit of a 
classical school of high reputation. His aunt having died, he 
returned to his native place and continued his studies with 
Rev. John "WoodhuU, D. D., until he was deemed qualified to 
enter, as a medical student, the office of Dr. Aaron Pitney — 
at the same time he attended lectures at the medical depart- 
ment of Columbia college in New York. He was a fellow 


student with Dr. Francis, whose confidence and friendship he 
enjoyed through life. He received his degree and was licens- 
ed by the State in 1810. He commenced practice at Squan ; 
then removed to Eatontown in 1811, where he continued to 
live and practice to the time of his death. He was admitted 
a member of the society in 1820, and was its president in 1853. 
His essay read on that occasion was much admired. Dr. 
Lewis was a very successful practitioner. In surgery he ex- 
celled. To skill he added discretion. For a time he was the 
the surgeon of the entire middle and eastern portion of the 
county. He was always a student in his profession, appro- 
priating new discoveries in medical science and incorporating 
them in his practice. Dr. Lewis was exceedingly mirthful 
and social — given to practical jokes and humorous sayings — 
many of which are traditional, in the neighborhood of Eaton- 
town. His cheerful manner — combined with the faculty of 
at once gaining confidence — had a salutary effect upon his 
patients. From his large fund of anecdotes he was sure to 
draw one applicable to the occasion. The following illustra- 
tions may be given : called in haste to see an old lady who 
had the reputation of being a scold, he found her with a 
dislocated jaw. He remarked, " I never saw you when you 
were so quiet, better leave it so, I guess." He reduced the 
dislocation. Her first remark as he retreated was, " get out, 
you old fool, you come here to insult me." The Doctor laugh- 
ing, departed, observing as he went, " it works as well as 
ever, don't it ? you are all right now." 

Attending a tedious case of labor, he advised the patient, 
who was refractory, " to get up and run around the house," 
which she did and soon lightened her steps by giving birth to 
a fine boy ; the Doctor roaring with laughter at the new ex- 

Having been called to see a hypochondriacal female who had 


been under the treatment of a number of physicians for what 
she was determined to call tape- worms, the Doctor after ex- 
amining her case, informed her husband that if he could keep 
a secret and assist him he would prescribe successfully for her. 
To this he agreed. The Doctor put him to digging until he 
had procured about two quarts of earth worms. These were 
put in a chamber, which at the proper time was slyly placed 
under the bed. He gave his patient a brisk cathartic pre- 
viously telling her that her impressions were right, she had tape- 
worms, but that if she would follow his directions, with the 
operation of the cathartic that night she would be relieved. 
He desired the vessel to be kept for his inspection. Calling 
the next morning she exclaimed, " thank God ! Doctor, I am 
a well woman — that medicine has cured me — look !" And so 
it did ; the Doctor and husband had a hearty laugh over the 
matter and so well kept the secret that the victim of the joke 
knows nothiDg of the ruse to the present day. The Doctor 
received a liberal fee for his ingenuity. 

One of the physicians who had treated this case, meeting 
Dr. Lewis in a narrow road exclaimed, " I never turn out for 
quacks." Dr. L. quickly replied, " I do," and rode on. 

Dr. Lewis was interred in the Episcopal burial ground at 
Shrewsbury. The remains were followed by the Grand Lodge 
of JT. J. of Free and Accepted Masons, of which he was 
Past Grand Master. 

Dr. Edmund W. Allen, was born in the township of 
Shrewsbury, August 14th, 1788, and died May 17th, 1867. 
He studied medicine with Dr. Samuel Tenbrook ; attended 
lectures at the University of Pennsylvania ; was examined 
on the 11th of April, 1810, by Drs. Tenbrook and Charles 
Smith, and on the same day received license at the hands 
of Andrew Kirkpatrick, chief justice, and Wm. Russell, sec- 


ond justice of the State of New Jersey. He began practice 
at Shrewsbury village, the field of his labors during fifty-five 
year^. Constitutionally delicate, he was, nevertheless, by 
judicious care, enabled to preserve unbroken his professional 
labors through life, with the exception of a single interrup- 
tion lasting some two or three months, the result of an ac- 
cident in 1850, which had nearly proved fatal. He mistook 
the condition of a draw-bridge at Eahway, during the dark- 
ness of the night and was precipitated into the river. Both 
in professional and social life he was of the old school — a 
thorough geutleman in manners and feeling. First acquaint- 
ance inspired esteem and confidence. He was friendly with- 
out familiarity — always kind, yet dignified ; remarkably pru- 
dent in speech. To a strong will was added warm feelings — 
always however under admirable control. His judgment 
was sound and memory tenacious. Entirely devoted to his 
profession, all other claims were held subservient to its calls. 
Rich and poor alike received his attention. Firm and self- 
reliant, he was nevertheless singularly modest — never boasting 
of his achievements or attainments. He connected himself 
with the district medical society about the year 1817. He was 
its vice-president in 1822-3 ; its president in 1824 ; secretary, 
1821 and 1827. The disease of which he died was catarrh, 
resulting in phthisis ; confining him to his room for two or 
three months. His mind was clear to the last. A regular 
attendant at the Episcopal church in health, during his final 
illness he connected himself with it, and was interred in its 
burial ground, where a beautiful monument is erected to his 

Dr. R. W. Cookb, son of Dr. Ambrose Ellis Cooke, was 
born January 21st, 1797, at Newton, Sussex county, N". J. 
He studied with his father and Dr. Valentine Mott ; gradua- 
ted at the College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 


In 1820 settled in Holmdel of this county. He died the 27th 
of December, 1867. Dr. Cooke became a member of the dis- 
trict medical society in 1824. Was elected vice-president in 
1828. His communications to the society were many and in- 
teresting. He was remarkable for punctuality in his attend- 
ance upon the meetings. To his profession he devoted all his 
energies. He was a vigorous man, with much courage, en- 
dowed with uncommon prudence and practical sense, and 
above all a man with clearly defined ideas of what he wished 
to do ; with strength of body and mind to make ideas real- 
ities. What he undertook to do he almost invariably did, and to 
this habit of persistency he mainly owed his success in life. 
With these characteristics it is not to be wondered that he 
was a successful physician ; with probably the most extensive 
practice in the county. He was a discreet but bold surgeon, 
exceedingly attentive in the after-treatment of that class of 
patients. We cannot do better than quote the language of 
his pastor. Dr. Reiley, who knew him long and intimately. 
'^ Dr. Cooke was a gentleman at home and abroad. In his in- 
tercourse with the world he was modest, unassuming and def- 
erential, possessing great simplicity of character." To the 
speciality to which he devoted his life, he gave all his energies. 
All his reading and study had one view, the better to qualify 
him for its duties — ^never suffering himself to be come anti- 
quated. His labors in his profession were untiring; not 
allowing himself to be restrained by heat or cold, darkness 
or storms. He indeed seemed to love the work for its 
own sake, with all its toil and privations. He prospered in 
the world, and deservedly so. As a hearer of the gospel he 
was earnest and attentive — his attendance on week day ser- 
vice and prayer meetings in private houses was probably more 
constant than could expected for one with so many and varied 
professional duties. His fatal illness was peritonitis from 


ilio-cecal obstruction — a disease upon which he had written 
an essay many years before and read in the presence of the 
medical society. Dr. Cooke was buried at " the Brick 
Church," near Mariborough. 

Dr. James H. Baldwin, was born near the " burnt tavern," 
Millstone township, Monmouth county, about the year 1897, 
and died in Hopewell township, Somerset county, about 1868. 
He was an office student of Dr. Gilbert S. WoodhuU ; attended 
two courses of lectures at the University of Pennsylvania, and 
was recommended for license by the board of censors of the 
medical society of Monmouth, April 24th, 1820, and admitted 
a member in April 30th, 1821. He was associated in practice 
with Dr. Woodhull for one year, when he removed to Hope- 
well, Somerset county, where he acquired a good practice. 
He was a member of the Baptist church and died respected 
and regretted. 

John Tennent Woodhull, M. D., the son ot Rev. John 
"Woodhull, D. D., was born August 24th, 1786, and died Nov. 
18th, 1869. He was educated at home by his father, but re- 
ceived the honorary degree of A. M., in the year 1812, from 
the College of New Jersey. His medical preceptor was Dr. 
Van Cleave, of Pennsylvania, in 1806. He commenced practice 
in Manalapan, Monmouth county, where he continued until 
he relinquished the business in favor of his younger brother, 
Gilbert S. He was a member of the lower house of the 
State Legislature for several years. After giving up practice 
he resided upon the farm until 1842, when he removed to 
Freehold, where he resumed practice. During part of his time 
he was judge of the county court. In 1866 the Doctor re- 
moved to Camden, where he resided with his eldest son 
until his death. 


Dr. WoodhuU was tall in person, of dignified and gentle- 
manly deportment; precise and deliberate in manners and 
speech; a pleasant companion and an entertaining and in- 
structive conversationalist. Pew men were better known in 
the county, or more respected. He was admitted to the coun- 
ty society, April 29th, 1844; acted as its vice-president in 
1846, and president in 1847. He was interred in the grave 
yard attached to the old Tennent church, of which he was for 
many years a member. 

Db. a. B. Datton, a brother of the late lamented Wm. L. 
Dayton and James B. Dayton of Camden, was bom at Bask- 
ing ridge, Somerset county, December 25th, 1812, and died 
of cholera morbus, on 19th of July, 1870, aged 57. 

His preparatory education was completed at Princeton col- 
lege. He graduated in medicine at the College of Physicians 
and Surgeons, New York in the spring of 1835 ; practiced at 
Chester, Morris county, N. J. a few months; removed to Mat- 
awan, then to Middletown Point in July of the same year, 
and remained in active practice 35 years. 

In his relation to his medical brethren, he was kind, courte- 
ous and honorable. The ethical ruleswhich regulate our profes- 
sional intercourse, he observed with scrupulous care — never 
forward or obtrusive, he applied to his conduct, among his 
medical associates, the scriptural injunction, " in honor pre- 
fering one another." His position in regard to them was 
always of the most pleasant character, and no man's death 
was ever more sincerely mourned by those who might so 
readily have been converted into business rivals and personal 
foes. His professional standing was evinced, by his early elec- 
tion, in 1854, to the position of president of the State society. 
His connection with the district society commenced in April, 
1841. On admission his examination was waived by a unan- 


imous vote. He was made vice-president in the year 1841, 
and president in 1842. A short time before his decease, he 
represented the district society as a delegate to the State so- 
ciety. His name appears upon the roll of permanent mem- 
ber of the National Medical Association. He possessed ora- 
torical and rhetorical powers of a high order — being a grace- 
ful speaker and finished writer. His mind was adorned with 
rare gifts. His deportment gave the true clue to his character, 
that of a refined and cultivated gentleman. His essays and 
communications were always well written and instructive. 
(Among them we notice the following titles : " Review of the 
Principles and Practice of Thorapsonianism," " MoUities Os- 
sium,'* " Inversion of the Uterus, with method of reduction, 
and case illustrated,'* " Cerebro-Spinal Meningitis," " Dry 
Gangrene," " Phlegmonous Erysipelas of penis and scrotum, 
with case.") At his mournful obsequies, surrounding his bier, 
were not only the wealthy and those bound to him by the ties 
of consanguinity, but there stood the poor, the widow and the 
orphan. While down their cheeks trickled the silent tear — 
they seemed a monument more noble, than the loftiest marble, 
be it ever so elaborately and artistically decorated. Dr. Day- 
ton was interred in the beautifully located cemetery, near 

Dr. John R. Conovbr, was born near Freehold in 1813. 
He received a liberal education — studied medicine with Dn 
Howell of Princeton — attended lectures at Fairfield medical 
college in the State of New York, afterwards at the Univer- 
sity medical college in New York city, where he received his 
diploma. He first practiced medicine at Red Bank, N. J., 
where he built up a large practice. In 1841 he was elected 
to the State legislature, where he served three terms. In 
1856 he was elected surrogate of Monmouth county, which 


office he filled for two consecutive terms. In the Spring fol- 
lowing — ^his first election to the office of surrogate — he re- 
moved to Freehold, where he again entered upon the practice 
of his profession which he pursued until his death, on March 
26th, 1871. He joined the Monmouth county medical society 
in 1852. 

Throughout his professional life he was a successful prac- 
titioner, and possessed the confidence, to a high degree, of 
those entrusted to his care. 

Dewitt W. Barclay, M. D., was born in Cranberry, Mid- 
dlesex Co., K J., Feb. 8th, 1818, and died of phthisis 
pulmonalis, at Turkey, Monmouth Co., March 20th, 1867. His 
preliminary education was received at the academy of his 
native place, and his medical studies pursued with Dr. Gan- 
din Lloyd, of Freehold, and at the Crosby street Medical 
College, New York, where he graduated in 1847. Licensed 
by the State Society, April 26th, 1847, he commenced prac- 
tice in partnership with his preceptor, locating himself at 
Turkey, where he acquired an extensive practice, to which he 
assiduously devoted himself for several years, until his health 
required him to desist, when he purchased and moved to a 
farm. Into his agricultural pursuits he carried the same 
. energy which characterized his medical course. After a few 
years, thinking his health re-established, he sold his farm and 
returned to his former location and practice, but the exposure, 
with the irregular habits incident to an active professional 
life, soon lighted up the old disease, and after many attacks, 
with intervals of comparative health, he sickened ; and man- 
fully struggling against his malady, holding onto life with great 
tenacity, full of mental energy to the last, lacking only breath 
to express his solicitude for his orphan children, he died. 

Dr. Barclay was of handsome face, small stature, exceed- 


ingly well fonned, of generous impulsive temperament, quick 
nervous movement, with a remarkably fine expressive eye. 
He connected himself with the Society April 24th, 1848, was 
its Vice-President in 1849, President in 1850. His obsequies 
were conducted with Episcopal ceremony, and his remains 
deposited in the cemetery near Freehold. 

William Dunham Nbwbll, M. D.,* fifth and youngest son 
of James H. and Eliza D. Newell, was bom at Black's Mills, 
Monmouth county, New Jersey, on the 20th day of February, 
1823, and died at Imlaystown, Monmouth county. New Jer- 
sey, on the 22d day of November, 1869, in the forty-seventh 
year of his age. He received classical education at New 
Brunswick, studied medicine with his brother, Azariah D. 
Newell, M. D., and William A. Newell, M. D., graduated at 
the medical college of the District of Columbia in 1844, and 
began the practice of his profession at Imlaystown, where he 
continued to reside until the time of his death. 

During the Rebellion he enlisted as a private in the Army 
of the Union, but was soon thereafter appointed Surgeon to 
the 28th Regiment of New Jersey Volunteers, a position 
which he filled with great skill and acceptance until the expir- 
ation of his term of service. He was present at the first and 
second battles of Fredericksburg, at Chancellorville and other 
minor engagements, was repeatedly exposed to Rebel fire, but 
always conducted his duties with coolness and courage, never 
shrinking from danger. His life was devoted exclusively to 
his professional business, and he had at all times a large and 
lucrative practice. His thorough knowledge of diseases, 
extensive experience, keen perception, sound judgment and 
close application combined to render him eminently success- 

* This notdoe is ftirniulied by his brother, Dr. Wm. A. NewelL 


fill as a practitioner, and gained for him a wide spread and 
well deserved reputation as a physician, not only with the 
people, bat also with his medical brethren, with whom his 
relations were most friendly and intimate. He was possessed 
of extraordinary delicacy of touch and mechanical talent, and 
was a dextrous manipulator. These qualities rendered him 
a successful surgeon, so that in the adjustment of wounds, 
luxations, fractures, applications of splints and bandages, 
and in the management of such other surgical cases as came 
in his practice, he had no superior. He was a constant reader, 
keeping pace with the most advanced ideas and improvements 
in the medical profession, was a close student of history, 
familiar with the best poetry of the language, and was thor- 
oughly versed in current literature. He was an accomplished 
musician, performing well upon almost every variety of instru- 
ment. As a delineator and painter he especially excelled, and 
many of his off-hand productions challenged the admiration 
of masters. Indeed, painting and music were his specialties 
and delight, and had he been so fortunate as to have been 
turned into the current of either of these professions, he could 
not have failed to become a shining light. He was large 
hearted and liberal, and never turned the poor empty away. 
He was a vigorous and athletic gymnast, rapid as a flash, 
and of unerring aim. In person he was dignified and impos- 
ing, and in mien and manner carried the attributes of a true 
gentleman. During his term of service in the army, the 
exposure to which he was subjected induced several severe 
attacks of pneumonia, which, together with a violent injury 
received at the first battle of Fredericksburg, undermined 
his health, and resulted in his death. He died where he had 
lived during all the years of his manhood, beloved by the 
people, at peace with his God and all mankind. His remains 
were interred in the cemetery attached to the Presbyterian 



Church at Allentown, attended to their final and silent home 
by a multitude of sorrowing and loving firiends. 

A partial pen, inspired by the deepest affection, presents 
this tribute, with regret that it must be, of necessity, so brief. 
All who knew Dr. Wm. Dunham Newell will admit that the 
sketch is not overdrawn, and all will testify that when he 
died, a most noble and exalted spirit left the earth. 

'* Early hath the spoiler found thee, 

Brother of our love ! 
Autumn's faded earth around thee, 

And its storms above ! 
Evermore that turf lie lightly, 

And with future showers 
OV thy slumbers, firesjji and brightly. 

Blow the summer flowers. 

If the spirit ever gazes 

From its joumeyings back; 
If the immortal ever traces 

O'er its mortal track I 
WiVt thou not, O brother, meet us 

Sometimes on our way ? 
And, in hours of sorrow, greet us 

As thy spirit may?" 

Mr. Prbsidbnt — Gbntlbmbn : — My task is done, and your 
attention, so patiently given, is released. I cannot conceal 
from myself any more than you can conceal from yourselves, 
my short comings. As a chronicler, mine is " a prentice 
hand," and the materials of my history have been scanty ; 
demanding in the management more skill and experience 
than I possess. As a labor of love, accept it and visit it with 
gentle criticism. I shall feel that I have done much, if I have 
succeeded in " stirring up your pure minds," especially the 
younger members, and inciting you to emulate the private 


and professional virtues of our departed brethren, whose lives 
I have imperfectly traced and who have left us " an example 
that we should follow." Physicians are mortal. We, whose 
mission it is to heal the sick and arrest the hand of death, 
must ourselves sicken and die. Will it not be at once a 
solace and a stimulus, while pursuing our way — often amid 
discouragements which make the spirit droop and the body 
become feeble — to remember that when our labor is done and 
we drop out of earthly existence, 

We shall not be a leaf to die, 
Without recording sorrow's sigh ; 

that something more than a passing notice in the obituary of 
a local newspaper or other ephemeral journal will mark our 
exit — that in the archives of a State Medical Society — not 
only our nameSy but if worthy, our deedSj will be preserved. 

The writer feels under obligations to many members of the 
Society for assistance rendered in this work, by furnishing 
much valuable information to him, relative to deceased mem- 
bers of the Society. To the Rev. Mr. Wilson, he is also in- 
debted for similar favors. 












Edward Taylor, of Upper 

Freehold, May, 1816. 

William G. Re3niolds, 
Samuel Forman, 
Jacobus Hubbard, Jr., 
Edmund W. Allen, 
David Forman, Sr., 
Gilbert 8. WoodhuU, 
John P. Lewis, April 24th, 1820. 
Wm. Forman, " " " 

Jas. H. Baldwin, April 30th, 1821. 
David Forman, Jr., " " « 
William Davis, April 29th, 1822, 
James English, " " " 

James P. Kearney, April, 1824. 
John B. Throckmorton, " " 
Robert W. Cooke, October, 1824. 
David C. English, April 24, 1826. 
JohnMorford, " " " 

J. S. English, April 30th, 1827. 
Edward Taylor, Middletown, 

April 30th, 1827. 
Chas. G. Patterson, " " '' 
Dan'l Polhemus, Oct. 27th, 1828. 
Chas. G. English, April 26, 1829. 
Arthur V. Conover, 
J. C. Thompson, 
C. Blauvelt, April 25th, 1831. 

H. Green, October 29th, 1832. 

A. B. Dayton, April 26th, 1841. 
Wm. A. Newell, April 25th, 1842. 
A. Bergen, April 29th, 1844. 








April 28tti, 1845. 

April 24th, 1848. 

ApriDl 30th, 1849. 
April 29ih, 1850. 
April 26th, 1852. 




Grandin Lloyd, April 29th, 1844. 

John T. Woodhull, 

John Gregg, 

Wm. L. Debow, 

John Vought, 

DeWitt Barclay, 

Robert Laird, 

Selah GuUck, 

W. H. Hubbard, 

A. T. Petit, 

R. R. Conover, April 25th, 1853. 

J. E. Arrowsmith, April 24, 1854. 

T. J. Thomason, April 30th, 1855. 

J. B. Goodenough, 

William C. Lewis, 

E. W. Owen, 

J. C. Thompson, April 28th, 1856. 

A. A. Howell, April 26th, 1858. 

S. M. Disbrow, 

Wm. D. Newell, 

Henry G. Cooke, 

Claudius R Prall, 

A. A. Higgins, 













May 80th, 1859. 




May 28th, 1860. 
May 25th, 1863. 
May 28th, 1866. 




John Cook, 
Charles E. Hall, 
W. W. Palmer, 
J. S. Long, 

C. F. Deshler, 
William S. Combs, May 18, 1868. 
James S. Conover, " " " 
John H. Furman, May 17th, 1869. 

D. McLean Forman, 

May 26th, 1867. 

a (I u 






Samuel Forman, 
Dr. J. Hubbard, 
J. T, Woodhull, 
A. V. Conover, 

April 80th, 1882. 




April 30th, 1858. 
May 30th, 1859. 

R. W. Cooke, May 80th, 1860. 

J. 8. English, May 80th, 1865. 
Edward Taylor, of Middletown, 

May 80th, 1870. 







April 80, 1821. 







Wm. Porman, April 24th, 1820. 

David Forman, Jr., ** " " 

Jas. H. Baldwin, " " " 

J. S. English, October 80th, 1820. 

Eobt. 8. Smith, 

David C. English, 

C. Q. McChesney, 

John C. Budd, 

J. Throckmorton, 

James P. Kearney, 

John Morford, 

Edward Taylor, (of Middletown,) 

April 30th, 1827. 
Charles G. English, Oct. 29, 1827. 
Lewis Carlisle, April 28th, 1828. 
G. A. Hankinson, 

April 29, 1822. 

Oct. 29, 1823. 

April, 1824. 




Jos. C. Thompson, April 28, 1828. 

Daniel Polhemus, " " " 

A. E. Perrine, April 26th, 1829. 

A. V. Conover, 

Charles Ellis, 

Benj. H. Stratton, " 

John C. Davis, " 

John Gregg, April 28th, 1845. 

Wm. L. Debow, 

Aaron Reid, 

DeWitt Barclay, AprU 26th, 1847. 

R. T. Stoutenborough, 

April 26th, 1847. 
John Vought, April 24th, 1848. 
Robert Laird, April 80th, 1849. 
A. T. Petit, April 26th, 1852. 























1816.. Wm. G. Reynolds. 
1819..Bdward Taylor, ? 
of Upper Freehold, f 

1820. .Edward Taylor. 

1821. .Samnel Forman. 
Gilberts. Woodhnll. 

.Gilberts. Woodhnll. 

.EdmaDdW. Allen. 

.EdmandW. Allen. 
1826. . Jame«! EngliPh. 
1827. . JacobuB Habbard. 
1828. . JacobuB Hubbard. 
1829.. William Forman. 
1880. .William Forman. 
1881.. Edward Taylor, » 

of Mlddletown. f 
1882. .Daniel Polhemns. 
1&%3. . J. S. English. 
1834.. C. Blanvelt. 
1835.. H.Green. 
ia36..A. V. Conover. 
1837.. CO. Blanvelt. 
ia38..R. W. Cooke. 
1839... J, 8. English. 

1840. .Edward Taylor. 

1841. .A. V. Conover. 
1W2,.A. B. Davton. 
lH43..Wm. A. Newell. 
1844..R. W. Cooko. 
1845. .Alfred IJcrjj^en. 
1846...Grandin Lloyd. 
1847. .J. T. Woodhnll. 
l.-v4.S..Wm. L. Debow. 
1849.. D. W.Barclay. 
ISTO. .John Voupht. 
1S51.. Robert Laird. 
1S52. . J. P. Lewis, 

, R. R. Conover. 

.A. T. Petit. 

.William H. Hnbbard. 

.tl. E. Arrowsmitb. 

.T. J. Thomason. 

.Jos. B. Goodenougb. 

.A. A. Howell. 

.Stephen M. Disbrow. 
18H1..H. G.Cooke. 
1862.. William 1). Newell. 
lH>:^..Alfred B. Dayton. 
18()4... John Cook. 
18<J5..WllllamD. Newell. 
18r)6..A. A. Hicjrins. 
1W)7..C. F. Deshler. 
18(58.. S. 8. Louff. 
1869..W. 8. Combs. 

1870. .James 8. Conover. 

1871. .D. McLean Forman. 



Edward Tavlor. 
Edmund W. Allen. 

Jacobus Hnbbard. 
Gilbert S. Woodhnll. 
Edmund W. Allen. 
Edmund W. Allen. . 
D. Fonnan. Sr. 
James Ent^lish. 
Jacobus Hubbard. 
James English. 
R. W. Cooke. 
C. G. Patterson. 
John Throckmorton. 
Daniel Polhemns. 

J. S. English. 
C. Blanvelt. 
Edward Taylor. 
A. V. Conover. 

C. C. Blanvelt. 
Edward Taylor. 
J. 8. English. 
Edward Taylor. 
A. V. Conover. 
A. B. Dayton. 
Wiliam A. NeweU. 
R. W. Cooke. 
Alfred Bergen. 
Grandin Lloyd. 

J. T. WoodhulL 
William L. Debow. 

D. W. Barclay. 
John Vought. 
Robert Laird. 
D. W. Barclay. 
R. R. Conover. 
A. T. Petit. 
William H. Hubbard. 
J. E. Arrowsmitb. 

T. J. Thomason. 
Jos. B. Goodenougb. 
A. A. Howell. 
8. M. Di«»brow. 
H. G. Cooke. 
W. D. Newell. 
Alfred B. Dayton. 
John Cook- 
W. D. Newell. 
D. W. Barclay. 
Charle>« E. Hall. 
8. 8. Long. 
W. a. Combs. 
James 8. Conover. 
D. McLean Forman. 


Samuel Forman. 
Jacobus Hubbard. 

Samuel Fordman. 
Edmund W. Allen. 
J. H. Baldwin. 
D. Forman, Jr. 

D. Forman, Jr. 
R. W. Cooke. 
R. W. Cooko. 

E. W. Allen. 

J. S. English, 
ti it 

it Ik * 

R. W. Cooke. 




Edward Tavlor. 
Daniel Polhemns. 




John Vought. 

It iT 




































J. Hnbbard. 
Samuel Forman. 

Wm. G Reynolds. 
It tt 



Samuel FoimAn. 
G. S. Woodhnll. 




D. English. 

it tt 

It tt 

if it 

it tt 

It it 

A. V. Conover. 
tt <t 

ti It 

C. C. Blanvelt. 

R. W. Cook, 
if it 

Edward Taylor. 















T. J. Thomason. 
it tt 


or THX 

Medical Men, and of the District Medical Society, 

or THB 

County of Cumberland, New Jbrsbt. 

fin 1867, as the District Medical Society of Cumberland county was approaching 
the celebration of its semi-centennial anniversary, Drs. 'Robert M. Bateman, Enoch 
Fithian and J. Barron Potter were appointed " to prepare a History of the Cumber- 
land county District Medical Society, from its organization to the present time, and 
also such historical reminiscences as may be attainable, respecting medical men in 
the county, prior to the organization of the Society."] 

It would be an easy matter to write the history of the med- 
ical men of Cumberland county, if the facts were at hand of 
which it is desired to make a record ; but it becomes difficult 
when the information necessary for such a history is to be 
sought for in places difficult of access, when it eludes the 
most diligent search where it wias confidently expected it 
might be found, and at the expense of much journeying and 
extensive correspondence. 

It is difficult in the year 1870 to ascertain who were the 
practitioners of medicine and surgery in Cumberland county 
from its first settlement, about the year 1680, until Elijah 
Bowen commenced the practice of medicine, at or near Shiloh, 
about the year 1730. It would be interesting to know who 
preceded him; who were his contemporaries in medical 
practice, if he had any ; who some of his immediate succes- 


flors were ; what was the extent of their literary and medical 
acquirements, their mental capacity, from whom they received 
their education, what books they read, what medicines they 
prescribed, or what were their surgical appliances. The narra- 
tor has not been able to elicit much from the obscurity of these 
by-gone years, and a great deal that he records is traditionary 
and conjectural. 

At the first settlement of the county, the inhabitants were 
so few, and so widely separated from each other, that a prac- 
titioner of medicine could not by his profession alone, obtain 
a livelihood, and the treatment of diseases, as is usually the 
case in newly settled countries, fell into the hands of canny 
old women and ignorant pretenders. It is quite probable 
that the pioneers of Cumberland county had occasional re- 
course to the medicine man of the aborigines, who had some 
knowledge of the medical properties of many of the indigen- 
ous plants of the country, and used them with not infrequent 
success. Some of their external appliances, as styptics and 
cataplasms, and internal remedies, as emetics, sudorifics and ca- 
thartics, were doubtless used with occasional benefit. Pow- 
wowing was often resorted to, either as the principal means of 
cure, or as auxiliary to the internal wrenchings and external 
steaming to which the patient was subjected. As a cure for 
rheumatism, the Indians sometimes built a fire on the ground, 
and after it was sufficiently heated, removed the coals, covered 
the heated surface with boughs of hemlock or pine, threw 
over the boughs, skins or blankets on which they placed the 
patient, warmly covered and then completed the process by 
throwing water upon the hot earth, and this raised a steam 
which circulated around the body of the patient, and doubt- 
less sometimes proved as efficacious in causing diaphoresis, 
and removing diseases, as the somewhat similar process of 
the steam doctors of the present day. This method was known 


in Cumberland county, eighty or ninety years ago, as the 
" Nova Scotia cure for rheumatism," but was doubtless de- 
rived from the Indians. A process not unlike the foregoing 
is described by Smith, in his History of New Jersey, pub- 
lished in 1765, who says that the Indians " were very studious 
in observing the virtues of roots and herbs, by which they 
usually cured themselves of many bodily distempers, both 
by outward and inward applications. They, besides, frequent- 
ly used sweating and the cold bath. The manner was to first 
inclose the patient in a narrow cabin, in the midst of which 
was a red hot stone ; this frequently wet with water, occasioned 
a warm vapor ; the patient sufficiently wet with this and his 
own sweat, was hurried to the next creek or river, and plung- 
ed into it ; this was repeated as often as necessary, and some- 
times great cures were performed. But this rude method at 
other times killed, notwithstanding the hardy nature of the 
patients ; especially in the small pox and other European dis- 
orders." It is traditionary that in the old " French war" (the 
colonial war with the French in 1756) when the necessary 
appliances for wounds could not be procured, or only with 
the greatest difficulty, the Indians were observed by the reg- 
ular army surgeons to prepare the bark of the slippery elm, by 
bruising and maceration in hot water, and make excellent 
poultices of it for gun-shot and other wounds. The surgeons 
found this preparation to be an excellent substitute for 
poultices of bread and milk. Many other Indian remedies 
have found their way into regular practice, and are described 
in the various works on therapeutics. Much of the virtue of 
Indian remedies was ascribed to incantation, pow-wowing and 
charms which — alas for poor human nature ! — are still esteem- 
ed by some weak, credulous and superstitious people, as 
greatly efficacious in removing diseases. 
In the early settlement of the country, the pr .tioners of 


medicine were generally self-constituted, and had no other 
medical qualifications than such as are possessed by every 
temerarious quack of the. present day. The accidental pos- 
session of a few medical recipes or a medical book, with a 
knowledge of some of the remedial means of the aborigines 
constituted their stock in trade^ and were deemed qualifications 
amply suflSlcient for a self-confident empiric to dub himself doc- 
tor, and practice upon the ignorance and credulity of his 
neighbors. As the population of the country gradually in- 
creased, a better and more intelligent class of practitioners 

ELIJAH BOWEN, is the earliest practitioner of medicine in Cumber- 
land county, of whom the writer has been able to obtain information. His 
grand-father, Richard Bowon/ with others of his countrymen, came from 
Wales in the year 1640, and settled at a place in Massachusetts, which they 
named Swansey, after the town from whence they emigrated. Doctor Elijah 
Bo wen was for a time resident in Rhode Island, from whence he removed to 
a place in the then county of Salem, but now in Cumberland county, near 
Shiloh, where he was married to Deborah Swinney, a daughter of Deborah 
Swinney, who — I copy from her tomb stone — " was the first white female 
child bom in Cohansey." He was probably the first medical practitioner in 
Cumberland county whose profession was not subsidiary to some other call- 
ing as the main business of life. He probably commenced the practice of 
medicine, at or near Shiloh, about the year 1730, and is said by Colonel 
Johnson, in his history of Salem, to have been one of the founders of the 
Seventh-day Baptist church at Shiloh. Of his mental abilities, medical 
acquirements, general character, or the extent of his practice, no informa- 
tion has been obtained. It is traditional that his medicines were exclusively 

From the journal of a resident of Greenwich, under the date, Sunday, 
September 26th, 1773, the following is copied — " Last Thursday, (September 
23) died very old, Dr. Elijah Bowen. He has been many years childish, and 
wholly incapable of any kind of business." 

He was interred in the cemetery of the Seventh- day Baptist church at 

There needs no great fertility of imagination to picture this pioneer of 


the medical profession in the new country — ^mounted on his easy-paced 
horse — equipped for a day^s ride among his patients. His capacious pockets 
and still more voluminous saddle-bags are filled to distension with a few 
seeds, roots and leaves of foreign growth ; and a more ample supply of those 
indigenous to the soil around him, such as he deems necessary to meet the 
indications of disease presented for treatment. We see him pursuing his 
devious way along the uncertain paths, leading through the tall forests from 
one lonely clearing to another, where the log-cabin and the corn-field has 
dispossessed the panther, the bear and the deer of their nightly lair and 
trackless haunts. Occasionally he dismounts from his horse for the purpose 
of replenishing his herbarium with choice specimens of the plants he prizes, 
as they catch his eye. Not unfrequently a deer crosses his path ; more rarely, 
in the gloaming, his horse's foot-steps startle the panther and the bear, and 
often the darkness or the storm compels him to seek refuge in the cabin and 
share the rough couch of the hardy pioneer. But he has disappeared from 
the scene. The arcana of his herbarium could not stay his passage to the 
house appointed for all living ; and in his place, on the same field of prac- 
tice, we behold the modem Esculapius driving over a smooth turnpike, in 
his handsome vehicle, with his case of russet leather, stored with articles of 
unintelli^ble names, that would have filled the old herbalist with wonder, 
and pity for the poor sufferers to whom such poisonous trash was adminis- 

ELUAH BO WEN, Jb., son of the above named Elijah Bowen and Debo- 
rah Swinney, was bom in the year 1714. He settled as a physician near 
Roadstown, where tradition says he had an extensive practice. Like Syden- 
ham, whose work on the practice of medicine probably he had read, his 
medicines were principally, if not wholly, derived from the vegetable king- 
dom. Sydenham excluded every thing outside of the vegetable kingdom 
from his list of remedies for disease, except " sweet mercury," now called 
protoxhloride of mercury or calomel. Whether Dr. Bowen admitted this 
article among Ms curative means is not known. It is said that the wild car- 
rot — daucus carota— was introduced into this country by him, which is 
doubtfol, but, if trae, it will be thought by agriculturists, that whatever 
' efficacy it may have had as a medicine is no compensation for the injury 
done by it to the farming interests of the country. More than fifty years ago 
the writer was informed by an aged man, who was personally acquainted with 
Dr. Bowen, th'at he had known him, on visiting a patient, to go into the 
fields, woods, or swamps, and search for such remedies, in the form of leaves, 


seeds, roots, or bark of herbs or trees, as he supposed were calculated to 
meet the requirements of the case. He resided in the brick house, in Stoe 
Creek township, lately owned by Edgar Sheppard, where he died, nearly 
eight years previous to the death of his father. He was interred in an old 
grave yard in Hopewell, about a mile east from Sheppard's milL A stone at 
the head of his grave bears the following inscription : 

Elijah Bowbn, 

Dec'd December 21, 1765, 

Aged 51 years. 

JAMES JOHNSON lived and practiced medicine, in the neighborhood of 
Roadstown, one hundred and ten years ago, and for how long previous to 
that time is not known to the writer, nor the place of his birth, his educa- 
tion, nor with whom he pursued his medical studies. The following account 
of him was furnished the writer by one of his descendants, James J. Reeves, 

" Doctor James Johnson came to this country from 'England, it is sup- 
posed, when young, and settled in Connecticut (doubtless in the township of 
Darbe, Connecticut colony.) He came thence to New Jersey, settled^first in 
Bridgeton, and afterwards moved towards Roadstown. His practice was 
very extensive, embracing a circuit of more than fifty miles. The doctor 
married the daughter of an Indian chief, a woman said to be possessed of 
great beauty. It was supposed by some, that an inducement for his marriage 
to the chiefs daughter was her supposed possession of many secrets in the 
healing art. ***** xhis daughter of the chief was only half 
Indian, her mother being a white. The doctor was married and had two 
children when he came from Connecticut to New Jersey." 

He is supposed to have been one of the most respectable physicians of his 
time, in Cumberland county. A remedy for erysipelas, and some other affec- 
tions, known as the '^ black salve," for many years after his death of great 
repute in the community on the west side of the Cohansey, was introduced 
into the county by him, and made and sold by his daughter after the death of 


her father, and until her own decease. He lived on and owned the farm now 
belonging to Stillman Sheppard, about one and a half miles north-east from ^ 
Roadstown. His only daughter was married to John Reeves, a deacon of 
the Presbyterian church at Greenwich, who was the anftestor of many very 
respectable persons bearing the name of Reeves, in Bridgeton and other 
places. He probably practiced medicine in Cumberland county for twenty 


years or more.- A stone at the head of his grave, in the cemetery of the 
Presbyterian church at Greenwich, bears the following inscription : 

Here lieth the body of 

Dr. James Johnson, 

Who departed this life May 26th, 1759, 

Aged 63 years and 6 months. 

SAMUEL WARD. — The name of Samuel Ward commences, in the order 
of time, a list of names of a more respectable and intelligent class of physi- 
cians in this region— the west side of Cohansey — than those who preceded 
him. He was bom in the State of Connecticut in the year 1786. No infor- 
mation has been obtained concerning his parentage, or his general and medi- 
cal education. From a political paper, written and published by him, and 
from the esteem and respect ^in which he was held by the most intelligent 
people in the community, it is Inferred that his mind and education were of 
a better order than common. He commenced the practice of medicine in 
Greenwich about the year 1760, and soon made a favorable impression upon 
the community as to his natural and acquired talents and skill as a physi- 
cian. The writer was informed, by one who knew him well, that of his 
personal history and qualifications as a practitioner of medicine but little 
was known of him by the people of Greenwich previous to his coming into 
the place, and that his prospect of success in obtaining practice was conse- 
quently not favorable, when, to completely extinguish his hope of success, as 
it might have been supposed, a young man, whose name is not recollected, 
with the best of recommendations to some of the most influential people of 
the place, appeared as a competitor upon a field of practice that could sup- 
port not more than one physician. The newly arrived practitioner was called 
upon to reduce a dislocation, which he failed to accomplish, when Dr. Ward 
was called, who effected a reduction with but little apparent difficulty. This 
case occasioned the disappearance of the young stranger from the place, and 
firmly established Dr. Ward as a surgeon in the good opinion of the people. 
Soon after his settlement in Greenwich he was united by marriage to Phebe 
Holmes, daughter of Jonathan Holmes, Esq., and Anna his wife, and tvas 
thus connected with one of the most respectable and infiuential families of 
the county. 

Dr. Ward took an active part ,in the political affairs of his day. The 
writer has read an article of considerable length, written and published by 
him more than one hundred years ago, on some of the subjects which agi- 
tated the political parties of that day, which, though well written, as to 
style, and exhibiting knowledge and acuteness, was satirical, caustic, and 


personal, and doubtless greatly irritatiDg to his political opponents. Dr. 
Ward was dignified in his demeanour, courteous, affable and kind. He was 
a tender husband and a good citizen. He left no children. His widow was 
married to Dr. Samuel Bloomfield, of Woodbridge, N. J., the father of 
Joseph Bloomfield, a former governor of New Jersey. On the marble that 
covers his grave, in the cemetery of the Presf>yterian church at Greenwich, 
is the following inscription : 



Samuel Wabd, 

Who departed this life 

February 27, 1774, 

In the 38 year of his age. 

This Inscription 

Is a small tribute to the memory of 

The once humane, generous and just. 

The uniform friend. 

The tender husband, 

The assiduous and successful physician, 

The lover of his country, 

and the 

Real Christian. 

• The last end of the good man is peace. 

THOMAS EWING was a great-grandson of Finley Ewing, an Irish 
patriot, who, for his bravery at the battle of Boyne Water, on the first of 
July, 1690, was presented with a sword by King William, — and the son of 
Maskell and Mary Ewing. He was bom at Greenwich, N. J., September 
13th, 1748. Further information concerning Dr. Thomas Ewing is supplied 
by the Ewing family records. 

In his boyhood he attended the classical school of Rev. Enoch Green, at 
Deerfield, where he studied Latin, and afterwards studied medicine under 
the direction of Dr. Samuel Ward of Greenwich. On the 30th of Septem- 
ber, 1770, he was married to Sarah Fithian, only daughter of Samuel and 
Abigail Fithian, of Greenwich, and thus came into the possession of a large 
estate. Shortly after their marriage they moved to Cold Spring, Cape May, 
where he practiced medicine. After the death of Dr. Ward, early in the year 
1774, they returned to Greenwich, where he continued in professional prac- 
tice to near the close of his lifb. He was one of the spirited young men 
corcemed in burning the tea at Greenwich, as related by the late Robert G. 
Johnson, in his Historical Account of Salem. When the war of the Revolu- 
tion commenced he was unanimously appointed by the convention of his 
State, the Surgeon of a brigade to be raised in the lower counties. At the 
same time he was appointed by the Legislature, and commissioned, Major 


of the Second Battalion of the Cumberland regiment, commanded by Col. 
David Potter, in which capacity he joined the army, whether as Surgeon 
or Major, is not known. He was present at the battle and disastrous retreat 
from Long Island, and narrowly escaped being captured. He was brought 
home, sick with the camp-fever. In the course of the war he made a voyage 
to St. Eustatia in the letter-of-marque brig Hibernia, Capt. Collins. Upon 
their return they sustained a severe action with an English sloop of war, and 
were successful in beating her off. When the engagement was over, the brig 
was so nearly in a sinking condition that the commander hailed the sloop, 
crying that they surrendered, and desired to be taken on board. The an- 
swer returned was that they might sink and go to perdition. The accounts 
of the day represent the affair, in consequence of the disparity of the force 
engaged, as one of the most gallant and successful performed by a private 
vessel of war, in the course of the Revolution. In the year 1779, Dr. Ewing 
again embarked on board of the privateer General Wayne, Capt. Collins, 
bound upon a cruise. After making several captures, the General Wayne 
was driven on shore, near the mouth of Great Egg Harbor, by a heavy ship 
of war. 

In the year 1781 he was elected a member of the State Legislature. After 
his return from the Legislature his health declined rapidly, and on the 7th 
of October, 1782, consumption terminated his active, useful, and honorable, 
though comparatively brief life. His practice was extensive, and he rode 
altogether on horseback, endured great fatigue, was exposed to heat, cold, 
and rains, and thus, as with his medical preceptor, it was thought his death 
was hastened. He was five feet ten inches in height, slim built, with dark 
complexion, black eyes and hair. He had two children, Samuel Fithian, 
who died young, and William Belford, who wUl be the subject of further 
notice in these memoirs. He was interred in the cemetery of the Presbyte- 
rian church at Greenwich. The marble that covers his grave is thus 

inscribed : 

Thomas Ewing, Esq., 



Practitioner in Physic, 

After having served his country. 

With fidelity and reputation. 

In a variety of important ofiices, 

Civil and Military, 

Died, highly beloved. 

And much lamented, 

October 7th, 1782, 

In the 85th year of his age.^ 


LEVI- BOND.— Dr. Bond came to Greenwich from Maryland, where, 
probably, he was born and studied medicine, though other accounts say that 
he was born in Virginia, and studied medicine under the direction of Dr. 
Elijah Bowen the younger. The time of his settling in Greenwich cannot 
now be ascertained, but he commenced the practice of medicine in that 
place before the formation of the New Jersey Medical Society. At one time 
his practice was extensive, l)ut declined as he advanced in years. He 
removed from Greenwich to the State of Indiana, in or about the year 1838, 
where he lived till he was more than ninety years old. 

Dr. Bond was courteous in his manners, kind, honest, and much respected. 
He was conscientious. Believing the receipt of interest for money loaned to 
be usury, in the sense in which it is condemned in the sacred scriptures, he 
would not receive it, though he cheerfully lent money without interest to 
those in whom he could confide. He very rarely attended religious services 
in any church, though so far an observer of the seventh day of the week as 
a Sabbath, that the shutters of his office were regularly closed, and no work 
permitted on his premises on that day. He was thrice married. His first 
wife was Rebecca Burr, his second wife Ann Paxton, and his third wife 
Eliza Brown. Two of his children by his first wife are yet living : a daugh- 
ter, now in the eighty-second year of her age, and a son somewhat younger. 
In person, Dr. Bond was tall and spare. His style of dress, which, in early 
life, might have been fashionable, he never changed, hence his tall and slim 
figure, arrayed so differently from otjier men, made a decided impression 
upon those who saw him for the first time. ' The writer was favored by his 
daughter with the following obituary notice, originally published in one of 
the Bridgeton newspapers : 

" Died, on the 3d inst.. Dr. Levi Bond, aged 93 years. Having spent the 
greater part of his life in Greenwich, in the practice of his profession, in the 
year 1836 he removed to Rosehurg, Union county, Indiana, where, "as a 
shock of com fully ripe for the harvest," he was gathered into the gamer of 
his God. His urbanity of manners and integrity of character gained for 
him universal respect, and by many, to whom, when diseased, he was a suc- 
cessful minister and sympathizing friend, he will be held in grateful and 
affectionate remembrance." 

ELI AYRES.— Dr. Joseph Fithian, of Woodbury, has furnished moat of 
the information concerning Dr. Ayres which has been obtained. 

He was born either in Shiloh, or near that place. The names of his parents 
have not been ascertained, nor any particulars concerning his early education 


and medical studies. He was liberally educated, and of studious habits. 
He qualified himself for his profession by the best helps accessible. A 
recommendation from the Board of Censors obtained for him a license to 
practice medicine in New Jersey. Whether he commenced professional busi- 
ness in his native place, as some suppose, has not been ascertained ; but about 
the year 1810 he settled and practiced medicine at Clarksborough, a village 
about four miles from Woodbury, and soon after removed to the last named 
place, to fill the vacancy made by the retirement of Dr. Dayton Lummis 
from professional business. He there had a large practice, which he retained 
as long as he remained in Woodbury. In the year 1816, he invited Dr. 
Joseph Fithian, who was then practicing medicine at Swedesborough, to 
unite with him Ib professional business at Woodbury. The proposition was 
accepted, and proved an agreeable association for both. 

In the year 1818, Dr. Ayres entered into an arrangement with the Mary- 
land Colonization Society, as an agent to purchase land on the coast of 
Africa, on which to found a colony of " Freedmen." In the " Life of Archi- 
bald Alexander, D. D.," by his son, James W. Alexander, D. D., it is related 
that " Captain Robert F. Stockton, accompanied by Dr. Ayres, effected the 
purchase of Messarado from the natives, by a series of prudent and heroic 
acts, which almost savour of romance." Their advi^ntures with King Peter, 
who claimed that part of the coast selected for the colony, were of a roman- 
tic character, and attended with much risk, but terminated successsfully. 
The crew of the ship in which the Doctor returned from Africa, was so much 
reduced by sickness, that he, though feeble, slowly convalescing from fever, 
with only one sailor to assist him, was under the necessity of navigating the 
ship. After he returned from Africa he settled at Baltimore, and again 
entered upon the practice of his profession. 

In person, Dr. Ayres was of the middle size, slender, lithe, active, and 
capable of much endurance. His intellect was superior, quick in its opera- 
tions, which enabled him to meet and overcome diflSculties, where others 
would falter or fail. His manners were genteel, his feelings tender and sym- 
pathetic. He was popular, especially in the sick room. 

He was twice married, but left no children. 

BENJAMIN PECK. — Benjamin Peck was of a respectable family in Deer- 
field, and was probably bom in that place. Nothing has been ascertained 
respecting his early education. He studied medicine under the direction of 
Dr. Elijah Bowen, Jr. He resided in a small village in the township of Stoe 
Creek, called Irish Town, but which in later times is generally reckoned as 


a part of Roadstown. His practice it is believed was never extensive. He 

was twice married, first to Powell, and surviving her, to Sabra Wood- 

ruflf. He had children by both wives, none of whom are living. He died 
about the year 1805, and was interred in the cemetery of the Presbyterian 
Church at Greenwich. 

JONATHAN MOOKE.— Jonathan Moore was the eld^t son of Colonel 
David Moore and Lydia Richman, of Deerfield, where he was born, probably 
in the year 1772. His father was an ofiicer of artillery in the revolutionary 
army, took part in' the battle of Brandy wine, and was wounded in the battle 
of Qermantown. It is not known who directed his medical studies. He 
practiced medicine for several years at Deerfield, and then removed to Bus- 
tleton, Pennsylvania, where he remained till his death, which probably 
occurred in the Autumn of 1812. He was interred at Bustleton. 

THOMAS HARRISON McCALLA, son of John McCalla and Jane 
Harrison, was bom in the city of Philadelphia, where he was educated. 
He pursued medical studies with so much zeal and success as ultimately to 
gain for himself an enviable standing as a physician. He practiced medi- 
cine in Greenwich, Cumberland County, N. J., some time between the years 
1790 and 1800. He changed his residence to Charleston, South Carolina, 
where he soon became distinguished as a physician. He was for some 

years Poor Physician of that city. He was married to Miss Barksdale, 

of Charleston, by whom he had a daughter, who died a few days after her 
marriage, and lel't him childless. He did not long survive her. Like the 
most of his family, he was possessed of more than ordinary mental endow- 
ments. It is regretted that no further account of this distinguished phy- 
sician has been obtained. 

ARCHIBALD CAMPBELL McCALLA, son of John and Jane Harri- 
son McCalla, was bom in the city of Philadelphia, on the 7th day of 
February, 17C3. Of his early mental training the writer has leamed but 
little more than that he was well educated. He studied medicine, prob- 
ably, with his elder brother. Dr. Thomas H. McCalla, and commenced the 
practice of his profession in Salem, N. J. He was united by maniage to 
Miss Margaret Patterson, on whom it would be diflUcult to bestow praise 
adequate to her merits. His parents, vnth other members of the family, 
were driven by the unusual virulence of the yellow fever, in 1798, from 


Philadelphia, and found refuge in Roadstown, Cumberland County, N. J., 
where Mr. Mc Calla, the father, purchased a house and a few acres of land, 
which became his home for the remainder of his life. Dr. Mc Calla, prob- 
ably for the sake of being near his parents, who were aged and infirm, 
moved from Salem to a smal\/arm in Stoe Creek township, near Roadstown, 
where he practiced medicine, till, on the death of his last parent, he 
changed his residence to the house left vacant by her decease. After this 
removal, in consequence of severe and frequent attacks of gout, he was un- 
able to do much professional business. In his early days, associated with, 
and assisted by his young friend, Robert Fulton, celebrated for having 
made the first practical application of steam to the propelling of vessels, he 
had taken lessons in drawing and painting ; and later in life, by taking por- 
traits of his friends and neighbors, and drawing from the natural scenery 
around him, he employed many of his hours of exemption from the pains 
of his disease. He had, besides, a fine taste for music, and delighted his 
friends with his performances upon the piano, flute and violin. He had 
read extensively, and his mind was well stored with information on a great 
variety of subjects. He continued to be an industrious reader as long as 
he lived. 

A memorial stone, in the cemetery of the Presbyterian church, at Green- 
wich, bears the following inscription : 


Memory of 

Ds. Abchibald Campbell McCalla, 

Who was bom February 11th, 


And died June 16th, 


LEWIS HOWELL, son of Ebenezer and Sarah Howell, was bom in 
Delaware, Oct. 25th, 1754. He was a twin brother of the Hon. Richard 
H., Governor of New Jersey. It is said that the family name was originally 
BoeU^ and that the *^ w ^^ was interpolated at or about the time of the elec- 
tion of Richard H., as Governor of the State. 

Lewis Howell was educated at Newark, Del., and removed with his 
parents to Cumberland Co., in 1769. He became a pupil in the office of 
Dr. Jonathan Elmer, at the same time that Ebenezer Elmer was study- 
ing medicine there. Having finished his course of study, he was commis- 
sioned in 1777 as surgeon of the 2nd regiment in the army of the Revolution. 


His fellow-student -Dr. Ebenezer Elmer — was commissioned at the same 
time in the same regiment as surgcon^s mate. 

Just before the battle of Monmouth, Dr. Howell was taken ill with fever, 
at a small tavern not far from Monmouth Court-house, and died there on the 
day of the battle. Dr. Ebenezer Elmer succ^ded him as surgeon of the 

JOHN T. HAMPTON was born in the neighborhood of Swedesboro', in 
1753. But little is known of his early history. He removed to Cedarville, 
while yet young, and commenced the practice of medicine, living in a large 
double house below the hotel. He married Mrs. Mercy Westcott, widow of 
Amos Westcott, who survived the doctor many years. He was a member 
of the "Old Stone Church," of Fairfield, and a ruling elder. Of his char- 
acter as a physician nothing is known. 

A large, flat tombstone, at the south end of the old church, marks his 
last resting place. The brick base is beginning to crumble, and the letter- 
ing upon the marble has been sadly defaced by the ruthless elements ; but a 
patient study enables us to decipher the following inscription : 

" Here lies the body of Doct. John Thomas Hampton, who departed this 
life, Sept. 29th, 1794, in the 42nd year of his age. 

Why do we mourn departing friends, 

Or shake at death's alarms ? 
'Tis but the voice that Jesus sends 

To call them to his arms. 

Are we not tending, upward too. 

As fast as time can move ? 
Nor should we wish our hours iaore slow, 

To keep us from our love. 

Why should we tremble to convey 

Their bodies to the tomb ? 
There the dear flesh of Jesus lay, 

And left a long perfume. 

The graves of all the saints he blest, 

And softened every bed ; 
Where should the dying members rest, 

But with their dying Head ? 

JAMES RAMSEY was bom in Fairfield township, Cumberland Co., and 
was the son of the Rev. William Ramsey, of Irish descent, who was licensed 
and ordained by the Abingdon Presbytery, in 1756, and settled in Fair- 


field, where his ardent piety and eloquence succeeded in producing harmony 
in the Presbyterian church, then divided. It is not known with whom the 
son. Dr. James Ramsey, studied medicine. In 1783, he entered into partner 
ahip with the late Dr. Ebenezer Elmer — soon after the return of the latter 
from the army ; but the partnership was speedily dissolved, owing, it is 
supposed, to the bad habits of Dr. Ramsey. The latter then removed to 
Pennsylvania, and died while yet young. 

JOHN FITHIAN, resided in Bridgeton, and is supposed to have prac- 
ticed medicine here. In 1751, he built him a house on the south side of 
Broad street, next above the residence of Charles E. Elmer, Esq. But little 
is recorded of him. He is said to have had a singularly worded sign, which 
he was in the habit df hanging upon the front of his house in clear weather, 

something to this effect : 

Dr. John Ftthian, 
Medical Doctor. 

This was undoubtedly to attract attention, and invite patronage. From 
the little that we can learn of him, he did not command very largely the 
confidence of the conmiunity. His practice was limited. 

CHARLES HOOD, was bom in 1788, and died while yet young. He is 
believed to have practiced medicine for a short time in the village of Swedes- 
borough. The diploma granted him by the State is still preserved by his 
descendants, and may be of historical interest. It reads as follows : 

State op New Jersey : 

This will certify that we. Doctors Ebenezer Elmer and Benjamin Champ- 
ncys, in pursuance of an Act of the Legislature, passed at Trenton, the 
twenty-sixth day of November, in the year of our Lord seventeen hundred 
and eighty-three, and a supplement thereto, passed the second day of 
November, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty- 
dz, have this day examined Mr. Charles Hood, and he having given us 
satisfactory proof of his skill as a physician and surgeon, we do hereby re- 
commend him as a proper person to receive a license, to practice in the said 
fiwxulties throughout the State of New Jersey. 

In testimony whereof, we have hereunto subscribed our names, and affixed 
our seals, at Bridgeton, West New Jersey, the thirteenth day of March, in 
the year of our Lord eighteen hundred and five. 

Ebenezer Elmer, 
Benjamin Chamfnetb. 

This also was subscribed in the usual form by two Justices, at Trenton, 

to wit: 

Andrew Eirkfatrick, 
Wm. Rossell. 


Poor Hood, although thus armed with a diploma &om two of the mo^ 
distinguished medical men of the State, died at the early age of 23. On an 
upright stone in the old graveyard, at Bridgeton, is the following inscrip- 


Memory of 

Doctor Charles Hood, 

Who departed this life 

July 28th, 1806, 

In the 23rd year of his age. 

SAMUEL HARRIS, was born in Hopewell township, in 1782. Nothing 
is known of his early life, and but little is known of his later history. He 
is believed to have been a regularly licensed practiti<^er of medicine, al- 
though it does not appear that his practice ever became extensive. Like 
many others of the old-time physicians, Dr. Harris w^as a " preacher of 
righteousness." He was ordained to the work of the ministry in connec- 
tion with the Baptist denomination. As he died at the early age of 29, 
it is not probable that his reputation as either a minister or physician 
had become established. 

He was buried in the graveyard of the Roadstown Baptist church, and 
the following inscription is taken from his tombstone : 


Memory of 

Samubl Harris, V. D. M. & M. D., 

Who departed this life 

August 10th, 1811, 

Aged 29 years. 

Seize, mortals, seize the transient hour, 

Improve each foment as it flies ; 
Lifers a short summer, man's a flower. 

He dies, alas, how soon he dies. 

WILLIAM CLARK SON practiced medicine in New York almost a 
century ago. He was a very skillful physician, and had acquired an 
extensive and lucrative practice. He was married to a Miss Floyd (the 
name is believed to be correct), of Long Island. Soon after this marriage, 
both husband and wife became impressed with the importance of religion, 
and both became converted to the faith of the gospel. The doctor was 
led by convictions of duty to abandon his large and remunerative practice, 
and devote himself to the work of the ministry. After a course of theolog- 


ical study, he was ordained and installed as the pastor of the Presbyterian 
churches of Greenwich and Bridgeton. This was several years before the 
completion of the old Presbyterian church in the latter place, during which 
time the congregation worshipped in the Court-house. The building was 
finished in 1793 or '94, and Dr. Clarkson was the first who preached from 
its pulpit. The congregations of either church, and of both churches, 
were very small, and the combined salary exceedingly meagre. And indeed 
the doctor became so straightened in circumstances that he was obliged to 
resort to the practice of medicine, in Bridgeton, in order to eke out a live- 
lih'ood"; but encountering professional opposition from an unexpected 
quarter, he resigned his pastoral care of the churches, and went to Savannah, 
Geo., and from thence to John's Island, S. C. There he accepted the pas- 
torate of a small Presbyterian church, and continued to preach the Word 
to that people, although against the advice and persuasions of his friends, 
up to the time of his death, which occurred about the year 1812. 

He was the father of four children, all of whom married well, and were 
greatly blessed of God. One of the daughters married the late John 
Crosby, Esq., of New York, the father of the Rev. Dr. Howard Crosby. 

Dr. Clarkson entered the ministry from the purest of motives, leaving a 
profession where he was making a handsome competence, and from which 
he would very soon have amassed an independent fortune. He left it all for 
Christ, and counted all things but loss for the excellency of the knowledge 
of Jesus Christ his Lord. He died very poor in this world's goods, but an 
heir to a kingdom which hath foundations, and which can never be moved. 

It is related that there was no minister of the gospel present at the in- 
terment, and that his widow, with weeping eyes, read the funeral service at 
his grave, repeating slowly and solemnly these words : ^^ I commit his body 
to the grave, in the hope of a glorious resurrection through our Lord Jesus 

EDO OGDEN was employed in the office of Dr. Azel Pierson, when the 
latter gentleman was clerk of the county. Dr. Pierson was a shrewd poli- 
tician ; and Ogden, while writing in his office, became a convert to his 
political faith. This circumstance will account for his appointment to the 
clerkship of the county in 1818. 

While living with Dr. Pierson he began the study of medicine, and, in 
due course of time, was licensed as a regular practitioner. He married a 
daughter of Thomas Brown, of Greenwich, and settled in or near Bridge- 
ton. He did not live but two or three years after his marriage, falling a 


yictim, as is supposed,' to a malignant type of fever preyailing throughout 
the county. This disease is spoken of by some of the old citizens as 
** yellow fever," by some as " typhus," and by others as a malignant form 
of " bilious." Whatever its character, it was undoubtedly very fatal in its 
progress. Several physicians contracted the disease while visiting their 
patients, and died with it. Dr. Ogden had acquired considerable prac- 
tice, although he died young, in 1813, the same year in which he was 
appointed to the clerkship of the county. 

AZEL PIERSON was bom July 12th, 1767. But little is known of his 
early life. His educational advantages must, however, have been of a supe- 
rior order, since he manifested in later years not only a love for, but an inti- 
mate acquaintance with the higher branches of mathematics. After having 
been licensed as a practitioner of medicine, he married and settled in Cedar- 
ville. The house where he lived is still standing, although somewhat modified 
and improved since his day. He always visited his patients on horseback, 
was considered a good rider, and very fond of the deer and fox hunts which 
were fashionable at that time, and a source of great amusement. Although 
somewhat uncouth in his manners and rough in his speech, he nevertheless 
enjoyed very largely the respect and confidence of his fellow -citizens. As a 
physician he was abrupt and determined. An anecdote illustrating the lat- 
ter characteristic is related by an aged gentleman who well remembers the doc- 
tor as his father^s family physician. An over-anxious mother sent an urgent 
request for the doctor to visit her sick child. Arriving at the house with all 
possible speed, he very careiully examined into the symptoms of the little 
sufferer, and not finding the child as sick as he anticipated, he turned to the 
mother and ordered her to administer cold water. 

'< But she is sick, doctor." 

'* Give her cold water." 

^* She will die, you must give her a little medicine at least." 

" Give her cold water." 

"Do not leave," begged the mother, as the doctor strided toward the door, 
*' please do something for my child." 

" Give her cold water." 

The anxious mother followed him to the door, and out to the gate, begging 
for medicine, but the hard-hearted doctor mounted his steed, and riding 
away, John Gilpin-like, shrieked back, **Give her cold water." The child 
recovered, hydropathy was triumphant, and the poor woman was taught 


just that lesson which many ladies ought to learn in these latter days, viz : 
not to send for a physician imtU one is needed. 

The following letter, wiitten by the late Dr. Ebenezer Elmer to Dr. Azel 
Pierson, in 1789, will be read with interest : 

Sib : — If you are inoculating and want variolus matter, you may be supplied here 
witii that which is good. 

I would advise you to be very attentive to your patients. Inculcate the necessity 
of a strict regimen, and let it commence a day or two before the insertion is communi- 
cated. Take care to keep the bowels open by gentle laxatives during the whole 
period. Jalap and cream tartar answer very well, and for the sake of a more free 
determination to the surface the prudent use of tartar emetic is advisable. During 
the eruptive fever see to it that they are constantly exposed to a free cool air. Let 
them not go near the fire. Much depends upon this circumstance. At this time a 
free use of nitrous, acetous and diaphoretic medicines, administered cold, are useful. 
You must be, however, acquainted with the principles which tend to render the pox 
of the benign kind, but it requires great assiduity to put it in execution. Be sure to 
make use of genuine good matter, and introduce it efi^ctually and neatly. In this, as 
well as every other branch of practice, do not deem the most minute circumstances too 
trifling to be attended to in your first set out. A young man who wants the advantage 
of experience must gain the confidence of his patients principally by minute attentions. 
In doubtful cases, revolve them well in your mind, attend to every symptom, and be 
cautious in prognosticating while any ambiguity remains. 

Mrs. Marshall is indebted to me a guinea, and Capt. Simmons a dollar. I enclose 
an order, and if you can obtain the money, and have use for it, you may lay it out, and 
account to me hereafter. 

I am your humble servant, 

Bbibo* Town, March 24th, 1789. EBENEZEE ELMEK. 

Dr. Azel Pierson, like many of the old-time physicians, became interested, 
at comparatively an early age, in political matters. In 1804 he was appointed 
Clerk of the County, in joint meeting, transferred his residence to Bridgeton 
and discharged the duties of the office for a term of eight years. He seems 
still to have practiced medicine in connection with the Clerkship, for it is 
related that in the early part of the year 1813, while visiting a patient with 
typhus fever, he contracted the disease and died. The patient, who was a 
Christian man, recovered, and the doctor, who made no profession of Christ- 
ianity, died. Father Osborn was heard to "remark, what a happy circum- 
stance it would have been if the patient and his doctor could have exchanged 
places. But our ways are not the ways of God. ' 

At the public sale of his personal property, there was sold, in manuscript 
form, an arithmetic, the compilation and work of the doctor. This arith- 


metic was bought by one John Roee, and by him published under the 
title of" Rosens Arithmetic." The work was received with favoF, and quite 
extensively used in the common schools. Dr. Azel Pierson was the real 
author of the book. 

The doctor died at the early age of 46. He lies interred in the grave yard 
of the '* Old Stone Church." A plain, unpretending marble slab alone marks 
his resting place, blackened by the touches of time, and leaning, like an aged 
sentinel, the sport of wind and storm. The grave was the abode of the great 
Physician of men, and to its portals we all come, one by one. 

JOSEPH BREWSTER, son of Francis Brewster and Mary Crawford, was 
bom October 20th, 1765. He and the late Dr. Gilbert Brewster were broth- 
ers. In 1787 he was married to Lucinda Carll. After his marriage he lived 
for a time in the parsonage of the Presbyterian congi-egation of Pittsgrove. 
He undoubtedly practiced medicine among the people of that vicinity, 
although but little is recorded of him as a physician. A few years there- 
after he removed to Lower AUoways Creek, and while practicing there 
became connected, either upon profession or by certificate, with the Presby- 
terian church of Greenwich. In 1795 he removed to Deerfield, and was re- 
ceived by certificate into the communion of the Presbyterian church of that 
village, the Rev. John Davenport, minister. In 1797 he was chosen a ruling 
elder in the latter church, and set apart to the ofiice, October 15th, 1797. 

The church records of Deerfield contain the following items, viz : October 
19th, 1799, at the request of Dr. Joseph Brewster, a meeting of session was 
held at the house of Capt. Elijah Davis, to hear a complaint against the said 
Dr. Brewster by one John Ambler.' The complaint was made in behalf of 
Jonathan Garrison and his son Lewis, who was a student of medicine in 
the oflice of Dr. B. He was charged with breaking and denying a part of 
his contract, and with criminal deficiency in the discharge of his duties to 
the said Lewis Garrison ; refusing to teach and instruct him for three years 
instead of two, for the same compensation. During the course of the trial, 
Dr. Francis Gilbert Brewster appeared as a witness. The verdict was unani- 
mously in favor of the doctor. 

November 29th, 1804, his name appears for the last time in the records of 
the session. His death is recorded, February 19th, 1814. 

HORATIUS BREWSTER was the son of Dr. Joseph and Lucinda Brews- 
ter. The records of the Presbyterian church of Greenwich contain the fol- 
lowing item, viz : ** Baptized May 18th, 1788, Horatius, son of Dr. Joseph 


Brewster." The latter had several children, one of whom was the father of 
the distinguished Benjamin Bfewster, Esq., of Philadelphia. 

Horatins, after enjoying the educational advantages of his day, began the 
study of medicine in the oflSce of his father. After finishing his course with 
credit to himself, he returned to Deerfield, the residence of his father, and 
became associated with him in the practice of medicine. At the breaking 
out of that peculiar type of *' fever" already refeired to in the history of Dr. 
Edo Ogden, the two Drs. Brewster were called upon to attend many cases of 
that almost malignant disease. And it is related that both father and son, 
while in the discharge of their professional duties, contracted this disease 
and died. No less than six of the physicians of Cumberland county were 
carried to the grave by this nondescript "fever." Where shall we look, in 
all the annals of history, for a set of men so self-sacrificing as those who 
have devoted themselves to the healing art — men who have not counted 
their lives dear unto themselves. There is no profession which ftimishes 
such striking instances of disinterested philanthrophy. Let the names of 
Drs. Joseph and Horatius Brewster be added to the long list of martyrs. 

BENJAMIN CHAMPNEYS was bom near Salem, in the year 1774. The 
house he was bom in was built by his ancestor, Edward Champneys, and 
has inscribed upon it his initials and the date of its erection. 

Lord Berkeley offered his share of the province of New Jersey, which he 
held under royal grant, for sale, and soon received the offer of a price that 
was satisfactory, from two English Quakers, John Fenwicke and Edward 
By Hinge, and on the 18th of March, 1673, in consideration of the sum of 
one thousand pounds, he conveyed his interest in the province to the first, in 
trust, for the other. A dispute arising between these parties respecting their 
proportions of interest, to avoid the scandal of a law suit, it was submitted 
to William Penn, who held a conspicuous place in the Society of Friends. 
With some difficulty he succeeded in making an award satisfactory to both 
parties. Fenwicke in 1675 sailed from London for the new purchase, in the 
ship ^* Griffith," with his family and several Quaker associates. Edward 
Champneys, who was married to Fenwicke's daughter, Priscilla, and now 
his favorite son-in-law and his secretary, accompanied him. The " Griffith" 
was the first English vessel that came to New Jersey with emigrants. After 
a prosperous voyage, she landed her freight at a rich and pleasant spot on the 
branch of the Delaware, to which Fenwicke, on account probably of its 
peaceable aspect, gave the name of Salem. Fenwicke, in his will, appointed 
William Penn the guardian of his favorite grandson, Edward Champneys. 


When Dr. Champneys was an infant, his father died, and his mother re- 
sided on the farm which belonged to her husband, until her death, wliich 
was not long after his. Dr. Champneys inherited the property of his ances- 
tors in Salem county, and was educated in Philadelphia, where he spent most 
of his life till his marriage. Among his papers is one dated June 17th, 1795» 
stating that '* Benjamin Champneys having been duly examined in Physic 
and Surgeiy, by Drs. James Anderson, Abraham Canfield and Abel Johnson, as 
appears by their certificate annexed, they having approved of his skill, We^ 
the Hon. James Kinsey, chief justice of the supreme court of New Jersey, 
and Isaac Smith, second justice of said court, do therefore hereby admit 
him as a Physician and Surgeon, to practice in the said faculties throughout 
the State of New Jereey." 

He purchased about this time the property, a square from Commerce street, 
Bridgeton, embracing the whole peninsula following the line of the creek, 
to the road leading to the old saw-mill, with the exception of one lot. About 
this time also, he married Sarah, the daughter of Col. Potter. He received 
an appointment as surgeon in the Navy, January 6th, 1800. He served on 
board the frigate " Philadelphia," 44 guns, Stephen Decatur, commanding. 
The " Philadelphia" was the largest ship then in the service. He was in the 
Navy about a year and a half, and then resumed his practice in Bridgeton. 
So prevalent was the custom of duelling at that time that an officer on board 
the Philadelphia, who had declined from conscientious motives to fight a 
duel, was shunned by nearly all but Dr. Champneys. The doctor formed a 
warm friendship for Decatur and other officers, who frequently visited him 
afterwards at his home. 

He graduated in both departments of the University of Pennsylvania. 
The degree of M. D. he received in 1805. He served in the Assembly of 
New Jersey in 1808. He practiced vaccination in Bridgeton in 1807. He 
received a certificate of honorary membership in the medical society of 
Philadelphia, signed by Dr. Rush, February 20th, 1808, and also a certi- 
ficate from the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, as Master Mason, A. L., 5796. 
He was an honorary member of the American Whig Society of Princeton 

His notes on Dr. Rushes lectures and Dr. Kuhn's, are still preserved. In 
his opening lecture, Dr. Rush says : — " That we live in a revolutionary age, 
and that the time is fast approaching when the healing art will arrive at 
a state of perfection. The empire of diseases in mankind shall be no more, 
and, excluding casualties, death shall only be known from old age." He 
also says: ** That the healing art will be discovered to be so simple and 



obyions that the principles of medicine will be contained in a single page of 
a common memorandum book, and that a knowledge of the pulse will be as 
easily learned as the four conjugations ; that by this means there will be no 
impostors in medicine, for every man will become in a great degree his own 
physician ; then will wealth cease to be the reward of these empirics who 
now-a-days gain such vast quantities of riches, and are in reality a disgrace 
to their profession. 

Dr. Champney's practice was large, both in Salem and Cumberland coun- 
ties. He died in 1814, afler a short illness of typhus fever, which he had 
contracted while visiting some patients. He had ovei*worked himdelf, as he 
was very devoted to his professional duties, and visited the poor a great deal. 
He was only 40 years old at the time of his death, and was very much be- 

Among his papers are letters full of gratitude and affection from several 
of his pupils who had entered upon their professional duties. 

The late Dr. Isaac H. Hampton was one of his students, and wrote to him 
in the most affectionate terms, June 23d, 1808, telling him that he had taken 
Ms degree. At the conclusion he says : " Having now finished my medical 
education under your instruction and direction, permit me to tender my 
sincere thanks for the niany instructive lessons I have received from you, 
both verbal and exemplary. Toward you, dear sir, I shall ever feel the most 
sincere respect, arising both from duty and estimation of your medical talents 
and scientific acquirements." 

He was buried in the old Presbyterian grave-yard, and the following is 
the epitaph upon his tomb, written by a friend : 


To the memory of 

Benjamin Chamfnets, M. D., 

Who died on the 

16th day of July, 1814, 

iEtat 40. 

Long as the good congenial worth revere, 

Or worth departed prompts the gushing tear : 

While husband, father, brother, friends are loved, 

Science is honored, virtue is approved, 

So long to memory just, and urged by woe, 

For thee the heart shall grieve, the tear shall flow. 

MOSES BATEMA.N was the son of Moses Bateman, Esq., a prominent 
citizen of Fairfield tpwnship, and a brother of the present Dr. Eli E. Bate- 
man, of Cedarville. He attended one course of lectures in the medical de- 
partment of the University of Pennsylvania, and was licensed as a physician 


by the State of New Jersey. At the breaking out of the war in 1812, he 
entered the army as an assistant surgeon, and remained in the service until 
his death, which occurred upon the very day that General Jackiion reached 
Pensacola, and carried at the point of the bayonet a battery which had been 
placed in the streets to oppose him. The body of Dr. Bateman was sent to 
his parents, and interred in the grave-yard of the " old stone church." His 
last resting-place is marked by a flat stone, so blackened by the touches of 
time, that it was with difficulty that we deciphered the following inscription : 


To the memory of 

Dr. Moses Bateman, 

Who departed this life at 

Billingsport, in the service of the 

United States, 

On the 7th of November 1814, in the 30th year of his age. 

" He weakened my strength in the way, he shortened my days." Ps. 102:23. 

Meek, kind, and gentle was his mind, 
Inclined to love, and serve mankind, 
Yet Death, with unrelenting aim. 
Shoots his sure dart, makes good his claim. 

Thus those who live, and stay behind, 
Must to the grave be soon consigned, 
Yield their short life, in silence lay 
Until the great rewarding day. 

SAMUEL M. SIIUTE is still remembered by the oldest citizens of Cum- 
berland County, although more than half a century has passed away since 
he finished his work, and entered into his rest. He possessed in a remark- 
able degree those social qualities which endeared him to the hearts of the 
people, and preserved his memory fragrant through the lapse of years. 
How often has the writer noticed that the name of Dr. Shute has lightened 
with smiles the faces of those whose heads are white with the frost of 
years. The old love to talk of Samuel M. Shute — they love to speak of his 
manners as a gentleman, his worth as a citizen, his tenderness as a physician, 
and his steadfastness as a friend. Perhaps no physician has ever lived in 
this county who was so much beloved while living, and so much lamented 
when dead. There have been few more learned and eloquent men among 
the good old worthies whose names appear upon our obituary list, —men 
more distinguished in State and national council, and far better known by 
the medical, literary and political world, but none who commanded more 
largely the respect and confidence and love of the people at home. 

Samuel Moore Shute was born in 1762, and was but a lad of fourteen 


years at the breaking out of the Revolutionary war, and yet it 18 recorded of 
him that he was an officer in the army, under Washington, both before and 
after the close of the Revolution. The position which he held was probably 
that of an officer of the line. Judge Elmer, in his " Reminiscences of the 
Bench and Bar of New Jersey," relates an anecdote of young Shute, while 
a subaltern officer in the army. General Washington employed certain men 
as spies, to obtain intelligence of the proceedings of the British Commanders 
at New York, and elsewhere, to effect which they were obliged to resort to 
many contrivances. " Many years ago," says the Judge, " I often heard my 
father, and others who had served in the Revolutionary army, jokingly re- 
mind Dr. Shute, a highly respectable physician of Bridgeton, of a scrape 
into which he got, arising from these contrivances in regard to the spies 
relied upon in that delicate and dangerous service. A pedler, who was en- 
gaged in bringing clothes, <&c., from out of the British lines, and selling 
them, contrary to law, and who was required to be arrested by 
our officers, wherever found, having been captured and confined in the 
guard-house, he was put in charge of Shute, then quite young, a subaltern 
officer, who had been but a short time in the service. Late in the evening, 
a woman, of large dimensions, came with an order from General Dayton, 
to be permitted to see her husband, the pedler, and she was, of course, ad- 
mitted. After a short time, Shute was alarmed by her cries of distress, and 
informed that she must have assistance. Before he had made up his mind 
what to do, however, to his great relief, he was informed she was better, and 
ready to depart, which he was glad to permit her to do. In the morning it 
appeared the pedler spy had escaped, and his pretended wife remained. Lieut. 
Shute was put under arrest, and terribly frightened ; but after a few days, 
in consideration of his youth and inexperience, was let off with a private 
reprimand. In process of time it became well known that General Dayton, 
who was much trusted by Washington, had purposely caused a young offi- 
cer to be detailed to conmiand the guard, and had procured the woman to 
personate the wife of his spy, that he might thus enable him to escape, with- 
out his secret employment becoming known." 

After leaving the army, young Shute entered the office of Dr. Jonathan 
Elmer, as a pupU, and successfully prosecuted the study of medicine. He 
subsequently married a daughter of his preceptor, settled in Bridgeton, and 
became one of the leading physicians of the town. He is described as tall 
and spare, of pleasing countenance and captivating address. 

*'*■ Do you remember Dr. Samuel M. Shute," we inquired of an old lady, 
almost four score years of age. 


** I should think I did," replied the aged mother. "7 Ixmd that mm, hs 
was 80 tender-hearUdy 

" He was not fit to be a doctor," she continued — ^was too tender-hearted 
— would not even go in some cases, because he sympathized so much with 
the suffering." 

Dr. Shute seems to have confined himself very closely to the practice of 
his chosen profession, and unlike many of his contemporaries, appears to 
have been but little interested in political matters. In 1813, however, the 
Goyemor of the State appointed him Surrogate of the county of Cumber- 
land, which olRce he held for two years. It is not known to the writer that 
he ever sought for or received any other political appointment. His course 
in this particular is commended to the members of the profession now liv- 
ing. Medicine and politics have always been " incompatibles." 

A letter recently received from Dr. George B. Wood, Emeritus Professor 
of the Theory and Practice of Medicine in the University of Penna., will be 
read with interest. Says that distinguished Professor : " I am little acquaint- 
ed with the incidents of the life of Dr. Shute, and with none that are not 
known to every one of my age in Bridgeton. It was during my childhood, 
before my twelfth year, that I saw him most, as he was physician to my 
father's family, and the families occasionally interchanged social visits be- 
tween Greenwich and Bridgeton. After my twelfth year, I was Uttlc in 
Greenwich, and consequently seldom saw the doctor. My childish re- 
collections of him are altogether favorable. I have seldom met a man of 
finer personal appearance, and more gentlemanly and amiable deportment. 
His attentions to me as a child were most kindly and pleasant; and I have 
often said that I could trace my first thoughts of choosing the medical 
profession, not to his representations, but to my great esteem and affection 
for Dr. Shute, and my consequent wish to be like him." 

Many years have passed away since the grave enclosed the lovely form of 
Dr. Shute, and we, men of another generation, but heirs to a common des- 
tiny, stand in silence and in sorrow by that grave, while we trace upon the 
marble these words : — 

In memory of 

Dr. S a MITEL Moore Shute, 

An officer in the service of the United States during the American 

Revolution, and member of the Cincinnati Society, 

Who departed this life 

August 30th, 1816, in the 54th ye^r of his age. 


If e'er affection claimed a generons tear, 

Or friendship earned one, pause and shed it here ; 

For just below, in peace, here lies reclined, 

A tender husband and a faithful friend, 

Whose liberal soul, on proper motives bent, 

Left in his works the fairest monument. 

JONATHAK ELMER, the son of Daniel Elmer, 2d, was bom at Cedar- 
yille, November 29th, 1845, and died at Bridgeton, September 8d, 1817. 

Being of « weakly constitution, it was determined to ^ve him a good edu- 
cation, and he was accordingly placed under the instruction of his grand- 
father, the Rev. Daniel Elmer, and after the death of the same, which 
occurred in 1754, he became a pupil of the Rev. William Ramsey. Under 
the tuition of the latter he made great proficiency not only in the English 
branches, but acquired such a knowledge of the Latin language as enabled 
him to read and write it with considerable facility. At the age of twenty- 
one, he chose the medical profession, and in 1766, studied in Philadelphia, 
under the direction of Dr. Morgan. The University of Pennsylvania, the 
oldest medical school in this country, had just been organized, and, young 
Elmer attended its first course of lectures. While a student at the University, 
he took exception to Dr. Shippen's theory that the choroid coat of the eye 
ia the immediate organ of vision, and in January, 1767, he addressed a letter 
to the Professor, setting forth in a clear and forcible manner, his objections 
to the same. Li the same year h& read an essay on the motion of the heart, 
before the Junior Medical Society at Penn^s Hospital, and June 2l8t, 1768, 
was one of the ten that constituted the first graduating class of that now cele- 
brated medical school. The year following his graduation as a Bachelor of 
Medicine, he addressed a letter to Dr. Morgan, his former preceptor, on ^^ the 
different constitutions of the air, and the diseases contemporary therewith." 
This paper was read before the American Philosophical Society. Li 1771, 
he received the degree of Doctor. His thesis, the subject of which was, " De 
ntis in FdrQms^ Caum et BemedixB^^'' ^as dedicated to Dr. Franklin, and his 
son, the Governor of New Jersey, and was subsequently printed in full, a 
copy of the same being still preserved by the family descendants. 

After taking his first degree, he commenced the practice of his profession 
in the neighborhood of Roadstown, but soon removed to Bridgeton, where 
he was married, in 1769, to Mary Seeley, third daughter of Colonel Ephraim 
Seeley. They were the parents of eight children, four of whom died in 

Although engaged actively in the duties of his profession at Bridgeton, 


and occasionally called as consulting physician many miles from his home 
into adjacent counties, and as far as the sea shore, — his preference seems to 
have been for political and judicial business. In 1772, he was appointed by 
Governor Franklin, Sheriff of Cumberland county, the commission being in 
accordance with the usage under the royal government, **during his majesty's 
pleasure." But being bitterly opposed to the encroachments of the British 
government on the rights of the American people, and withal honest in the 
expression of his sentiments of hostility, he was, after the lapse of a few 
years, displaced by the Governor, and a gentleman appointed. to the office 
who was supposed to be better affected to the King. On the 23d of May, 
1775, he was chosen a delegate to the " Provincial Congress " which con- 
vened in the city of Trenton. This Congress continued in session eleven 
days, and decided measures were taken by it to resist the demands of Great 
Britain. In October, 1775, after the battles of Lexington and Concord, he was 
chosen Captain of a light infantry company, and subsequently he was made 
a Major, although it does not appear that he was ever engaged in active ser- 
vice. In 1776 he was appointed by the Legislature, in joint meeting, Clerk 
of Cumberland county, and continued to hold this office until 1789. He was 
also Surrogate from 1784 until 1802. 

In 1776 he was chosen a member of the General Congress, and re-elected 
in 1777. The Congress of the Colonies, during these years, when the feeble 
arm of the country was lifted against the mightiest war-power of the world, 
was justly the admiration of mankind. No body of men, in ancient or mod- 
em times, have displayed more devotion to the true principles of liberty, and 
more resolution in the midst of the greatest dangers. Dr. Elmer was ever 
true to the trust reposed in him, proving himself by word and action not 
only a supporter of the country during the darkest hours of its struggle, but 
as a member of the medical committee of Congress, he gave evidence of his 
interest in every sick and wounded soldier by his toilsome journeys upon 
horseback to the various hospitals within his reach. 

In 1780 and 1784 he was elected a member of the Legislative Council of 
New Jersey, and in 1788 a member of Congress, under the Articles of Con- 
federation. ' He was a strong advocate of the adoption of the new Constitu- 
tion, and under it was chosen to a seat in the Senate of the United States, 
and filled this responsible position for the term of two years. He there con- 
tributed, by his great talents, in unison with Adams, Puterson, Ellsworth, 
Ames, Cadwallader and other patriots, to the successful organization of our 
government under the administration of President Washington. 

An extract from the journal of William Maclay (who was also a member 


of the Senate), bearing date Sept. 3d, 1789, will be found of special interest, 
as showing his estimate of the character and standing of Dr. Elmer in that 
honorable body : " I know not, in the Senate, a man, if I were to choose a 
friend, on whom I would cast the eye of confidence as soon as on this little 
doctor. He does not always vote right — and so I think of every man who 
differs from me, — but I never yet saw him give a vote but 1 thought I could 
observe his disinterestedness in his countenance. If such an one errs, it is 
the sin of ignorance, and I think heaven has pardons, ready sealed, for every 
one of them." 

Although educated as a physician, Dr. Elmer appears to have been more 
disposed to the law ; and by the close of the war had made himself master 
of the science. For several years he presided with the greatest ability in the 
Court of Common Pleas of the comity of Cumberland. His opinions as a 
Judge, many of which remain in manuscript, as well as his briefs prepared 
for counsel, many of which are still extant, show that as a lawyer he was 
quite equal to the best among the profession. At the February term of 
Court in 1814, on account of increasing age and failure of health, he offered 
his resignation as presiding judge, and took a final farewell of his associates 
in the following beautiful language : " It is now forty -two years since I first 
became an oflScer of this court, and it has been the will of Prcwidence that 
I should live to see every person who was then a member of it, both on the 
bench and at the bar, consigned to the house appointed for all living. 
Increasing infirmities admonish me that I must shortly follow them. Relin- 
quishing all worldly views, my anxious desire is so to employ the few 
remaining days of my earthly pilgrimage as, to adopt the expressive lan- 
guage of St. Paul, to maintain a conscience "void of offence, both towards 
God and towards all men. To recompense none evil for evil, but so far as 
human frailty will admit, to overcome evil with good ; to do good to all as 
opportunity shall offer, and as much as in me lies to live peaceably with 
all men." 

Although Dr. Elmer early abandoned the practice of his chosen profession, 
and was actively engaged in public life during the years of our Revolution- 
ary struggle, he still retained an interest in medicine, and took delight in the 
fellowship of his professional brethren. In 1787, the year preceding his elec- 
tion to a seat in the Senate of the United States, he was chosen the President 
of the Medical Society of New Jersey, succeeding Dr. Wm. Burnett in that 

A short notice of him, published in the Trenton Federalist at the time of 
his decease, written by L. H. Stockton, Esq., states that, '^ in medical erudi- 


tion, the writer well remembers to have heard his illustrious contemporary, 
the late Dr. Rush, frequently say, that he was exceeded by no physician in 
the United States." 

But with all his profound learning, Dr. Elmer was not ashamed to sit as a 
disciple at the feet of the great Teacher of mankind. The Cross of Jesus 
was his glory and his hope. He was very early in life deeply sensible of the 
claims of religion, and was from his marriage a seat-holder in the old Cohan- 
sey Church, at Fairfield, until he transferred his support, in 1792, to the new 
Presbyterian Church at Bridgeton. In December, 1798, he united with that 
church on profession of his faith in Christ, and in the succeeding January 
was chosen a ruling elder. 

He descended to the grave, full of honors, in the 72d year of his age, trust- 
ing, alone for salvation in the merits of a crucified Saviour. " Mark the per- 
fect man, and behold the upright, for the end of that man is peace.^' 

Here rests, 
in hope of a 
glorious resurrection, 
the body of 
Jonathan Elmeb, M. D., 
and Fellow of the 
^ American Philosophical Society : 

an eminent Physician and Civilian, 
a distinguished citizen, 
and an exemplary Christian : 
who departed this life Sept. 3d, 1817, 
in the 72d year of his age. 
Attempt not on marble, merit to portray, 
A life todl spent is man^s best epitaph ; 
That lifers well spent, which answers life's great end. 

In 1818, the year following the decease of Dr. Jonathan 
Elmer, a Medical Society was organized in the county of 
Cumberland. The State Medical Society was organized in the 
city of NTew Brunswick as early as 1766. A new act of in- 
corporation was passed by the Legislature of New Jersey, 
February 16th, 1816, at the close of the first half century. 

Section 8d of said act, *' authorizes the Society to appoint 


not less than three physicians or surgeons in each county of 
the State to institute District Societies for the respective 
counties." Under this charter, or more properly under a sup- 
plement made thereto, by the Legislature, February 10th, 
1818, an application was made for the formation of a District 
Medical Society in the county of Cumberland. 


Pursuant to authority given by the Medical Society of the 
State of New Jersey, a number of licensed practitioners of 
medicine of the county of Cumberland met at Bridgeton on 
the eighth day of December, 1818, for the purpose of organ- 
izing a District Medical Society in said county. Drs. Ebenezer 
Elmer, Wm. B. Ewiug, James B. Parvin, Charles Clark, 
Laurence Van Hook, Edmund Sheppard, Daniel C. Pierson, 
Isaac H. Hampton and Enoch Fithian were present at this 
meeting. Of the number who were interested in the organ- 
ization of this Society, fifty years ago, but two remain. All 
having served their generation in the sacred calling to which 
they had devoted their lives, are sleeping to-day in the " silent 
halls of Death," save Dr. Edmund Sheppard of North Caro- 
lina, and Dr. Enoch Fithian of New Jersey. The former, 
for many years past a resident and property-holder in the 
South, and closely identified with its institutions, has retained 
neither a membership nor an interest in this District Medical 
Society ; while the presence of the latter, hoary with years 
and fruitful even in old age, continues to cheer us at our semi- 
annual re-unions. May a kind Providence still deal gently 
with these venerable and venerated brethren, who link us with 
the dead ones of the past, and speak the language of fifty 
years ago. 

Dr. Ebenezer Elmer was chosen president of the newly 


organized society; Dr. Wm. B. Ewing, vice-president; Dr. 
Enoch Fithian, secretary ; and Drs. Elmer, Ewing and Pierson 
were appointed a committee to frame By-Laws and Regula- 
tions, and to report to an adjourned meeting which was 
ordered to be held at Brewster's hotel, in Bridgeton, on the 
second Wednesday of January, 1819. At this adjourned 
meeting Drs. Thomas W. Peck, William Elmer (1,) Francis 
G. Brewster, Holmes Parvin, William Steeling, John L. Smith, 
and Benjamin Fisler, were admitted to membership, and the 
organization completed by the election of Dr. Wm. Elmer, 
Sr., as treasurer of the Society. 

The By-Laws, Rules and Regulations, as presented by the 
committee appointed to draft the same, and adopted by the 
Society at its meeting in January, 1819, are both compre- 
hensive and well-defined. 

The first section declares the name of the Society. 

The second, those of whom it shall be composed — all 
regular physicians and surgeons of the county of Cumberland, 
who met at its organization, attended the ratification of 
its laws, or were, upon application, thereafter, duly ad- 

The third and on to the eighth, relate to the election and 
duties of the officers. 

The eighth defines the time for holding the stated meetings, 
and makes provision for the calling of special meetings. 

The ninth relates to the proposition for membership and 
the election of candidates. 

The tenth declares that every member, upon subscribing to 
the By-Laws, shall pay into the funds of the Society not less 
than one dollar, and shall also pay twenty-five cents at every 
subsequent stated meeting. 

The eleventh provides for the appointment of a Board of 
Censors for the examination of candidates for license to prac- 


tice physic and surgery, and the persons to whom the Board 
was to report the result of such examinations. 

The twelfth imposes a fee of five dollars upon every candi- 
date, upon the reception of his certificate. 

The thirteenth makes it obligatory upon every member, in 
rotation, beginning with the president and continued by sen- 
iority, to write a dissertation on some medical or philosophical 
subject, or a detailed statement of a clinical case, and every 
such dissertation shall be open for discussion. 

The fourteenth is in these words — " Every medical* or sur- 
gical case submitted to the Society by any member, for their 
opinion, shall contain an accurate history of the same, that 
being possessed of the facts relative to the rise and progress 
of the complaint, they may be able to discuss it more under - 
standingly, and to form a more decisive judgment for the 
benefit of the aflBiicted ; and a regular account of the effects 
of the remedies prescribed shall be transmitted to the Society 
within one year after the prescription, and be recorded for 
future reference.** 

The fifteenth relates to the preservation of a complete list 
of the members of the Society in the archives of the same, 
together with dates of admission, death, removal or expul- 

The sixteenth declares the duty of punctual attendance 
upon all the stated meetings, and imposes a fine of fifty cents 
upon every member absenting himself therefrom ; and if a 
member neglects to attend two meetings in succession, a fine 
of one dollar shall be imposed for the second neglect. 

The seventeenth gives to the Society power to elect honor- 
ary members, not exceeding in ^number one-third of the reg- 
ular members. 

The eighteenth and last article provides for the alteration 
and amendment of the Laws and Regulations. 



The District Medical Society of Cumberland county, thus 
duly organized, was in successful operation until April 27th, 
1830, at which time it is said that there were so few who at- 
tended its regularly stated meetings and so few who manifest- 
ed any interest in its proceedings, that Dr. James B. Parvin, 
who was a local preacher in the M. E. church, and a most 
worthy member of the Society, proposed to write its funeral 
sermon. Tradition does not inform us whether Dr. Parvin 
pronounced a funeral discourse or not; but upon the date above 
mentioned, this medical organization, whose inception was so 
auspicious, passed gently into a state of unconsciousness, and 
its existence was supposed to be extinct. .For more than eigh- 
teen years the parent society slept its slumber of death, during 
which time many of the worthy men who were instrumental 
in its organization, having ceased from their labors, passed 
into the realm of the unknown ; perhaps, into the world of 
light and glory, to sit forever at the feet of Him who was not 
ashamed when upon earth to be called the great Physician of 
men ; and yet the slumber of eighteen years was broken. 
Upon the 9th of November, 1848, the District Medical Society 
of Cumberland county awoke to a newness of life. Any and 
every effort at resuscitation had hitherto proved futile ; but on 
Thursday evening, November 9th, Drs. Enoch Fithian, Eph- 
riam Buck, Wm. S. Bowen, Jacob W. Ludlam, Wm. Elmer 
(2), Geo. Tomlinson and J. Barron Potter, upon motion, re- 
solved to make application to the Medical Society of New 
Jersey to re-organize the District Medical Society of the county 
of Cumberland. The request was granted, and by the ap- 
pointment of the State Society a meeting of medical men was 
held at the hotel of Edmund Davis, Bridgeton, November 28th, 
1848. At this'meeting there were present, in addition to the 
gentlemen already named, Drs. Eli E. Bateman, B. Rush 


Bateman, Willets, Parker, and Charles Butcher, and three 
weeks later (December 19), when the " Laws, Rules and Reg- 
ulations" were adopted, Drs. Hampton, Ewing, Jos. Butcher 
and Holmes were reported as among the number in attendance. 
The Constitution of the re-organized Society in 1848 has a 
striking resemblance in the spirit and letter to the Constitu- 
tion adopted in 1818. Under these Laws and Regulations the 
Society has been in successful operation for the last twenty 
years, and its stated meetings have been faithfully and reg- 
ularly observed. Although some of our veteran brothers, 
whose heads planned and tongues spoke twenty years ago at 
the re-organization of this Society, have been palsied by the 
touch of death, yet a corps of younger men, with armor girt 
about them, fresh from the field of strife and victory, meet at 
this old trysting place to sing poeans of gratulation upon 
this day of our semi-centennial anniversary. The God of 
mercies be praised for the preservation of those aged brothers 
whose silver hairs and bended forms speak to us of the way 
along which they have come, and the nearness of the^ home 
to which they are going. We would clasp them and each 
other by the hand to-day and renew once more our vows of 
fidelity to the cause of a suffering humanity ! 


At the semi-annual meeting in 1819, it was 

Besaloedj That the delegates from this Society to the next meeting of the 
Medical Society of the State of New Jersey be instructed to remonstrate 
against a resolution of said Society passed on the first Tuesday of May, 
1817, requiring the examination of candidates for license to practice physic 
and surgery to be held orUy on the days of the stated meetings of the District 

This is the only case of remonstrance on record during the 


existence of the Society, and this was unsuccessfal, as appears 
from the report of Dr. Ephraim Buck, to whom, as one of the 
delegates, the presentation of the remonstrance was entrusted. 

At the annual meeting in 1821, it was 

Eesolvedj That a Committee be appointed to correspond with the District 
Medical Societies, upon the propriety of petitioning the Legislature so to 
amend the Act incorporating the New Jersey Medical Society, as to establish 
an independent Society in West Jersey /or make the District Societies more 
independent of the State Society. 

At the annual meeting in 1828, it was 

Beaohed, That a Committee of three be appointed to wait on all practicing 
Physicians in the county of Cumberland, who have not obtained a regular 
license from a Medical Society in New Jersey, and inform them that they 
are expected to meet the District Medical Society for the county of Cumber- 
land at their semi-annual meeting, in order to obtain a certificate of license. 

The Board of Censors, during the early years of the Society, 
examined the following persons for license to practice physic 
and surgery, viz : Samuel S. Marcy, Joseph Fifield, Leonard 
Lawrence, Charles Garrison, FrisbyH. Snow, Hosea Fithian, 
William 8. Bowen, David Jayne, Edmund L. B. Wales and 
B. Rush Bateman. 

Mr. Nathan Swaine was admitted an honorary member of 
this Society \)j ballot, April 27th, 1819. 


At the annual meeting in 1850, the following paper was pre- 
sented and subsequently adopted, viz : 

Whebeab, The Medical profession in general have cheerfully bestowed 
their professional services upon clergymen and their families gratuitously— 

Wheebab, Very many of that influential class of our fellow-citizens counte- 


nance patent medicines and quackery, both by their signatures and influence, 

Besohed, That the same remuneration as from other patients, will be re- 
quired from such clergymen as are known hereafter to lend their influence 
to the dissemination of quackery. 

At the semi-annual meeting in 1853, it was 

Besolpedf That a committee of three be appointed to make a report on 
the relation of medical men to quacks. Drs. Newkirk, B. Rush Bateman 
and Elmer (2), were appointed under this resolution, and the chairman at 
the annual meeting following, submitted an able report upon this subject. 

At the semi-annual meeting in 1859, the following pre- 
amble and resolution were unanimously adopted, after a full 
and free discussion, viz : 

Whbseas, The code of medical ethics adopted by this Society and sub- 
Bcrihed by its members, defines the duties of physicians in regard to consult- 
ations, in chapter 2d, article 4th, page 13, therefore 

Besohed, That professional association or consultation with quacks, or the 
persistent use of quack nostrums, be considered derogatory to the good 
standing of any member of this Society. 

At the October meeting in 1867, it was 

BexUved, That the Secretary be requested to prepare a petition to the Leg- 
islature of New Jersey, to be signed by the medical men of this county, for 
the passage of Sanitary Laws for this State. 

The Legislature did not regard this petition, although re- 
commended by the State Medical Society, and signed by the 
most distinguished men of our profession in New Jersey. 
Sapient legislators quibble for days over the passage of bills 
that deserve hardly a moment's consideration, and refuse to 
enact sanitary laws which promise to promote the health and 
prosperity of the entire people of this commonwealth. 



Ab early as 1819, a committee was appointed to draw up a 
scale of charges for the regulation of the physicians and sur- 
geons of this District Society, and subsequently, both under 
the old and new organization, much attention has been given 
to the establishment of uniform charges for professional ser- 
vices. The " revised table of charges" by which we are now 
governed, was adopted at the regular meeting in Oct., 1864, 
and compares very favorably with the fee bill recommended 
by the State Medical Society. 

The following resolutions are appended to the " table of 
charges" adopted in 1864, viz : 

Besohed, That it be considered disreputable for any member of this Society 
to deviate from the table of charges now adopted, and that no entry shall 
ever be made in their account books of lower fees than those contained in 
the above table. 

Benolved, That this Society recommend to its members to present their 
claims for professional services once every year, and in all cases the usual rate 
of interest to be charged upon all bills remaining unpaid after that date. 


At the annual meeting in 1852, it was 

Beaolved, That a committee be appointed to prepare, as a memorial, a 
History of Medicine, Medical Organizations, and Physicians in the county 
of Cumberland, to be read if possible at our next meeting. 

This committee, consisting of Drs. J. Barron Potter, Enoch 
Fithian and Ephraim Buck, were continued fipom year to 
year, with instructions to report at each subsequent meeting, 
until 1860, when they were honorably discharged by the 
passage of the following paper, viz : 

The committee on medical men and medical organizations 
having no report to make, it was 

Beaoloed, That the thanks of this Society be presented to the committee on 


the History of Medicine and Medical Men in this county, for their antiqnarian 
researches during the past eight years ; that the subject be indefinitely post- 
poned, and the committee discharged without making a report. 

In 1867, as the Society was approaching the celebration of 
its semi-centennial anniversary, Drs. Eobert M. Bateman, 
Enoch Fithian and J, Barron Potter were appointed to pre- 
pare a History of the Cumberland county District Medical 
Society, from its organization to the present time, arid also 
snch historical reminiscences as may be attainable respecting 
medical men in the county, prior to the organization of the 

It is under the adoption of the latter resolution that the 
semi-centennial History has been prepared. 


The following gentlemen have successively filled the office 
of president : 

1818. Ebenezer Ehner Bridgeton. 

1820. " f* " 

1821. William B. Ewing Greenwich. 

1822. " " " 

1823. Ephraim Batsman (1) Cedarville. 

1QOJ. a (i u 

1825. " *' " 

1828. Ebenezer Elmer Bridgeton. 

1829. " ** " 

1830. " " " 

1848. Enoch Fithian. Greenwich. 

1849. " " " 

1850. B. Rush Bateman Cedarville. 

1851. Ephraim Buck Bridgeton. 

1852. WilUamElmer (2) " 

1853. William S. Bowen " 

1854. Jacob Ludlam Deerfield. 


1856. Isaac H. Hampton Bridgeton. 

1856. Eli E. Bateman Cedarville. 

1857. George Tomlinson Roadstown. 

1858. Nathaniel R. Newkirk Greenwich. 

1859. J. Barron Potter Bridgeton. 

1860. Ephraim Bateman (2) Cedarville. 

1861. Joseph Sheppard Bridgeton. 

1862. Charles C. Phillips Deerficld. 

J863. Robert W. Elmer Bridgeton. 

1864. Thomas H. Tomlinson Shiloh. 

1865. Samuel G. Cattell Deei-field. 

1866. Robert M. Bateman Cedarville. 

1867. William Elmer (3) Bridgeton. 

1868. Thomas E. Stathems Greenwich. 

1869. Stetson L. Bacon Newport. 

1870. George E. Butcher Dividing Creek. 


There have been but five secretaries since the organization of 
the Society. Under the old constitution, Dr. Enoch Fithian 
was elected Secretary in 1818, and held the office three years. 
He was succeeded by Dr. Ephraim Buck, who served in the 
same capacity two years. Dr. Wm. S. Bowen, who was 
elected in 1824, continued in office until the Society became 
extinct in 1830. Since the re-organization, in 1848, Dr. J. 
Barron Potter and Wm. Elmer (2) have discharged the duties 
of the Secretaryship with such fidelity and acceptance that 
they have been continued in office until the present time, the 
former serving eleven years and the latter ten years. It is wor- 
thy of note that the first Secretary of this Society, Dr. Enoch 
Fithian, is still living and a regular attendant upon its meet- 
ings, and, although retired from active practice on account of 
his declining years, he holds, by the unanimous voice of his 
brethren, an honorary membership in our fraternity. 



The funds of the Society have been faithfully held by some 
of the most honorable of our members, and a careful scrutiny 
of the records reveals no defaulter among the number. The 
treasury seems to have been in a healthy state during the 
early years of the organization, inasmuch as the traveling 
expenses of delegates to and from the meetings of the State 
Society were generously paid. The names of the Treasurers 
are as follows, viz : Drs. Wm. Elmer (1), Ebenezer Elmer, 
Ephraim Buck, Holmes Parvin, B. Eush Bateman, Wm. S. 
Bowen, Eli E. Bateman, Nath. R. Newkirk, and the present 
incumbent, Joseph Sheppard. 

Dr. N. R. Newkirk was elected Treasurer in 1860, and con- 
tinued in office until his death in 1866. 


The annual and semi-annual meetings have always been 
held in Bridge ton — ^fifty years ago the village of Bridgetown, 
now the city of Bridgeton. An effort was made some years 
ago to have the semi-annual meetings held in Millville, and 
in the other villages away from the county seat, but without 
success. The meetings have always been of a private charac- 
ter, and attended only by the members of the profession, with 
the exception of that held in 1819, when, it is recorded, the 
address of Dr. Ebenezer Elmer was delivered in the Court 
House. It is not improbable that this address was one of 
general interest to the community, and that an invitation was 
extended to the citizens of Bridgeton to attend upon its de- 


There have been thirty papers read before the Society since 
its organization, which are still preserved in the archives, 


and subject to the perusal of the members. The order is as 
follows : 

Ebenezer Elmer— subject not given; Francis G. Brewster — the causes and 
treatment of hemorrhage of the uterus, before and after delivery ; David 
Jayne — Dr. Cerveal's instrument for removing calculi from the bladder ; 
Ebenezer Elmer — the rise and progress of medical science; Enoch Fithian — 
the epidemic bilious remittent fever of Cumberland county; Ephraim 
Buck — the epidemic fever of 1825 ; Wm. S. Bowen — a diflficult variety of 
labor ; B. Rush Bateman— dysentery ; Jacob W. Ludlam— a report of three 
pulseless cases ; Eli E. Bateman— the life and character of Dr. E. M. Porter ; 
George Tomlinson — phlegmasia dolens ; Bennet W. Parker — ^prospects of the 
medical profession in the United States ; William Elmer, (2) — cholera : its 
history, stages and scientific treatment ; Nathaniel R. Newkirk — the position 
and duties of medical men ; E. B. Richmond — humanity and its affairs ; 
J. Barron Potter — the recreations of medical men ; Joseph Sheppard — the 
causes of premature old age ; Ephraim Bateman, (2) — ^Empiricism ; Charles 
C. Phillips — the duties and responsibilities of the medical profession ; Thomas 
H. Tomlinson — diphtheria ; Robert W. Elmer — ergot ; Robert M. Bateman — 
anomalous cases; Samuel G. Cattell — coxalgia; William Elmer, (3) — anaes- 
thetics; William S. Bowen — cholera; Stetson L. Bacon — enteric fever; 
George E. Butcher — diphtheria as occurring in my practice in 1861, '62 and 
'63; Thomas E.'Stathems— concentrated extracts ; B. Rush Bateman — remin- 
iscences of medical practice ; B. Rush Bateman— subject continued. 


During the recent war for the maintenance of the Gov- 
ernment, and the vindication of our laws, five of the mem- 
bers of t^e District Medical Society of Cumberland were 
connected with the service of their country : 

RoBEBT W. Elmer was commissioned by Gov. Olden, Assistant Surgeon 
28d Regiment N. J. Volunteers, and honorably discharged at the expiration 
of his term of service, June 27tb, 1863. 

Thouas E. Stathkms was commissioned by Gov. Curtin of Pennsylvania, 
August 2d, 1862, and assigned as Assistant Surgeon to the 133d Regiment 
of Pennsylvania Volunteers, and was mustered out of the service in June, 



Joseph Se^fpard was appointed Acting Assistant Surgeon, by the Sur- 
geon General, U. S. A., June 18th, 1863, and honorably discharged Sept. 
25th, 1865. 

RoBEBT M. Batbman was commissioned by Gov. Charles S. Olden, As- 
sistant Surgeon 25th Heginient N. J. Volunteers, and honorably discharged 
at Beverly, N. J., June 20th, 1863, at the expiration of his term of service. 

William L. Newell was commissioned Surgeon of the 24th Regiment 
N. J. Volunteers, by Gov. Olden, September 16th, 1862, and was honorably 
discharged from the service with his regiment, June, 1863. 

The following medical gentlemen from this county, who 
are not connected with this Society, likewise rendered efficient 
service to their country, either as surgeon or commander, 
during the late rebellion : 

John B. Bowbn was appointed Acting Assistant Surgeon, U. S. A., June 
10th, 1862 ; promoted to Surgeon 34th Regiment N. J. Volunteers, August 
23d, 1863, and resigned May 28th, 1864. 

Oliveb S. Bblden was commissioned by Gov. Olden, Assistant Surgeon 
5th Regiment N. J. Volunteers, April 1862 ; re-appointed Acting Assistant 
Surgeon by the Surgeon General, U. S. A., May, 1864. 

J. Howard Willets was commissioned Captain Co. H., 7th Regiment 
K J. Volunteers, October 18th, 1861 ; made Lieut. Colonel of 12th Regiment 
N. J. Volunteers, August 11th, 1862; promoted Colonel of same regiment, 
March 1st, 1863, and honorably discharged the service. 


FRANCIS G. BREWSTER, was a lineal descendent of the Brewsters that 
crossed the ocean in the May Flower, of whom the Rev. Mr. Steele, of Wash- 
ington, has given a faithful history. He studied medicine about the year 
1785, received a certificate of license, and married a Miss Seeley. 

Dr. Francis G. Brewster, better known as Dr. Gilbert Brewster, may have 
practiced considerably in Bridgeton during the early part of his professional 
life, but in later years he confined himself almost exclusively to the business 
of a druggist. He established, beyond doubt, the first pure drug store in 
Bridgeton, which store has remained in the hands of the Brewster family until 
the present time — the location having been several times changed. As it 


was first established, it was a very small affair, upon the comer of Commerce 
and Atlantic streets. An old lady, known to the writer, says that she dis- 
tinctly remembers buying medicine at Dr. Brewster^s store upon the comer 
referred to, in 1811. Here the doctor not only sold medi(iines, but pre- 
scribed for such of his friends as chose to seek his professional aid. He was 
succeeded in business by his son, the late Francis G. Brewster. 

The doctor was a member of, and a ruling elder in the Presbyterian 
church. He died in 1828, and was buried in the old graveyard at Bridge- 
ton. An upright stone marks his resting place inscribed as follows : 


To the memory of 

Francis G. Brewster, M. D., 

Who departed this life 

July 26th, 1828, 

In the 60th year of his age. 

Blessed is the man that maketh 

the Lord his trust. 

CHARLES CLARE was of very respectable parentage. He was the son 
of Daniel and Rachel Clark, and was bom October 19th, 1773. He received 
a good English education, and previous to commencing the study of medi- 
cine, with Dr. Ebenezer Elmer, he acquired some knowledge of the Latin 
language. He was licensed to practice medicine and surgery by censors ap- 
pointed by the Medical Society of New Jersey, and settled at Roadstown, 
where he acquired a large practice. He was married to Anna, daughter of 
David Gilman, by whom he had a son and daughter, both now living in 
Salem, N. J. He died of apoplexy, February 25th, 1828. 

EPHRAIM BATEMAN (1) was born in the township of Fairfield, county 
of Cumberland, July 9th, 1780. His father — Burgin Bateman— was a farmer 
in moderate circumstances. The son was of a delicate constitution, and 
being unfitted for manual employment, was apprenticed to the trade of a 
tailor. It was, however, soon discovered that a sedentary life would be in- 
jurious to his abeady feeble health. He abandoned the shop and entered, as 
a pupil, the village school. His early educational advantages were such as 
were afforded in the primary schools of his native township. At the age of 
nineteen he taught, for one year, at New Englandtown, and while thus en- 
gaged his attention seems to have been turned to the study of medicine. In 
1801 he became a student of Dr. Jonathan Elmer of Bridgeton, and attended 
medical lectures in the winters of 1802 and 1803, in the University of Penn, 



Dr. Benjamin Rush was then Professor of the Theory and Practice of Medi- 
cine, and a strong attachment soon sprang up between them, which lasted 
for life. 

In his attendance upon the Alms House clinic he was in the habit of 
taking notes of the cases presented for treatment. We copy a few extracts 
from his memoranda, both as a matter of interest and curiosity : 

Feby. 2d, 1803. John English, aged 63. Disease — a cough and pain in 
the side. Treatment — bleeding and a blister to the side. 

Feby. 5th, Is some better. Cough, however, still remains. Let him 
lose a little more blood. 

Feby. 9th. Cough continues. Give antimonial powders. 
" 12th. Is better. Give soap liniment to rub his back with. 
*^ 16th. Is better. Give only an anodyne at night. 
" 19th. Is better. 
" 23d. Is nearly well. 

Case IL January 22. William Robinson, a sailor, aged 35 ; disease, an 
inflammatory fever, with but little local pain. Prescription — the loss of 10 
oz. of blood, and a dose of Glauber salts. 

Jan. 26th. Is better. Take a little more blood, and give antimonial pow- 

Jan. 29th. Is nearly well. 

Feby. 2d. Is not so well. Pulse rather active, with some pain. Take 10 
oz. of blood. 

Feby. 5th. Is no better. Pulse still active. Let him lose 10 oz. of blood. 
Apply blisters to the wrists, and continue antimonial powders. 

Feby. 9th. Is better. 
'* 12th. Still continues better. Give only nourishment. 
*' 19th. Is under a complete salivation. 
" 26th. Is better. 

Ailer leaving the University, and receiving a certificate of license, he mar- 
ried and settled in Cedarville, and very soon acquired an extensive practice in 
the townships of Fairfi .Id and Downe. The doctor was six feet one inch in 
height, and was in the habit of visiting his patients upon horseback. His 
manners in the sick room were pleasant and calculated to inspire confidence 
in the minds of the afflicted. As his practice was attended with success, his 
reputation very soon extended beyond the township lines, and his advice 
was often sought, not only by invalids living in remote parts of the county, 
but by bis professional brethren in cases of consultation. 

When the doctor began the practice, seventy years ago, midwives were 


employed very generally to attend the confined ; but several preternatural 
cases occurring about this time he was called in, and conducting them to a 
successful issue, his reputation as an accoucheur became established. Mid- 
wives subsided, and at this day exist only as curiosities. 

The doctor was in the habit of keeping a diary, in which is recorded the 
details of every obstetrical case falling under his care. This antiquated 
document is one of much interest, and from its voluminous pages we have 
selected the following case. We give it in the language of the diary: 

" 1805, April 10, Wednesday. Mrs. Elizabeth Button, wife of William 
Dutton. This being a truly extraordinary and melancholy case, I shall take 
pains to state the particulars attending it. This woman had been married 
nearly two years, had never had any children, but was about 86 years of age. 
She had been very unwell for three or four weeks, daily expecting her labor 
to come on. This morning, about 9 o'clock, as I was riding downwards, I 
met her husband, who requested me to call and see her, stating that she had 
a violent pain in her head. I soon called at his house, found her complain- 
ing violently of her head, a dimness of sight, numbness of the extremities, 
and a general distress which she could not describe. Her pulse was rather 
slow, but full. I took immediately about 14 or 15 ounces of blood from the 
arm, and gave her a teaspoonful of Elix. Paregoric. This aflfbrded but little 
relief. She still complained of an intense pain in her head, together with 
an almost total loss of vision. I then applied a blister plaster to her fore, 
head. In about ten minutes after she was seized with a violent convulsion 
fit, bearing all the marks of the puerperal. After a short interval she had 
another, when her waters came away. I then thought proper to make an 
examination, but was much put to it to find the os uteri. I at length, how- 
ever, succeeded in finding it, high in the posterior part of the pelvis, scarce- 
ly large enough to admit my finger, and in a state of obstinate rigidity. I 
drew it forward to the centre of the inferior aperture of the pelvis, and by a 
semi-rotatory motion of my finger endeavored to assist the dilatatigns of it, 
(for she had pain regularly ; fits at intervals of 5, 10 and 15 minutes, and no 
sense.) Affairs went on in this way till about 3 P. M., by which time she 
had had 15 fits, and the os uteri was very considerably dilated. Her pulse 
was regular, and she quite strong. At this time she had three fits in quick 
succession, after which they were suspended for a full hour and a half, 
during which time her pains, though weak, were quite regular, and had pro- 
duced the effect of fully dilating the os uteri, and the head of the child was 
about dropping into the vagina, and a flattering prospect entertained that 
the labor would soon be completed, when she was taken in another fit, being 


the 19th, and died immediately. I forgot to observe that she had one or two 
distinct rigors in the morning. Query. "Would it have been advisable to 
have artificially delivered this woman, by means of the forceps, vectis, or 
some such instrument, in the fore part of her labor ? Every circumstance 
considered, I think not. A rational prospect was entertained, I think on 
sound principles, that she might struggle through, and be finally safely 
delivered. The age of this patient was no doubt an unfavorable circum- 

The doctor continued to practice medicine until 1813, when he was elected 
to the lower house of the Legislature of New Jersey, and in 1815 to the 
House of Representatives of the U. S., which office he held by re-elections 
until 1823. In 1826 he was elected a member of the upper house (then 
called Council) of this State, and during its sessions was elected to represent 
the State in the Senate of the U. S., for the term of six years. His health, 
however, failing, he was obliged in 1828 to resign the position. The Hon. 
Hahlon Dickerson was elected by the Legislature to fill his unexpired term. 

In 1813 he made a public profession of religion, and connected himself 
with the Presbyterian Church of Fairfield, under the pastoral charge of the 
Rev. Ethan Osbom. In 1825 he was elected a Ruling Elder. The doctor's 
health had been delicate for several years ; his appearance indicated the ex- 
istence of phthisis. On the first of December, 1828, he had a violent attack 
of Hoemoptysis, which undoubtedly very much hastened the fatal result. He 
fully realized his situation, spoke of his approaching death with the utmost 
calmness, and giving his dying counsel to his family and friends, he gently 
fell asleep, January 28th, 1829. At his death he left a widow and six child- 
ren, one of whom is the present Dr. B. Rush Bateman of Cedarville. 
He was the grand -father of the biographer. 

A flat stone marks his last resting-place in the graveyard of the " Old 
Stone Church," inscribed as follows : 


to the 

Memory of 

DocT. Ephraim Bateman, 

Who departed this life 

January 28th, 1829, 

Aged 48 years, 6 months, and 9 days. 

He was repeatedly chosen by his fellow citizens to represent them in the 

Legislative Assembly, and Council of his native State, and also in 

the House of Representatives and Senate of the United 

States, which last office he held till he resigned it 

a short time previous to his decease. 


He was long a professor of religion, and for several years one of the 

elders of this church. 
" Jesus, to thy dear faithful hand 
My naked soul I trust : 
And my flesh waits for thy command, 
To drop into my dust." 

JAMES B. PARVIN, son of Rev. Holmes and Elizabeth Parvin, was bom 
in Deerfield Township, on the 3d of June, 1779, and died at Cedarville the 
28th of October, 1834. 

The boyhood of the deceased, so far as is known, was not marked by any- 
thing of special interest. His educational advantages were confined to the 
schools of the immediate neighborhood in which his parents resided. Early 
in life he manifested a love for poetry, and frequently tried his hand at versi- 
fication, leaving at his death, in manuscript form, a number of poetical effu- 
sions, the most of which are of a strongly sacred character. 

Having chosen medicine as his profession, he entered, as a student, the 
ofiice of Dr. Benjamin Fisler, of Port Elizabeth. It is believed that he never 
attended even a partial course of lectures, but was licensed as a practitioner 
by the Supreme Court of the State of New Jersey. He very soon thereafter, 
upon the first of April, 1802, was married to Lovicy, daughter of Ephraim 
Lummis, and removed to Egg Harbor, where he first commenced his business 
as a physician. But the salt air so overpowered him that he was obliged, 
after a stay of two years, to leave, and bringing his family to Cedarville, he 
began practice in that town, which soon became both large and lucrative. 
He was employed very generally by the Methodist denomination, of which 
society he was for many years an active member. He resided on the main 
stage road, in the house now known as the ** Old Parvin House," which prop- 
erty he bought of Dr. Jacob Egbert, Dr. Egbert having bought the same of 
Dr. Azel Pierson. 

Dr. Parvin is said to have been a man of considerable popularity as a phy- 
sician, pleasing in his address, and very fond of a practical joke. Upon one 
occasion he was visiting a patient at Dividing Creek, and left the sick woman 
two powders, and ordered them taken one in the morning and the othfer at 
night. At his second visit he made inquiry as to the action of the medicine, 
and was informed by the lady that she had experienced no benefit therefrom, 
although she had taken the powders, papers and strings precisely as he 
ordered. The doctor used to relate this circumstance with great gusto, and 
was always careful, when occasion required, to specify that papers and 
strings were not regarded by the profession as remedial agents. 


Some fifteen years before his death he thought it his duty to preach the 
Gospel, and, upon application, was licensed by the religious denomination 
of which he was a member. 

His license as a preacher gave him the right to solemnize marriages. One 
morning, as he was cutting wood at his wood-pile, a man called to engage his 
services in that capacity. The doctor knew that the man was already mar- 
ried, and accordingly told him that before he could marry him again, it 
would be necessary to unmarry him. To this the man assented, and replied 
'* that is just what I want." '* Very well," answered the doctor, " you lay 
your head on th'iB chopping log, and I will very soon unmarry you." It is 
hardly necessary to remark that the man's retreat was both rapid and final. 
He did not like the plan. 

Dr. Parvin's wit and humor remained with him till his dying hour. He 
died of inflamation of the bowels, and his attending physician ordered an 
application of hops to the abdomen. Soon after the application was made, 
the doctor, on rising from his bed, dropped his poultice. *^ There," he 
exclaimed, ^^ I have misearried,''^ 

The doctor died comparatively young, but lived long enough to number 
among his Mends some of the best and most influential citizens of Fairfield. 
The oldest inhabitants still speak of him in words of praise. 

He was buried in the graveyard of the M. E. Church at Fairfield. The 
following is hia epitaph : 


memory of the 

Rev. James B. Pakvtn, 

who departed this life in strong confidence and 

a lively hope of a blissful immortality, 

on the 28th of October, 1834, 

in the 55th year of his age. 

In his profession he was much esteemed ; 

83 years he was an acceptable member 

of the M. E. Church, a part of which time 

he was a trustee, class leader, 

and local Deacon in said church, and 

filled each office with dignity 

and much usefulness. 

WILLIAM ELMER (1) was bom in Bridgeton, March 23d, 1788. He 
was the youngest son of Dr. Jonathan Elmer, one of the first graduates of 
the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania. He received his 
education in the schools of Bridgeton, was regarded as a good English 
scholar, and had some knowledge of the classics. The death of his elder 


brother, while a student at Nassau Hall, made his father loth to have him 
leave home for the purpose of acquiring «. collegiate education. He was, 
however, thoroughly educated as a physician, having spent several years in 
the prosecution of his studies in Philadelphia, during which time he was an 
attendant at the hospital, and in practice at the dispensary. He graduated 
in 1811. 

The year following he commenced the practice of medicine in Bridgeton, 
and was married to Miss Nancy B. Potter. She lived four years thereafter, 
and was the mother of three children, one of whom is the present Dr. Wil- 
liam Elmer of Bridgeton. He was married again in 1819, to Miss Margaret K. 
Potter, and they were the parents of three children, all of whom, together 
with the widow, are still living. 

Dr. Elmer soon acquired a large practice, and was the leading physician 
of the town. He was, however, engaged in the active duties of his profession 
but a very few years, and his popularity during these years must have been 
quite remarkable. At the death of his father, in 1817, he fell heir to an 
ample fortune, and very soon retired from practice. But he did not by any 
means lead a life of indolence. On the contrary he was, until laid aside by 
rheumatism in the latter part of his life, very much employed in the promo- 
tion of agriculture. He is said to have taken a great interest in the raising 
of stock, and upon several occasions imported to the county improved 
breeds. He was an excellent judge of horses, and is spoken of as a fine 

In 1824 the celebrated General LaFayette, having received an invitation 
from Congress to visit this country, arrived at New York, and spent a year 
in making excursions throughout the several States. He was everywhere 
received with many demonstrations of public joy. Upon the occasion of his 
visit to Philadelphia there was a grand military display in honor of the 
event, and Dr. Elmer, who had for some years been drilling a troop of cav- 
alry, was present with his command at the reception. It is perhaps enough 
of compliment to his soldierly qualities to state that this troop of cavalry 
attracted great attention, and was regarded among the best in the imposing 

During the latter part of his life he was very much afflicted with rheuma- 
tism, to which disease he had an hereditary predisposition, and at the last, 
seizing upon the vital organs, it hastened Mr death at the early age of forty- 

A large raised flat stone marks his grave in the cemetery of the Presbyte- 
rian Church at Bridgeton, inscribed as follows : 


This stone is erected 

as an affectionate memorial 


WnxiAM Elmer, M. D., 

son of Jonathan and Mary Elmer, 

who died May 6th, A. D. 1836, 

aged 48 years. 

He was a graduate of the medical department of the 

University of Pennsylvania, and occupied 

an elevated station in his profession, but retired 

from its arduous practice in 1822. 

The possession of literary attainments, generous philanthropy, 

and sterling integrity, combined with a pleasing 

familiarity of deportment, procured for him 

the confidence and esteem of all who were 

intimately acquainted with him. 

After a life thus spent, he was suddenly cut off, in the 

vigor of manhood, expressing firm belief in a 

joyful reconciliation with liis divine Master. 

EBENEZER ELMER, son of Daniel, 2d, was bom in the family house at 
Cedarville, August 28d, 1752, and died at his son's, in Bridgeton, October 
18th, 1843. 

Dr. Elmer was early left an orphan by the death of his father, and remained 
with his mother on the homestead until near the close of her life. His edu- 
cational advantages were exceedingly limited. In a short memoir, prepared 
by himself, he states that " when my father died, I could read tolerably well, 
and improved myself by frequently reading aloud to my mother. I do not 
recollect to have gone to any other than an evening school after my father's 
death, but one quarter, during which I went through with arithmetic with 
one Norbury, a celebrated teacher, until the fall of 1773, when I placed my- 
self under the tuition of John Westcott, at Bridgeton, to learn the practical 
branches of a seafaring life." It is said that he always showed the want of 
a good education, although his natural capacity and diligent habits as a stu- 
dent very much supplied the deficiency. He gave himself considerably to 
reading, and in after years exercised very assiduously the art of composition. 
He was frequently employed to draft political papers for his party, and con- 
tributed a number of articles upon different subjects to the local newspapers. 
He thus attained to a very good style. 

In 1774 he was induced to enter the office of his brother. Dr. Jonathan 
Elmer, for the purpose of studying medicine. He prosecuted these studies 
for a term of two years, and went through all the branches usufdly taught at 
any medical school. It does not appear that he was ever matriculated at a 
medical college, or received a diploma of graduation. 


In 1776 he was appointed an ensign in Capt. Bloomfield^s company, and 
shortly after promoted to a Lieutenancy. After serving almost a year in 
the latter capacity, the regiment to which he was attached was disbanded, and 
declining a reappointment in the line of the army, he joined the 2d New 
Jersey Regiment as Surgeon's mate, under Dr. Lewis Howell. After the 
death of Dr. Howell, which occurred in about fifteen months, (just after the 
battle of Monmouth,) Dr. Elmer was commissioned as regimental Surgeon? 
and served in that station, as an officer of the staff, until the disbanding of 
the army in 1783. He was connected with the army in the ways mentioned 
almost eight years, and rendered our country most efficient service during its 
early struggles for nationality. 

At the close of the war, he commenced civil practice in Bridgeton, in con- 
nection with Dr. James Ramsey. This partnership, however, was very soon 
dissolved, and Dr. Elmer, whose experience in the army gave him celebrity, 
at once acquired an extensive practice. In 1784 he was married to Hannah 
Seeley, daughter of Col. Ephraim Seeley, and they were the parents of two 
children, Lucius Quintius Cincinnatus, and Sarah Smi^h. Five years there- 
after he entered the arena as a politician, and was elected a member of the 
Assembly, and continued a member of the House until 1795, and upon two 
occasions was elected Speaker of the same. In 1800 he was elected to a seat 
in the House of Representatives, and continued a member for six sessions. 
In 1804 he was appointed Adjutant General of the New Jersey militia, and 
in 1806 Brigadier General of the Cumberland Brigade. In 1807 he was 
elected a member of the Legislative Council of this State, and the year fol- 
lowing was appointed Collector of the Port of Bridgeton. In 1814 he 
received the appointment of Assessor of the United States direct taxes for 
the sixth district of this State. Besides these offices, he was the war collec- 
tor of the county, for several years a judge and justice, and for short periods 
Clerk and Surrogate of Cumberland. 

It is said that as a physician he had a characteristic way of disposing of 
the inquisitive. When asked what is the matter with this patient or that, 
he was in the habit of saying, " he has a fever," and if still plied with ques- 
tions, he would answer again, " he has a fever." In this way he defeated 
the designs of news-mongers, and remained the master of his own business. 
It is also said of him that he had the courage to omit a prescription when 
none was needed. Imaginary sickness never received from him any counte- 
nance. In this particular at least his example is worthy of imitation. 

It may be interesting to mention that he was the Secretary of an association 
in Bridgeton, in 1776, who made it a business to prepare weekly papers on 


various topics, which papers were copied and left at the tavem of one Mat- 
thew Potter, to be read by any who might be desirous of obtaining the latest 
news. It seems hardly credible that this mode of communication was in 
vogue in this county less than a century ago. We often fail to appreciate 
the privileges that we enjoy, until we bring them in comparison with those 
of our forefathers. And it is interesting to find such a man as Dr. Elmer 
willing to give his time in this way for the instruction and amusement of the 

Dr. Elmer attained the extreme age of 91 years. His life was an eminently 
active, and an exceedingly use^l one. Having just reached his majority at 
the commencement of the revolutionary war, he entered, as we have seen, 
with his whole heart, into the colonial struggle for Independence, and his 
name deserves to be preserved forever in the list of those ** that were not 
born to die.'^ All honor to the patriot dead ! And he deserves to be remem- 
bered, not only as a patriot and a citizen of distinction both in public and 
private life, but he deserves to be remembered by us as physicians, for the 
organization of this District Medical Society of Cumberland county was per- 
haps due more to his influence and exertion than to that of any physician 
then. living. He was from the very first interested in all of its proceedings, 
and contributed very largely by his presence and his position to its continued 
growth and prosperity. For five years he was the presiding oflficer of the 
Society, and seems to have taken a prominent part, not only in the 
transaction of its legitimate business, but in the discussion of medical 

But any memoir of Dr. Ebenezer Elmer would be' quite incomplete which 
failed to notice his early convictions upon the subject of religion, and his 
subsequent consistent life as a Christian. In speaking upon this point, he 
says, "I will mention that in the Spring of 1765 a general revival of religion 
took place in the congregation at Fairfield, under the pastoral care of Rev. 
William Ramsey, of which I partook in a sensible manner. The young in 
general became very much engaged, and we had meetings at least twice a 
week during all the Simimer and Fall. Under the impressions received at 
home, and at the church and prayer meetings, I became a believer in the Gos- 
pel plan of redemption by faith in Jesus Christ. However much, amidst the 
alluring vanities of the world, I deviated from Christian integrity, the Bible 
was ever precious to me, and I can heartily recommend it to others, as con- 
taining all things necessary to make us wise unto salvation, and to lead us 
safely through Irfe.^* In 1825 he connected himself, upon profession of his 
faith in Christ, with the Presbyterian church in Bridgeton. He established 


the first Sabbath-flchool in the county, and was for many years the President 
of the Bible Society, and one of its founders. 

" Antigua home mrtute etfde,'''^ 

On an upright stone in the grave-yard of the old Presbyterian church at 
Bridgeton, we read as follows : 


Memory of 

General Ebenezer Elmeb, 

A soldier of the Revolution, 

Who died October 18th, 1848, 

Aged 91 years. 

HOSEA PITHIAN was bom in Deerfield township, Cumberland county, 
N. J., January 1st, 1800, and died at Woodstown, Salem county, September, 
1847. He was the son of Jonathan Fithian, and enjoyed, during the years of 
his childhood and youth, the advantages of the common schools of his native 
township. At the age of 20 his attention was turned to the study of medi- 
cine, and he accordingly entered the office of the late Dr. Ephraim Buck, as 
a pupil, and continued under his instruction for a term of three years. Quit- 
ting the office of his preceptor, he matriculated at a medical college in the 
city of Philadelphia, where he spent three additional years in the prosecution 
of his studies. At his graduation he is believed to have been qualified for 
the every-day duties of a physician. .He commenced at once the practice of 
medicine at May^s Landing, in Atlantic county, but his stay at this town was 
a temporary one. He removed to Mullica Hill in 1828, and remained in 
the practice of medicine a little over two years. He then transferred his 
residence to Woodstown, and there remained until the date of his death, in 

He is buried in the Friends* grave-yard at Woodstown, and his last rest- 
ing place is said to be marked by a neat tomb stone, which circumstance is 
so unusual among the Society of Friends that it is deemed worthy of men- 
tion in connection with his history. 

JOHN GARRISON is believed to have been a regular practitioner of 
medicine. Of his early history we know nothing. He is said to have prac- 
ticed a few years at the beginning of his career in the State of Delaware. 
From thence he removed to Mullica Hill, and after remaining there a short 
time he changed his residence to Falrton, and finally to Bridgeton, where he 
died at an early age. An old gentleman now living in Falrton relates that 


Dr. Garrison was called to see his father professionally, and after an exami. 
nation of the case, he very gravely ordered roasted polk root to be applied to 
the bottom of the feet. The son remembers digging the root, roasting it, 
and applying it as ordered, and also remembers that his father did not sub- * 
mit to the application very long. The doctor's remedy was worse than the 
patient's disease. 

The doctor was for some years a member of the Methodist Chmtsh, and 
professed at one time to have attained to a state of perfection. He once said 
to a friend, '^ I have lived a perfectly sinless life for so many weeks." The 
friend made no reply. *^ My conscience has not in all that time accused me 
of sin." "Ah," said the friend, " I did not believe your first statement, but 
the last I do believe ; the conscience often becomes so seared that it ceases 
to accuse of sin." The rebuke was kindly received, and the subject 

Dr. Garrison is said to have been a man of very shallow mind, not by any 
means qualified mentally for the duties of his professional life. And, indeed, 
in later years it became necessary to appoint a commidsion of lunacy upon 
his case, as he was considered by his friends quite incompetent to the man- 
agement of his worldly affairs. Judge L. Q. C. Elmer and Dr. Ephraim 
Buck were appointed the commissioners, and they cited Garrison to appear 
at the Court House that his case might be investigated. As he entered the 
Court House he spied Dr. Buck sitting as one of the commissioners, where- 
upon he cried out, " Buck's a pretty man to appoint on this business ; I've 
got as much sense as he has ; I take care of my property, and that is more 
than he does.'.' This burst of indignation created quite a laugh, but did not 
in anywise alter the decision of the commissioners. 

The doctor was a brother of Powel Garrison, and his wife was a sister to 
Daniel M. Woodruff, of Bridgeton. He was the father of several children, 
one of whom, William, was a graduate of medicine. 

JOSEPH BUTCHER, Jr., the son of Dr. Joseph Butcher, the elder, was 
bom in Mauricetown, Cumberland county, March 10th, 1824. He graduated 
at the Jefferson Medical College, of Philadelphia, in ^the class of 1848-9, and 
died October 17th, 1849. 

The following preamble and resolutions were adopted at a special meeting 
of Ariel Lodge, No. 56, L O. of O. F. : 

Whereas, It has pleased the Almighty, in the mysterious workings of his 
Providence, to cut down in the Spring-time of his years, and the opening of 


his manhood, just as he was prepared for a useful life, our well-beloved 
brother, Dr. Joseph Butcher, Jr., therefore 

JReaolved, That we, the officers and members of his own Lodge, and sister 
' Lodges, feel with deep and heart-felt sensibility the loss sustained by our 
Order, and the community in which he resided. 

Meaoked^ That in his death we haye lost a brother endeared to us by his 
pure life and worthy example, and humanity has cause to mourn the depart- 
ure of a sterling Mend. 

THOMAS W. PECK, son of John Peck, was bom in Stoe Creek Town- 
ship, Novomber 4th, 1779. His father was a soldier in the revolutionary 
war. The educational advantages of his son were limited, and confined to 
the schools of his immediate neighborhood. In 1798 he entered the office 
of Dr. Brewster, of Deerfield, and began the study of medicine. He was 
soon thereafter matriculated in one of the medical schools of Philadelphia, 
and graduated at the age of twenty-two. After his graduation, he accepted 
a situation as surgeon on board Girard's ship " Good Friends," sailing from 
Philadelphia to Cuba, and commanded by Captain Earl. In about one year 
he resigned his position as surgeon, and commenced private practice at Abse- 
con, Atlantic county, N. J. Here he remained twelve years, and then trans- 
ferred his residence to the village of Shiloh, Cumberland county, N. J. Li 
1828, after his removal to the latter place, he was married to Miss Jane H. 

At the age of fifty he had a severe attack of apoplexy, the effect of 
which ever after showed itself upon his physical system, as well as his intel- 
lectual faculties. His professional labors thereafter were necessarily very 
much curtailed. He died August 30th, 1852. 

LAWRENCE VAN HOOK was one of the early members of the District 
Medical Society. He is said to have lived for a time at Schooner^s Landing, 
a town of considerable importance on the Menantico. From thence he moved 
to Dennisville, Cape May county, where he continued to reside a number of 
years, devoting his time very largely to the practice of medicine. The writer 
has heard but recently an amusing case which occurred in the practice of Dr. 
Van Hook, and which it may not perhaps be amiss to relate. The doctor 
was summoned in haste to visit a man who was reported as having sustained 
a serious injury. He examined the case very critically, and pronounced it one 
of fractured femur, and getting his apparatus in order, he proceeded to re. 


adjust the broken bone. Having watched the case for long tedious weeks, he 
was rejoiced at the last to see the man again upon his leet, and hobbling 
upon his crutches. But patients to whom the physician has shown the most 
kindness, are sometimes the first to berate him and malign his character. 
Thus it was in this instance. The man imagined his case badly managed, 
and finally brought suit against the doctor for malpractice. The case was 
tried in court. A committee of physicians was appointed to examine the 
broken femur, and report upon the degree of deformity. Their decision was 
awaited with anxiety. At last it came, and was in words to this effect, viz : 
'' Having examined this case very carefully, we are obliged to report that we 
see no evidence that the bone was ever broken ; there is no deformity exist- 
ing, and it is our deliberate opinion that the man^s leg has never been frac- 
tured.'^ Exit Van Hook and his patient. 

The doctor was not a graduate. He was armed with a license from the 
State, which in early days, according to Dr. Isaac H. Hampton, was regarded 
86 great an honor as a diploma from any medical college in the country. 

After having raised a family of children, and become somewhat advanced 
in years, he caught the western fever, and started in pursuit of a new home. 
He found a home and a grave among strangers. He died in Jackson county, 

EDWARD MULPORD PORTER, son of Joshua Porter and Mary Marr 
Sheppard, was bom at Camden, New Jersey, on the 20th day of August, 
1825. He was placed at school first at Camden, and then at Yincentown, 
after which be was employed for a short time as a teacher in a school in 
Greenwich, and for about a year as clerk in a store. He commenced the 
study of medicine with Dr. Enoch Fithian, in the Spring of the year 1846, 
attended three courses of lectures in the medical school of the University of 
Pennsylvania, received the degree of M. D. in the Spring of the year 1849, 
and, associated with his late medical preceptor, immediately thereafter com- 
menced the practice of medicine in Greenwich. In the month of February, 
1851, he was married to Miss Mary Brewster. Through the Winter of 1850-51 
he was affected with cough and pain in the chest, which, however, did not 
occasion any great degree of solicitude as to the result, either on the part of 
himself or his friends ; but on a night in the month of May, while returning 
from a visit to a patient in Salem county, he was attacked with hemoptysis, 
which being profuse, left him weak, and obliged him to relinquish all profe&- 
aional boBineaa. In the Summer of the year 1851 he changed hia residence 


to Bridgcton, after which the disease of his lungs gradually made progress, 
until its usually slow but certain work was finished in the death of his victim 
on the 10th day of January, 1853. 

Dr. Porter had many, and warm friends. His good intellect, his attain- 
ments in medical science, high sense of moral rectitude, good address, cour- 
teous manners and untiring devotion to his profession, gained for him, in a 
comparatively short time, that confidence and esteem as a physician which 
is ordinarily attained only by years of unremitted attention to its duties. 

During the weary and painful months in which his life was wearing away, 
he was sustained by that religion of which he had made a public profession 
at his baptism, in the Presbyterian church at Greenwich. He had that trust 
in God, and confidence' in His mercy, which can legitimately result only from 
hearty repentance and true faith, and was expressed in his dying words, ** I 
shall soon be with the angels." 

His remains were interred in the cemetery of the Presbyterian church at 
Bridgeton, where a handsome monument with an appropriate inscription 
marks his grave : 

Edwatid M. Porter, M. D., 
Died January 10th, 1853, 

Aged 27 years. 
There is rest in Heaven. 

EPHRAIM BUCK was bom in Millville, Cumberland county, February 
23d, 1795, and received his academic education chiefly in Fairfield and 
Bridgeton. He commenced the study of medicine in 1814, under the instruc- 
tions of Doctors S. M. Shute and Wm. Elmer (1), and received his diploma 
from the University of Pennsylvania in the Spring of 1817. He entered 
immediately upon the practice of his profession among the scenes of his early 
days, and was for a short time in partnership with one of his preceptors, Dr. 
William Elmer. His energy of character, pleasing address and medical skill, 
aided by a large and influential family connection, very speedily procured 
for him an extensive practice. 

In the year 1819 he was united by marriage to Miss Elizabeth Hendry, 
daughter of the late Dr. Bowman Hendry, of Haddonfield, N. J. 

In the full of 1818 he removed to Philadelphia, and in the northern part 
of the city soon succeeded in obtaining a respectable practice. He was phy- 
sician of the city prison in 1888- 84, when it was visited with the cholera, 
and by his unremitting attention and judicious management, contributed 


much to mitigate the horrors of a disease which had so recently made its 
first appearance upon the American continent. 

In the fall of 1889 he removed to Columbus, Burlington county, N. J., and 
while there was deprived by death of his wife. 

After the lapse of a few years, in 1843, he again came to reside in Bridge- 
ton, and was married July 10th, 1845, to Miss Abigail Aim Allen, of Pitts- 
grove, who died suddenly the following year. 

Dr. Buck lived a life of usefulness, and occupied an influential position in 
society. He was considered a skillful physician, and his reputation extended 
to all parts of the county. He was generally consulted by his professional 
brethren, in severe and abnormal obstetrical cases, and his fame as an obstet- 
ician was worthily obtained. 

He was also a public-spirited citizen, foremost in every laudable enter- 
prise. The cause of temperance had in him a warm and uncompromising 
friend. He was devoted to its interests, and exerted himself in every way to 
advance its claims. For many years he was an active member of the Cumber- 
land County Bible Society, and prepared several of the annual reports for 
that body. 

The doctor was a strong partisan of the Henry Clay school, and on several 
occasions figured conspicuously in the political arena. Although decided in 
his convictions, he was nevertheless liberal to his opponents, and exercised 
charity toward those who difiered with him on any of the issues of the 

His social qualities were very fine. He possessed the faculty of making 
himself agreeable to all classes of society. His mental storehouse contained 
food for every one. His natural turn of mind carried him often into the 
field of literature, and his pen has written frequently for the public press. 
His writings were of that substantial character which gave them weight and 
commanded respect. 

The following extract is taken from a notice of his death published in 
the county papers : " His loss will be deeply felt by his family, by the church, 
and by the community at large; but he leaves to those who are thus 
bereayed, the consolation of believing that his pilgrimage is ended in that 
rest which remaineth to the people of God." 

A plain, upright stone marks his grave, inscribed as follows: 

Ephradc Buck, M. D., 

Bom February 23d, 1795, 

Died July 14th, 1855. 

Asleep in Jesus. 


WILLIAM STEELING was bom in Bridgeton, Cumberland county, N. 
J., in the year 1785. He was the only son of William Steeling, a Scotchman, 
who lived at the Indian-fields adjoining Bridgetou, where he gained a liveli- 
hood by farming. He was also a school teacher, and probably gave consid- 
erable attention to the education of his son. It seems to have been under- 
stood at first that he should study theology. With this in view, he was put 
under the care of Rev. Henry Smalley, of Bowentown, with whom he studied 
about two years. Subsequently, however, changing his mind with regard to 
his future course, and abandoning his first intention, he commenced the study 
of medicine with Dr. Azel Pierson, of Bridgeton, and graduated at the Jef- 
ferson Medical College, of Philadelphia. 

Dr. Steeling was married October 2d, 1810, when twenty-five years of age, 
to Miss Hannah Ware, of Stoe Creek township. He had two sons and one*: 
daughter. Of his children, the youngest son only is now living, and resides 
in Philadelphia. Mra. Steeling died in the latter city in 1850. 

Dr. Steeling was a man of industrious and sober habits, a lover of his pro- 
fession, and successful in its practice. In the year 1847 he removed from 
Bridgeton to Philadelphia, and died January 6th, 1856, in the 71st year of 
his age. 

DANIEL C. PIERSON was bom at Cedarville, Cumberland county. New 
Jersey, October 9th, 1792. While yet a boy, his parents removed to Bridge- 
ton, where he continued to reside until the Spring of 1815. He studied 
medicine with his father. Dr. Azel C. Piereon, and attended three courses of 
medical lectures at the University of Pennsylvania, graduating in 1814. His 
father having died in 1813, he spent the year subsequent to his gradua- 
tion in the settlement of the estate. In 1815 he commenced the practice of 
medicine at Cedarville, and very soon acquired a large and extensive prac- 
tice. He is described as being tall, slender, and very nimble. His personal 
attire was exceedingly plain. He rode in a two-wheeled sulkey, and drove a 
balky horse. As a physician he is said to have had the kindest of hearts, 
and soon won the confidence and affection of his patients. In his practice 
he used very largely the mild chloride of mercury, often carrying its use to 
profuse salivation. 

During his attendance upon the medical lectures of Dr. Rush, he became 
most forcibly impressed with the views of that venerable " father of American 
medicine" on the subject of temperance, and thus became one of the pioneers 
of that great movement after his settlement in CedarviUe. In consultation on 


the snbject with the late Key. Ethan Osbom, for so many years pastor of the 
Presbyterian church at Fairfield, Mr. O. advised him to call a meeting and 
organize a society, '* for," said he, " temperance is a good thiDg.'' But when 
informed by the doctor that his co-operation would be needed, and that he 
must accept the office of President, he demurred, saying, ** It will not do, I 
have several gallons of rum in my cellar." He, however, yielded to the per- 
suasions of the doctor, and to his own convictions of right, sacrificed the 
rum, presided at the meeting, and was the first to sign the pledge. The 
Secretary, Dr. B. Rush Bateman, was the second. Dr. Pierson ever continued 
the uncompromising foe of intemperance, and his influence as an advocate of 
reform, while a resident of Cedarville, was wide-spread and salutary. Upon 
this subject he was very far in advance of the men of his time. 

In the year 1817 he, together with Dr. Leonard Lawrence and two others, 
started for the far West. They walked to Pittsburg, bought a skiff, and went 
down the Ohio to Cincinnati, then but a village ; from thence he walked to 
Vincennes, most of the way alone, through the then wilds of Ohio and Indi- 
ana, and thought to go into Illinois, but was assured by the people that Illi- 
nois was at best a poor, flat prairie country, that would not be settled for 
a long time to come. He thereupon retraced his steps, or rather went down 
the Wabash in a skiff, and then up the Ohio to Cincinnati. From this vil- 
lage, now grown to be one of the largest cities in the United States, he 
returned home on horseback. Such a trip now-a-days would be quite an 
event ; how much greater an undertaking in those times when railroads and 
steamboats were not yet in use. 

Having returned to Cedarville, he remained in the practice of medicine 
there until 1838, when he removed to Jacksonville. Illinois. After his 
removal to the latter place, he never engaged in the practice of his profession 
except in occasional cases of consultation. 

Dr. Pierson was not only a successful and beloved physician, but an hum- 
ble and earnest Christian. He connected himself, upon profession of his 
faith in Christ, with the " old stone church " of Fairfield, in 1828, and after 
his removal to the West was elected an elder in the Presbyterian church, 
which office he held for many years before his death. The Tuesday evening 
prayer meeting, still held in connection vrith the First Presbyterian church 
of Cedarville, was first organized at the house of Dr. Pierson, and some of 
the old citizens of that town recall the doctor's interest in those prayer meet- 
ings with the tenderest emotions. 

In 1850 he removed from Jacksonville to Augusta, HI., where he died Jan- 
nary a9th, 1857. 


JACOB W. LUDLAM was bom in Greenwich township of this county. 
He was the son of Reuben Ludlam, a farmer. We have been unsuccessful 
in obtaining any information as to his early history. His educational advan- 
tages were probably limited. The precarious state of his health during his 
early years rendered him unfit for continued application of any kind. He 
was very much reduced pbysicully, by repeated attacks of hsemoptysis, and 
was thought to be running into a rapid decline. But exercise in the open 
air, perhaps more than any other cause, contributed to overcome the tendency 
to phthisis, and made him during the latter part of his life a robust and 
portly man. Many similar instances are upon record. Prof, Wood relates 
that the late Dr. Joseph Parrish in early life labored under the symptoms of 
phthisis, and after his death, at an advanced age, was found to have several 
cicatrices in the upper part of one lung, which were obviously the remains 
of tuberculous cavities. 

Dr. Ludlam graduated from the University of Pennsylvania in March, 
1827. He married and settled in Deeifield. At first he kept a variety store, 
and ofifered for sale, among other things, a lot of drugs. He seems to have 
introduced himself into practice in this way. Professional opposition, which 
he encountered at first, gradually died out, and for many years before his 
removal to the West, he was the only physician in Deerfield, and commanded 
almost the entire practice of the township. In the sick room he was mild 
and affable, very fluent in conversation, and very popular. This affability 
no doubt contributed largely to his popularity, although as a practitioner he 
merited the confidence and respect of the community, inasmuch as he was an 
intelligent doctor and successful prescriber. His palatable manners, how- 
ever, may have done quite as much good in some cases as his unpalatable 
medicine. It is very good always to jUvwr the latter with a little of the 

Dr. Budlam was the father of several children, one of whom, the eldest, 
graduated from a medical school in Philadelphia, and settled in the city of 
Chicago. Perhaps the settlement of this son in the West, induced the doctor, 
in 1855, to emigrate thither. He did not long survive this change of red' 
dence. He died atEvanstown, 111., July, 1858. After his removal westward 
he connected himself with the Methodist church, and died in the faith of the 

REUBEN WILLETTS succeeded Dr. Benjamin Fisler in the practice of 
medicine at Port Elizabeth, and after the death of the latter had the entire 
practice of that town and vicinity. He was .a brother-in-law of Dr. E. B. 


Wales, of Cape May, and the father of Col. J. Howard Willetts, who is a 
graduate of the Jefferson Medical College, of Philadelphia, and served with 
distinction in the Union Army during the recent rebellion. 

The doctor was very mild in disposition, remarkably good-hearted, and 
very benevolent. He was popular with the people as a physician, and held 
in high esteem as a citizen. He was an active member of the M. E. Church, 
and for a number of years a class leader and local preacher. He continued 
to preach occasionally, in connection with his professional duties, up to the 
time of his death. He died in 1858, with erysipelas of the scalp, affecting 
the brain, aged about 52. 

BENNETT W. PARKER was bom at Wolcott, Conn., May 12th, 1808. 
He came to New Jersey when a young man, and was employed as a traveling 
agent, his route being in and through the southern part of the State. While 
thus engaged, he began the study of medicine. He carried his books with 
him wherever he went, and was often seen by the roadside by persons still 
living, deeply interested in the study of the Materia Medica. Although 
determined to acquire a medical education, he often found himself embar- 
rassed pecuniarily, and obliged to live upon the scantiest fare. During the 
prosecution of his studies, he is said to have lived upon fifty cents per week. 
In 1836 he received a certificate of license from the Medical Society of Con- 
necticut, which is still in the possession of his widow, and reads as follows : 

TTie Prendent of the Connecticut Medical Society^ to whom these presents 
may come^ greeting: 

Know ye that Bennett Woodward Parker has been approved relative to 
his knowledge in physic and surgery, on examination, according to the rules 
and regulations established by the Fellows of the Connecticut Medical 
Society. I do therefore hereby duly license him to practice as a physician 
and surgeon, with all the rights, privileges and honors thereunto appertain- 
ing, and do recommend him to the notice of the Faculty, and the improve- 
ment of the public. 

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand, and have caused the 
seal of the said Society to be hereunto affixed, at New Haven, this 3d day of 
March, in the year of our Lord 1836, and 60tli of American Independence. 

THOMAS MINER, M. D., President, 

T. P. BEERS, Clerh of Examining Committee. 

Dr. Parker also received a diploma from the Medical Society of New Jer- 
sey, bearing date of June 18th, 1888, and signed by Benjamin H. Stratton, 
M. D., President 



When he came to Cumberland county as a physician, he settled first in 
Bridgeton ; and after a short stay in that town, removed to Deerfield, and 
from thence to Millyille, where he continued to reside until his death. His 
practice in the latter place embraced a period of some twenty years, one-half 
of which time he was an invalid. It is related that he was frequently obliged, 
upon reaching the house of a patient, to rest upon the bed or lounge before 
he could proceed with an examination of the case. His disease was cancer 
of the duodenum. The great bodily suflfering incident thereto produced an 
irritability of temper, which interfered somewhat with the exercise of the 
highest social qualities. He nevertheless acquired a large practice, both in 
the town and adjacent country. But owing cither to an improper system of 
collection, or to habits of extravagant living, he died poor. He was a promi- 
nent member of Millville Lodge, No. 47, I. O. of 0. F., by whom he was 
buried in the Presbyterian grave-yard of that town, and a neat tombstone 
erected over his grave. He was a believer in the faith of the Presbyterian 
church, and for many years a communicant. 

The following obituary notice appeared in one of the local papers : 

In Millville, on the 18th of May, 1859, Bekijiett W. Pabkzr, in the 49th 
year of his age. 

A skillful physician, a generous friend, a kind, indulgent husband and 
father, his loss is deeply and widely felt. The following reeolutions were 
passed by Millville Lodge, No. 47, 1. O. of O. F., of which the deceased was 
a prominent member: 

Whereas, It hath pleased the all-wise disposer of events to remove from 
our Council, P. G. Bennett W. Parker, who terminated his sojourn with us 
on Wednesday morning last, at 6^ o'clock, therefore 

Besolved^ That in his death our Order has lost a brother, whose sympathies 
were actively enlisted in the best interests of humanity. 

Besohed^ That as a token of the respect we hold for him as a man and a 
brother, we will attend his funeral this afternoon at 2 o'clock, in accordance 
with the regulations of the Order. 

Besolved, That our sympathies commingle with the family and relatives of 
P. Q. Parker, who, in his death, have lost a friend whose absence makes 
desolate the domestic circle, and causes the heart to mourn with sorrow. 

JRewhed, .That we condole with the family in their bereavement, and that 
a copy of these procedings, duly certified by the Secretary, be transmitted to 
the members thereof. 

ISAAC H. HAMPTON was bom in Fairfield township, June 12th, 1785. 
His father, John T. Hampton, was a practitioner of medicine. The son 
received the ordinary common school education of that day, and then began 



the study of medicine with Dr. Beojamm Champneys, in Bridgeton. When 
only seyenteen years of age he received his diploma, as a graduate of the 
medical department of the University of Pennsylvania. The subject of his 
thesis was pneumonia. He commenced practice in Woodbury about 1806, 
married Fanny Helen Giles, April 28d, 1810, and in the following year 
removed to Bridgeton. Here he very soon acquired an extensive practice, 
which he retained for many years. His services as a physician were very 
frequently called into requisition many miles from home, sometimes as a reg- 
ular attendant and sometimes in cases of consultation. He was considered a 
good prescriber, and his practice was attended with success. He is spoken 
of as being bold and intrepid, somewhat dogmatical in his views j and per- 
sistent in his own course of treatment. He charged high for his services, and 
his praciice became lucrative as well as extensive. He was an especial fa- 
vorite as an accoucher, and had for many years a very large obstetrical prac- 
tice. His popularity in such cases was owing perhaps as much to his fine 
social qualities as to his experience and skill in the management of the con- 
fined. He was an incessant talker, kept up a continual flow of conversation, 
so that the woman in the midst of her pains was interested and cheered, and 
the " weary hours beguiled." If the case was a complicated one, he still 
manifested the same good humor and pleasantry, never allowed himself to 
become excited, and by his composure of manner exerted a happy influence 
on the woman in labor and her female attendants. 

The doctor was also a general talker in public, always wore the old fash- 
ioned ruffled shirt bosoms, and had a habit of shutting one eye when speak- 
ing. He was known as a strong politician, of the Whig school, was several 
times honored with the nominations of his party, and in October, 1838, occu- 
pied for a short time a contested seat in the Legislature of New Jersey. In 
1845 he was anxious to become the nominee of his party for Congress, but 
the Convention not regarding him as an available candidate, and in order 
to conciliate the matter, nominated his son, the Hon. James H. Hampton, 
who was very handsomely elected, and retained his seat until 1849. 

The exposure and fatigue arising from his professional labors gradually 
wore upon his constitution, — he was troubled with cough and occasional 
pleurisy, — nevertheless his life was prolonged to a good old age, and he was 
permitted to celebrate with his partner their golden wedding, April 28d, 
1860. He survived this event but a few months, and died Sept. 4th, 1860, 
aged 75 years. 

Agreeable to his request, Drs. William Elmer and J. Barron Potter made a 
post mortem upon' the succeeding day. That examination disclosed the fol- 


lowing facts, viz : *' Left luDg adherent to pleura, aboat the middle. The 
right adherent all over, yery strong. Softened tubercles and cavities, ready 
to open. Lower part of right lung very congested and tuberculose, had a 
gritty cut. Liver healthy, but adherent to diaphragm. Heart small, but 
healthy. Stomach, kidneys and other organs, healthy." 

The doctor was buried in the grave-yard of the old Presbyterian church, 
and his obelisk simply records his name, date of birth, date of death, and 

" Dust to dust concludes the song of earth.'' 

JOSEPH BUTCHER was bom May 24th, 1791, at Green Tree, in the 
township of Evesham, Burlington county. He was a son of Joseph and 
Elizabeth Butclier. His father died when he was about six months old, and 
at the age of fourteen he was taken to Port Elizabeth, Cumberland county, 
where he entered as a clerk in a dry goods and grocery store. A variety of 
drugs was also kept in the store, the mixing and dispensing of which was 
under his especial care. At the age of nineteen he entered into business for 
himself, and established a drug store on a larger scale. He afterwards 
became interested in a diy goods and grocery store, and supplied a branch 
of the American army with provision in 1812, while encamped on the schpol 
house lot in Port Elizabeth. Under adverse circumstances he commenced 
the study of medicine, beginning his collegiate education with the com- 
mencement of the Jefferson Medical College, and graduated in 1827. He 
afterwards located at Mauricetown. In 1842 he was elected a member of 
the State Legislature. After a successful and uninterrupted practice of over 
forty years, he died August 24th, 1864, in the seventy- fourth year of his 

The doctor was for many years, in the early part of his life, a member of 
the M. E. church, and at one time was licensed as a local preacher. He 
educated four of his sons as physicians, three of whom are still living, and 
engaged in the practice. 

WILLIAM BELFORD EWING, son of Dr. Thomas Ewing and Sarah 
Fithian, was bom at Greenwich, Cumberland county, N. J., December 12th, 
1776. Some account of his more remote ancestry has already been given in 
the memoir of his father. He was only six years old when his father died, 
but he was left with ample pecuniary means for his education. After the 
usual course of preliminary study, which he pursued principally at the classi- 
cal school of the Rev. Andrew Hunter, at Bridgcton, he entered the junior class 


of the college at Princeton, K J., and graduated in the year 1794. Having 
chosen the medical profession as the business of his future life, he pursued 
his studies to that end, under the direction of Dr. Nicholas Bellville, of 
Trenton, N. J., and attended medical lectures in the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, when Doctors Shippen, Rush, Wistar, and other eminent members of 
the medical profession, were professors in that celebrated school. 

Being recommended by Prof Rush to a physician in the Danish Island of 
St. Croix, for a partner in the practice of medicine, he went thither in the 
year 1797, and in that island, in the island of St. Thomas, and as surgeon in 
a British vessel of war, was engaged in professional practice for two years. 
He then returned to his native place, and practiced medicine in Greenwich, 
with the respect and confidence of the community, till the spring of 1824, 
when he retired from the practice of his profession. He assisted in the form- 
ation of the Medical Society of the countv of Cumberland, in the year 
1818, and was elected an honorary member of the same in the year 1848. He 
was elected President of the Medical Society of New Jersey, in the year 

Dr. Swing, in addition to his professional business, served his country in 
several important civil oflSces. For twenty-one years he was a member of 
the Board of Chosen Freeholders. From the year 1819, to the year 1882, 
with the exception of two years, he was a member of the Legislature of 
New Jersey. He was a Judge of the Court of Common Pleas, and for a 
time its presiding officer. In the year 1844 he was elected a delegate to the 
State Conventionifor forming a new Constitution. 

He was ibr many years a member of the Presbyterian church of Green- 
wich ; for thirty years one of its ruling elders, and for fifty-three years a 
trustee of the congregation. 

For several years previous to his death, he was so feeble as to be disquali- 
fied for any kind of business, and the formation of a cataract in both eyes 
deprived him of his sight. During those days of feebleness and darkness, 
he was sustained and cheered by the affectionate attentions of his family 
and friends, and consoled by that religion which can sustain those who pos- 
sess it, under the heaviest calamities, and when all other sources of comfort 
fail. The sun of his long life had a calm and serene setting. He died in 
the faith and hope of the gospel, on the 23d day of April, 1866, in the 
ninetieth year of his age* 

Dr. Ewing was distinguished for an unusually retentive memory. What 
he once knew, he seldom forgot. He was prompt to decide, and prompt 
to act He was firm of purpose, and had strength of nerve to carry out hia 


purposes. These traits were appaxent in all the busmees of his life. In 

pursuing his medical studies he adopted the principles of Prof. Rush, as 

opposed to the old theories of Cullan, and others. He had listened to the 

lectures, and read the works of that celebrated medical teacher, and his mind 

became so thoroughly imbued with his peculiar -views, that he rejected at 

once every novelty in theory or practice, as well as every old dogma that did 

not harmonize with the theories of his favorite professor. He believed that 

life was a forced state ; that disease was a unit, and that necrology was a 

barrier in the way of arriving at truth in therapeutics. 

In the old cemetery of the Presbyterian church at Greenwich, in a spot 

selected by himself, near the graves of his parents, his grand-pftrents, and 

his great-grand-parents, his remains were interred. The marble at his grave 

is thus inscribed : 

In memory 
Db. William Bklford Ewing, 
Who died 
April 23d, 1866, 
In the 90th year of his age. 
In the duties of a Physician, a Legislator, a Judge, framer 
of the Constitution of New Jersey, and as a 
Ruling Elder in the Church of 
Greenwich, he spent his 
long and useful life. 

NATHANIEL REEVES NEWKIRK, was the son of Matthew Newkirk, 
and Elizabeth Foster. His parents were of the most respectable families in 
the counties in which they lived ; his father being a native of Salem, and 
his mother of C umberland county. He was bom at Pittsgrove, Salem county^ 
New Jersey, on the 22d day of July, 1817. After a suitable preparatory 
education, he entered Lafayette college, Pennsylvania, where he graduated 
in the year 1841. Subsequently he studied medicine, and graduated Doctor 
of Medicine in the school of the University of Pennsylvania. In the spring 
of 1844, he commenced the practice of medicine in Pittsgrove, his native 
place, where, notwithstanding his being surrounded by older and longer 
established competitors, he became popular, and succeeded in obtaining a 
good share of professional business. In the summer of 1851 he removed to 
Greenwich, Cumberland county, New Jersey, and practiced medicine in that 
place, with steadily increasing popularity, until a gradual but persistent 
attack of pulmonary disease compelled him to abridge his labors, andfinally 
to remove to Bridgeton, New Jersey, in the hope that in that place he might 


obtain a practice sufficiently remnnerative, with less labor and exposure. His 
increasing debility, and emaciation, however, made it painfully evident that 
consumption was doing its work upon his frame, and must soon prove fatal, 
when, on the first of November, 1866, he had an attack of dysentery, which, 
on the 10th day of the same month, terminated his useful life. 

His early religious training bore its appropriate fruit in his strictly honor- 
able, upright and useful life ; in the religion which enabled him to triumph 
over debility, pain, and the fear of death, and in the evidence furnished to 
those who were with him duriug the closing hours of life, that he has entered 
into the ^* rest that remaineth for the people of God." 

Dr. Newkirk was interred it the cemetery of the Presbyterian church at 
Bridgeton. The following inscription is from his tombstone : 

Nathaitiel R. Newkire, M. D., 

November 10th, 1866, 
Aged 49 years, 8 months, and 28 'days. 

" Whom have I in Heaven but Thee ? 
And there is none upon the earth, 

That I desire beside Thee." 


LOBENZO F. FISLER, son of Dr. Benjamin Fisler, whose biography 
appears in another part of this work, was bom in 1797. The following year 
the family removed to Port Elizabeth, Cumberland county, where the father 
continued to practice as a physician, and preach as a minister, for more than 
half a century. The son enjoyed very excellent advantages, and gave in 
early years promise of an auspicious future. Having finished his prepara- 
tory course, he began the study of medicine with his father, and graduated 
fxx)m the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania. 

He commenced immediately the practice of his profession, in the village 
where he had spent the years of his childhood and youth, and soon found 
by experience that a prophet sometimes hath honor in his own country, and 
among his own people. He continued to practice at the Port, for a number 
of years, and when he transferred his residence to Camden, he left behind 
him many warm-hearted friends. He was genial in his disposition, 
approachable in his manners, prepossessing in his appearance, and very soon, 
in his new home, secured the respect and confidence of the people. Although 
a good and successful practitioner, he was lead by political predilection to 
abandon the practice of his chosen profession, and give his time and atten- 
tion very largely to local politioa. He was elected mayor of the city of 


Camden, and administering the government wisely and satisfactorily, was 
continued in oflSce for a number of years. 

He was a man of more than ordinary ability, and more than ordinary cul- 
ture. The literary world took notice of him, and scientific bodies 
honored him with their invitations. His addresses before societies of the 
latter character, were not only interesting and instructive, but were considered 
worthy of preservation. Several of them remain in pamphlet form. 

The members of the Fisler family are remarkable for their longevity. Dr. 
Lorenzo had passed beyond " the three-score and ten." He died with soften- 
ing of the brain. The announcement of his death reaches us just as we are 
finishing the history of the District Medical Society of Cumberland, and we 
are compelled, unwillingly, to add another name to our Necrological Record. 

** O, great man-eater, 
Whose every day is carnival, not sated yet I 
Unheard-of epicure ! without a fellow ! 
The wisest gluttons do not always cram : 
Some intervals of abstinence are sought 
To edge the appetite : thou seekest none." 

Biographical Notices of regular Physicians of Cumber- 
land County, who have died since the organization of 
the District Medical Society, but were not connected 
therewith : 

ROBERT PATTERSON was a native of Ireland,— a man of considerable 
intelligence and wit. He kept, at first, a small store in Bridgeton, and was 
a member of that society, established in 1773, known as the " Admonishing 
Society." Communications were made to this society, in writing, admonish- 
ing members of certain inconsistencies of life, derelictions of duty, or 
positive faults of character. These communications were in every instauce 
anonymous, and were read publicly at their stated meetings, at which time 
the individual to whom the letter was addressed had the privilege of setting 
up a defence, or of replying at length in writing. Robert Patterson, by way 
of enlivening the proceedings, sent in written proposals for a wife ; one of 
the lady members sportively answered the communication, and the affair, 
began in a joke, ended in marriage. The husband subsequently studied 
medicine for a short time, entered the army as an assistant surgeon, during 
the war of the Revolution, and afler his discharge from the service settled 


in Hopewell township, of this county. In 1779 he was appointed Professor 
of Mathematics in the University of Pennsylvania, and afterwards, by Presi- 
dent Jefferson, Director of the Mint. In 1819 ho was chosen President of 
the American Philosophical Society, and ended a long and honored career in 
1824, at the age of 83. 

WILLIAM HOLLINSHEAD McCALLA, son of Col. Auley McCalla and 
Hannah Gibbon, was bom at Roadstown, Cumberland county, N. J., in the 
month of June, 1792. He was named for his uncle, the Rev. William Hoi- 
linshead, D. D., co-pastor with the Rev. Dr. Keith, of the Archdale and 
Circular churches in Charleston, South Carolina. At the age of sixteen 
years he was placed, by his uncle, with the Rev. Jonathan Freeman, A. M., 
then living at thb parsonage of the Greenwich church, to pursue classical 
studies, preparatory to entering college, ^e became a student of Columbia 
College, South Carolina, where he graduated in 1813. Soon ^afterwards he 
commenced the study of medicine under the direction of Dr. Charles Swing, 
at Salem, N. J. He was graduated M. D. by the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, after which he further qualified himself for the practice of his pro- 
fession, by spending a year as medical assistant in the Philadelphia Alms 

Doctor McCalla engaged in professional business, for a short time, at 
Roadstown, and then removed to Roxborough, Pennsylvania, where he 
practiced medicine for about two years. He was then married to Jane Har- 
rison, daughter of Dr. Archibald Campbell and Margaret McCalla, and 
changed his residence to Woodbury, N. J., where he soon became a popular 
physician. While in the midst of a growing and respectable practice, he 
was seized with dysentery, which terminated a life of great promise for use- 
fulness, on the 10th day of August, 1824. 

Over his remains, in the cemetery of the Presbyterian church at Green- 
wich, is a handsome monument, bearing the following inscription : 

To the memory of 

William Holltnshead McCalla, M.D., 

Who departed this life August 16th, 


Aged 82 years, 8 months. 

In his family he was happy, 

And exceedingly and deservedly dear 

to all his relations, 

to the afflicted survivors of which 

his loss is irreparable. 


Distinguished for true Christian piety, he possessed 

a kind and affectionate heart, 

A tranquility and cheerfulness of temper, 

Inspiring hope and overcoming grief under affliction, 

In the most pious and cheerful resignation. 

As a Physician, 

He was enlightened, vigilant and humane; 

As a man — as a Christian, 

He was 

Universally respected, 

Universally regretted. 

JACOB EGBERT was bom in Hunterdon Co., near Flemington, N. J., 
on the 25th day of December, 1771. He was brought up there with his 
father, and entered the Methodist ministry at about the age of twenty-one 
or two. He continued in the ministry as an itinerant preacher for several 
years ; but little or nothing is known of his ability or success in the sacred 
office. He removed to Port Elizabeth, in Cumberland county, married, com- 
menced the study of medicine, and was licensed to practice the same on the 
24th day of May, 1805. After practicing at the Port a few years, he re- 
moved to Cedarville, and succeeded the late Dr. Azel Pierson, living in the 
house on the main stage road, known as the ^' Old Parvin House.*' Here he 
practiced medicine 60 years ago. The oldest citizens now living can furnish 
but few recollections of Dr. Egbert, worthy of record. It is related that an 
exceedingly bad case of compound fracture occurred in Fairfield, which was 
successfully treated by the doctor, and served to give him a local reputation 
as a surgeon. 

Having sold his property to the late Dr. James B. Parvin, he removed t^ 
Pemberton, N. J., where he became engaged in agricultural pursuits, giving 
a part of his time, however, to the practice of his chosen profession. He 
died at Pemberton, in the autumn of 1831, leaving but little property to his 

BENJAMIN VAN HOOK practiced medicine forty years ago, at Port 
Elizabeth. He was contemporaneous with Dr. Benjamin Fisler. He proba- 
bly had a certificate of license from the State. He acquired a large practice, 
and is spoken of as a man well deserving the respect and confidence of his 
fellow-citizens. He was very easy in his manners, and pleasant in his ad- 
dress ; a believer in the old couplet — 

"A little nonsense now and then, 
Is relished by the best of men.'' 


He was imiforinly good-humored, and full of fan. This increased very 
largely his popularity among the people. But he was likewise a man of 
excellent good sense, and this good sense was manifested, not only in the 
practice of medicine, but in his intercourse with men, and the transactions 
of every-day life. 

He was a brother of Dr. Lawrence Van Hook, who has been already noticed 
in this work, ajid both were sons of David Van Hook, — ^the latter also pro- 
fessed to be a physician, and carried around a few herbs for the relief of 
pain, but was only employed in cases of necessity. 

Dr. Benjamin has been dead more than thirty years, and the grass grows 
green upon his grave. 

WILLIAM GARRISON was the son of Dr. John Garrison, and a young 
man of much promise, and of more than ordinary ability. His manners 
were prepossessing, and his character beyond reproach. These, together with 
his amiability of disposition, rendered him a favorite in the circle of his ac- 
quaintance. He began the study of medicine with his father, and graduated 
at the Jefferson Medical College of Philadelphia, in or near the year 1885. 
He was a devotee to the profession of his choipe. His intense love for the 
science, and his habits of continual application, superadded to an already 
delicate constitution, very soon broke him down physically, and carried him 
to the grave early in life. 

After his graduation he settled in Bridgeton, and began the practice of 
medicine. He seemed to ingratiate himself at once into the good opinions of 
the people, and very soon found his growing practice too much for his fail- 
ing strength. He then started a small drug store on Pearl street, near the 
new bridge, in an old red building which has since been replaced by a more 
modernized structure. But change of business did not stay the progress of 
his disease. Consumption claimed him as a victim. He died, lamented by 
those who knew him. One of the old physicians of the county, and a mem- 
ber of this Society, has but recently told the writer that Dr. William Garri- 
nson, had his life been spared, would at least have become one of the 
leading physicians of Bridgeton, and might have attained a position of 
distinction in the profession wMch he so much loved. He lived — he died — 
and the song of earth is ended. 

GEORGE SPRATT was a native of England. He was a clergyman in 
connection with the Baptist denomination, and was, in 1838, chosen the first 


pastor of the Second Cohansey Baptist church, of Briclgeton. He is said to 
have been a man of considerable intelligence, an acceptable preacher, and a 
worthy citizen. During his residence in Bridgcton, he established a small 
drug store on Pearl street, and had a limited practice as a physician. It is 
not known that he held a diploma from any medical school, and indeed his 
knowledge of the theory of medicine is believed to have been vague. His 
acquaintance with the materia medica enabled him to prescribe with some 
success, in slight derangements of the system. The writer has been told that 
he depended very largely upon roots and herbs, in the treatment of 
disease. He remained in Bridgeton but a few years. His subsequent history 
is unknown. 

WHiLIAM D. E. BROOKS was bom February 10th, 1813. His father, Jona- 
than Brooks, was for a number of years the jail keeper in the town of Bridge- 
ton. The son is supposed to have enjoyed very good educational advantages. 
While yet young, he became the teacher of a primary school in the village 
of Cedarville ; and while engaged in teaching, his attention was turned to 
the study of medicine. He entered the office of Dr. Eli E. Bateman, as a 
pupil, and subsequently matriculated at the medical department of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, from which institution he received the degree of 
" Doctor of Medicine." He began the practice in the city of Philadelphia, 
and had for several years an office near the Navy-yard. He is said to have 
been frequently called upon to dress the wounded of the Navy, and thus 
acquired some local reputation as a surgeon. 

Those who remember Dr. Brooks, speak of him as always exceedingly deli- 
cate, hardly fitted physically for the arduous work of a physician ; and hav- 
ing, moreover, an hereditary predisposition to phthisis, he very soon ran 
into' a decay, and died while yet young. He was a worthy member of the 
Methodist church, and seems to have been a favorite with the clergy of that 
denomination, two of whom very materially aided him in the beginning of 
his professional career. 

On a small stone in the grave-yard of the Bridgeton Methodist church, we 

read the following inscription : 


Dr. Wm. D. E. Brooks, 

Son of Jonathan and Elizabeth Brooks, 

Born Februarv 10, 1813, 

Died October 4, 1841. 

HOLMES PARVIN was bom in Cumberland county, New Jersey, Decern- 


ber 7th, 1794. After receiving an English education in his native county, 
he commenced the study of medicine in 1813, having access to the libraries 
of Professors Chapman and Wistar, of Philadelphia, and attending the medi- 
cal lectures of the University of Pennsylvania, where he graduated in 1815. 
He then began the practice in Deerfield, in this county, ^d continued there 
until 1829, when he emigrated to the West. In 1830 he settled in Cincin- 
nati, and soon acquired an extensive practice. In 1836 he abandoned the 
practice of medicine, and engaged in other pursuits, chiefly that he might 
have more leisure to investigate his favorite science of electricity. 

Long before Professor Morse's name had any connection with the tele- 
graph, Dr. Parvin had commenced, and so far perfected his instruments, as 
to communicate with adjoining rooms. All he needed was funds to carry on 
his experiments. When upon this subject he would say to his friends that 
we should at some future day communicate with our distant acquaintances 
by means of electricity. Many of his most intimate friends thought him mad. 
Determined still to continue his experiments, and desirous of an opportunity 
to explain his theories to scientific men in the East, he removed in f 838 to 
Philadelphia. His health, however, failed him soon after his arrival in the 
latter city, and obliged him to give up this darling object of his life. 

Dr. Parvin married and had two children, one of whom was the late Rev. 
Robert J. Parvin, who perished in the flames of a burning steamer on the 
Ohio river. In 1841 the doctor returned to Cincinnati in feeble health, and 
died February 6th, 1842. 

GEORGE O. TRENGHARD was bom November 9th, 1799, and died 
November 28th, 1853. He graduated from the medical department of the 
University of Pennsylvania in the year 1818, practiced in Newport, N. J., 
a few months, then removed to Millington, Kent county, Md., in which 
county he practiced medicine about twelve or thirteen years. He was mar- 
ried in May, 1819, to Mrs. Ann M. Deford, a native of Maryland. He had 
nine children, six of whom are living. His parents' names were Curtis and 
Ruth. In personal appearance, he was tall and straight, with a commanding 
presence, not handsome, but having a thoughtfal expression. He was ener- 
getic, firm and decisive. Although reserved and proud-spirited, he was 
genial and hospitable. Just and upright in his dealings, he was extensively 
trusted and his word relied upon. He was one of the leading members, and 
a Ruling Elder of the Presbyterian church in his adopted State, and died in 
the faith of the gospel of Jesus Christ. At his death he was largely 
engaged in agricultural and mercantile pursuits. 


BENJAMIN FISLER, the son of Jacob and Sophia Pisler, was bom in 
1769. The parents were natives of Switzerland, and came to this country in 
their youth. Afber their marriage, they settled in a place in South Jersey, 
which they named Fialerville, now known as Clayton. Benjamin was the 
last of a family of eleyen children, all of whom, except one, lived to a good 
old age, their ages making an aggi*egate of 883 years. His brothers, Captain 
Felix Fislor, Jacob and Leonard, did good service in the war of the Revolu- 
tion, and labored with other noble spirits in guarding the Delaware shore 
against the incursions of the British troops. 

It is not certainly known where or with whom the doctor studied medi- 
cine. He was undoubtedly a very intelligent physician, and had very thor- 
oughly prepared himself, by years of study, for the prosecution of his 
profession. He settled in Port Elizabeth in 1798, and was the leading, and 
most of the time the only physician in the place, for about fifty-five years. 
In 1791, before his settlement in Port Elizabeth, he was admitted to the min- 
istry, in connection with the Methodist church, and was for a time a mission- 
ary to Nova Scotia. Judge L. Q. C. Elmer, in his " History of Cumberland 
County," in speaking of Dr. Fisler, says : " In 1798, Dr. Benjamin Fisler 
who commenced his ministry in 1791, and preached in Camden, and in 1797 
traveled on the Salem circuit with William McLenahan, which included 
Salem, Cumberland, Cape May, and a considerable part of Gloucester county, 
on account of his feeble health, located at Port Elizabeth, where he was an 
acceptable local preacher for half a century. He was an intelligent man, who 
had read a good deal, and although a firm believer in the doctrines taught 
by Benson and Watson, had no respect for Dr. Clark's commentary, which 
he thought contained many dangerous errors. He once told the writer he 
would not allow Clarke's Life of the Wesley Family, interesting as it is, to 
be read by his children, on account of the currency it gives to the story of 
the ghost, thought to have haunted the house of John Wesley's father, which 
practiced rappings something like those made by the modem spiritualists. 
In those days ghosts were received with more credit than now ; Wesley's 
belief in them having influenced many of his followers." 

Says a relative still living : *^ Notwithstanding his engrossing cares as a 
physician, he was generally found at his post as a preacher." His last ser- 
mon was preached but a few days before his death, and the text was a part 
of the address of Isaac to his son Esau, as recorded in the second verse of 
the twenty-second chapter of Genesis, to wit: "I am old, I know not 
the day of my death." He had already attained his eighty-fifth year, the 
infirmities of age were upon him, he felt that he was growing old, and he 


knew that the day of his death could not be far distant. And thus it 

God called him home by no lingering ilhiess. How beautifully were the 
words of inspiration fulfilled : " Thou shalt come to thy grave in a fi^ll age, 
like as a shock of com cometh in in his season.^' 

HENRY HAMPTON is very generally remembered by our oldest citizens, 
as a practicing physician in the townships of Faiiifield and Downe. He lived 
in those early days when the country was but spatsely settled, and, as a Conse- 
quence, his practice extended for many miles. He is not known to have been 
a graduate of any medical school, and very probably received his diploma as 
a physician from the State of New Jersey. He is spoken of as 9 man of 
abrupt and imperative manner, but in whom the people seemed to have con- 
siderable confidence as a doctor. It is related that he was in the habit of 
ordering his horse fed while prescribing for his patients, and would pfUn say 
to the mistress of the house : " I am quite hungry, and would be obliged to 
you for my dinner." The mistress forthwith, TWlens votens^ prepared a repast, 
and the famished doctor took his departure refreshed. We wondw^ as we 
write, how such a habit would be tolerated in these more modem times. 
Would not the physician now much rather go hungry from door to door, in 
the prosecution of his profession, than shock the ears and offend die taste of 
a too supercilious etiquette, by asking for something to eat ? And yet Dr. 
Hampton may be pardoned this breach of politeness, when it is stated that 
his practice, though large, was not by any means lucrative, and that, as a 
consequence, he often found himself in the most straitened circumstances. 
At one time he is said to have been so poor that he had no money to buy 
the medicines actually needed in the treatment of his patients. And his 
credit, like his exchequer, being bankrupt, he resorted to the novel method 
of making pills out of rye dough, and rolled them in pulverized chalk. He 
stated to an old citizen still living, that he had given many a dose of these rye 
pills, the administration of which was followed by the most happy effects. 
It reminds one of the old song, every verse of which ends with, " I think your 
husband would do well to take a dose of calomel" Calomel was the sover- 
eign remedy in the song. Rye pills became a potent medicine in the hands 
of Dr. Hampton, for neeemtas non habet legem. 

The doctor built a house in Oedarville, on the ground now owned and 
occupied by Samuel Ewan, and continued to live there until his circum- 
stances became so straitened that he was obliged to seek another and better 
field of practice. His house was sold, and having .been moved into the 
yicinity of the Cedarville R. R, de{>ot, was converted into a bam. The 


doctor, with his family, then removed to Leesburg, where he spent the evening 
of his life, and fell asleep at a good old age. 

SAMUEL MOORE DOWDNEY, the son of Jolin Dowdney and Harriet 
Seeley, was bom in the township of Stoe Creek, on the eleventh day of March, 
1834. He obtained a good English education, and pursued classical studies 
to some extent, previous to placing himself under the direction of his rela- 
tive. Dr. Thomas Yarrow, at AUowaystown, N. J., as a student of medicine. 
He commenced the study of medicine in the spring of 1852, and graduated 
at the University of Pennsylvania in the spring of 1855. 

He first commenced the practice of medicine, associated with Dr. George 
Tomlinson, at Roadstown, and after a dissolution of partnership, continued 
his professional business in the same place, so long as physical ability enar 
bled him. 

Soon after commencing practice without a professional associate, symp- 
toms of pulmonary disease made their appearance, attended, as is usual, with 
flattering prospects of amendment, alternating with depression from more 
unfavorable prognostics, until the last hope was extinguished, his young 
life worn away, and another of earth^s bright, good and loved ones added to 
the long list of victims of pulmonary consumption. 

Dr. Dowdney was a young man of more than ordinary promise. He loved 
his profession, studied its principles, and was strictly ^nd conscientiously 
attentive to its duties. His person was prepossessing, his disposition amia- 
ble, his manners easy and courteous, and his morals unblemished. These 
qualities gained him the esteem and respect of the community, and their 
confidence in him as a physician. The morning prospect of success in his pro- 
fessional career, and of a life of usefulness and honor, was unusually bright, 
but soon overcast by disease, and extinguished by the night of the tomb. 

He was interred in the cemetery of the Presbyterian church at Greenwich, 
where a monument to Ms memory is thus inscribed : 

Here repose 

the earthly remains of 

Samuel M. Dowdnbt, 

Bom March 11th, 1834, 
Died November 17th, 1861. 

Though for a long time an invalid, 

he bore his a€9iction with patient submission ; 

and when death came he yielded 

his spirit with cheerful confidence into the 

hands of his Redeemer. 


" I was dimib, I opened not my mouth 
because Thou didst it." 


SAMUEL MOORE, son of Colonel David Moore and Lydia Richman, was 
bom at Deerfield, Cumberland county, New Jersey, on the 8th of February, 
1774. He was the brother of Dr. Jonathan Moore, of whom some account has 
been given. He graduated at the University of Pennsylvania in 1791, and was 
afterwards a tutor in that institution. He subsequently studied medicine, 
and received the degree of Doctor of Medicine from the same institution 
which had conferred on him the degree of Bachelor of Arts. He practiced 
medicine for a short time at Greenwich, New Jersey, and then in Bucks 
county, Pa. His health failing, he was advised by Professor Rush to make 
a sea voyage. He then engaged in the East India trade, and made several 
voyages to Canton and Calcutta. 

" In 1808 he again settled in Bucks county. In 1818, while absent on busi- 
ness in the West, his fellow citizens nominated and elected him to a seat in 
the Congress of the United States. He was twice re-elected, and his ability 
as a representative in Washington, earned for him a reputation which proba- 
bly contributed to his appointment to a still more important public trust. 
In 1824, President Monroe appointed him to the office of Director of the 
Mint. In the discharge of it^ duties he was faithful to the Interests com- 
mitted to his care, and enterprising in the introduction of every real improve- 
ment pertaining to the art of coinage. A prominent incident of his time of 
service in this capacity, was the transfer of the Mint from an old and con- 
tracted building to the spacious and elegant marble edifice in Chestnut 
street, Philadelphia, for which the necessary appropriations were obtained 
chiefly by his influence and exertions. At the time of his death, he and 
Professor Silliman, of Yale College, were the oldest members of the American 
Philosophical Society." 

His wife was Mary Padgett, daughter of Robert Patterson, L.L. D., for 
some years Professor of Mathematics in the University of Pennsylvania, 
Director of the United States Mint, and President of the American Philo- 
sophical Society. Dr. Moore died on the 18th day of February, 1861, in the 
88th year of his age. His beloved and congenial wife, with whom he lived 
in uninterrupted harmony for sixty-three years, followed him to the grave a 
few days after his own burial. 

" Dr. Moore enjoyed, in a remarkable degree, exemption from the usual 
infirmities of age, and in both his physical activities and strong powers of 
mind, might readily have been taken as a much younger man." His charac- 
ter was a strongly marked one. Although singularly unobtrusive, his com- 
panionship was sought by his most intelligent contemporaries, and he always 
arrested attention by the justness of his views, his enlarged information, and 


hig remarkably pure and correct conyeiBational powers. His friendship was 
warm and sincere, and those who had the privilege of an intimate acquaint- 
ance, knew that they could confidently rely upon him. Few men have lived 
so long, and yet so free from taint. His tnithfrilness, his integrity, his purity, 
were never brought into suspicion. He was a model man. He was a com- 
municant of the Presbyterian church, and in his Christianity a Nathaniel 
without guile." 

His remains were interred in the Woodlands Cemetery, Philadelphia, 
where a monument to his memory is thus inscribed : 

Db. Samuel Moore, 
Bom February 8th, 1774, 

Died February 18th, 1861. 
Director of the U. S. Mint 1824-36 ; 

First President of the 
Hazleton Coal Company, 1886-61. 

^ "Pure, peaceable, gentle, easy to be entreated, 

full of good fruits. 
Without partiality, and without hypocrisy." 

" The blessing of him that was ready to perish came upon him, 
and he made the widow's heart to sing for joy." 

"Mark the perfect man and behold the upright; for the end of 
that man is peace." 

CHARLES SWING, eldest son of Michael Swing and Sarah Murphy, was 
bom in Fairfield township, Cumberland county, about the year 1790. His 
father was a prominent citizen of Fairfield, for many years a local preacher 
in the M. E. Church, and, indeed, was regarded as the founder of Methodism 
in the southern part of the county of Cumberland. The son was blessed 
with the example and instruction of godly parents. Early in life he mani- 
fested a love for literature, and after finishing the course of study at the 
village school, he employed his leisure moments in reading such scientific 
works as he was able to command. He not only employed his leisure time 
in this way, but was known often to take his books with him into the field, 
and when following the plow would hold the reins in one hand and his book 
in the other. His father used to say that Charles' habits of study when 
plowing made the horses so lazy they would not work. This anecdote 
reminds us of Bums, Coleridge, and many others, who composed some of 
their finest poems while at work in the fields. 

While engaged in agricultural pursuits, he began the study of medicine, 
under the tuition of the late Dr. Wm. B. Ewing, of Greenwich, walking once 


in a fortnight from his home in Fairfield to the residence of the doctor — a 
distance of many miles — ^in order to recite his appointed task, and receive 
assistance in the further prosecution of his studies. He was an apt student, 
and when he graduated from the Uniyersity of Pennsylvania, was thoroughly 
furnished for the responsible work of aphysician. The first year after his gradu- 
ation, he practiced in connection with his preceptor at Greenwich, but the 
year following transferred his residence to Salem, and entered into partner- 
ship with the late Dr. Archer. Several years thereafter he married a Miss 
Mary Lambson, of Penn's Neck, who wds possessed of a very handsome patri- 
mony. Dissolving his partnership with Dr. Archer, he began the practice 
in the latter village, and remained there for several years, until the death of 
his wife. Some years later he removed to Sharptown, and was married a 
second time, to Mrs. Hannah Ware, of "Salem. Here he continued to reside 
until his death. He had a family of children, many of whom are still living, 
and two of whom are married to ministers connected with the New Jersey 

The doctor was short in stature, portly in person, and always exuberant 
in spirit. He was very popular as a physician, acquired and retained an 
extensive practice, and had the reputation of being an excellent prescriber 
and a good -accoucher. He was frequently called in cases of consultation, 
and was always gentlemanly in his bearing toward his professional brethren. 

The study of medicine still continued to be, even in old age, his pastime 
and his delight. Living in the vicinity of Philadelphia, he made it a point 
very frequently to attend the lectures of his alma mater. The writer remem- 
bers Dr. Swing some twelve yeiirs ago, in the amphitheatre of the University, 
intensely listening to every word .as it fell from the lips of the professor of 
anatomy and surgery. He thus kept fully abreast with the improvements in 
medicine, and was justly regarded as one of the best informed practitioners 
in the southern part of the State of New Jersey. 

At the age of 70 he was seized with paralysis, and after a few days' illness, 
death claimed him as his own. 

" We must all die I 
All leave ourselves, it matters not wherb, when, 
Nor how, BO we die well." 

WILLIAM F. LOPER, son of Dr. James Loper, was bom in Millville, 
New Jersey, July 18, 1839. His early educational advantages were excellent. 
After finishing a preparatory course at the West Jersey Academy, he 
entered the Freshman class of Princeton College in 1857, and received the 


degree of B. A. in 1861. He began immediately the study of medicine, in 
the office of his father, matriculated at the Jefferson Medical College in 1861, 
and graduated in March, 1803. 

He was a young man of much promise, and thoroughly prepared for his 
life-work. He entered upon the practice of medicine in his native town 
with raised expectations. But alas I his sun went down while it was yet day. 
Feeling indisposed, he took a dose of what he supposed to be the mild 
chloride of mercury, and his symptoms becoming alarming, the medicine 
was examined and found to be arsenious acid, put into the bottle marked 
as above through the carelessness of a druggist. The life of this young 
promising physician was the forfeit. He died January 15, 1864. His body 
is interred in the cemetery of the Presbyterian church of Pittsgrove, and a 
beautiful monument marks his resting place. 

" He gave his honors to the world again, 
HLs blessed part to heaven, and slept in peace. '^ 

WILLIAM BACON was born in Greenwich, Cumberland Co., N. J., 
June 20, 1802. His parents died during his childhood. Possessing a 
patrimony, he acquired an English education, and made proficiency in some 
of the higher branches of learning. He began the study of medicine under 
the tuition of Dr. Daniel Bowen of Woodstown, and attended lectures at the 
University of Penn., where he graduated in 1822, at the age of twenty. He 
commenced the practice at Allowaystown, Salem county, in the same year, 
and was married in January, 1823, to a Miss Ray of Philadelphia. They were 
the parents of eight children, five of whom are still living, and one of whom 
is the present Dr. Stetson L. Bacon, of Port Norris. 

Shortly after his marriage. Dr. Bacon^s mind became deeply impressed 
with the subject of religion, and feeling himself called to preach the gospel, 
he entered the ministry in connection with the Baptist denomination, and 
was for a number of years engaged in evangelistic labors. He was a success- 
ful Pastor of the churches of Pittsgrove, Woodstown, and Dividing Creek. 
He accepted the pastorate of the church of the latter place in 1888, located 
at Newport, and continued his ministerial labors for eleven years, yielding at 
the same time to the demands of the people as a practitioner of medicine. 
Public speaking having invited a laryngeal affection, he was obliged to 
resign his charge, and restrict his labors to the practice of his original pro- 

For eleven succesdve years he was Town Superintendent of Public 


Schools. In 1860 he was elected to represent his district in the Legislature 
of New Jersey, and re-elected in 1861. He continued the practice of 
medicine until within a fewtdays of his death, and gently fell asleep, 
February 26th, 1868, in the 66th year of his age. 

The History of the Medical men, and of the District Medi- 
cal Society of Cumberland county is now finished. The 
historians have endeavored to perform the work entrusted to 
them with fidelity. It has proved to be a tedious, laborious, 
and often discouraging work. And yet there is a mournful 
pleasure in writing the Biographies of those noble men who 
have preceded us in the practice of medicine. These Bio- 
graphies have seemed to introduce us to the men them- 
selves, and calling them back again from the spirit-world, 
clothed with flesh, and animate with life, they have 
talked with us of the long ago, while we traced upon 
{)aper the record of their lives. Noble men ! Martyrs to the 
cause of a suffering humanity ! JRequiescat in pace. Rest in 
peace until the archangel's trump shall wake the sleeping 
dead, and the hand of the great Physician shall place upon 
your brow the fadeless crown of Life, and the voice of Love 
shall bid you welcome to the rest of Heaven ! 

The prosecution of this work has taught us how very soon 
the world forgets its kind and loving benefactors. The phy- 
sician wears himself out in the practice of his profession, 
dies prematurely of disease induced by fatigue and exposure, 
and hardly have a decade of years passed away ere it is quite 
impossible to arrive at anything definite and satisfactory 
concerning his history. The world simply remembers his 
name. And yet why should it be otherwise ? Only one leaf 
from the forest has fallen — only one sand from the sea shore 


removed. The macliinery of life has not been seriously dis- 
turbed by his death, and the world moves on as before. 


** The gay wiU laugh when he is gone, 
The solemn brood of care plod on, 
And each one, as before, pursue 
His phantom." 

Our lives are measured not by the swinging of the pendu- 
lum, or the beating of an artery. That life alone is long that 
answers life's great end. The object of human existence is 
nothing less than to glorify God in this world, and enjoy Him 
forever in the world beyond. 

Arnulph was preparing himself for the work of a physician. 
One day he came to his father and said, " Let me go into the 
cloister and serve God." His father replied, "Thou doest 
well to serve God. As a physician thou mayest serve Him 
and thy fellow-men also." 

That night Arnulph had a vision, and lo! an angel with each 
hand fall of roses. 

" And why," asked Arnulph, " are the roses in thy left 
hand scentless, while those in thy right hand are so full of 
fragrance ?" 

And the angel answered, " in my left hand are the offerings 
of those who would serve the Heavenly Father without serv- 
ing His children. In my right hand are the offerings of those 
who serve God and their fellow-men. As a physician thou 
mayest serve Him and thy fellow-men, also." 


By Charlbs Hasbrouok, M. D. 

Many years ago I commenced keeping notes of all my mid- 
wifery cases; and this practice I have continued until the 
present time. This record of my experience in obstetric 
practice was begun and has been continued without any 
reference to its publication, simply for my own gratification 
and private use. Recently^ however, it has occurred to me 
that it might perhaps be of some interest to the profession, as- 
a slight contribution to the statistics of private obstetrical 
practice ; and I have therefore prepared an abstract of it, with 
the intention of presenting it to the Society, provided 
nothing of greater importance was offered to take up the 
time of our meeting. 

At the present time, May 1st, 1871, my record contains 
concise reports of 1151 births in 1135 consecutive cases of 
labor at or near the full time of utero-gestation — not of 
selected cases of unusual interest, but of all cases as they 
successively occurred in my practice. And hence, although 
the whole number of cases is perhaps too small to be relied 
upon as a basis for correct generalization, nevertheless, they 
may safely be accepted as a tolerably correct exposition of 
village and country midwifery practice. 

The facts which I have briefly noted in my record of cases 
are : the number of the case ; the names of my patients ; the 
number of the labor; the number of children at a birth; 
the presentation ; the sex of the child ; the duration of the 



labor ; the time of delivery ; the accidents, &c., complicating 
the labor; and its mode of termination. In giving an 
abstract of these cases, I will follow the same order, so far as 
it may be practicable or proper. 

Passing by the names of the women, as a matter of no 
practical value, I will in the first place state, that of the 
1135 labors, there were of primiparse 285, and of multiparse 
850 ; or to be more precise, there were of — 

Namber of the Labor. 

Namber of Cases. 

Nnmber of the Labor. 

Namber of Caaea. 



























not noted. 


Total number of cases of labor, 


In a community like that in which I am located, made up 
in good part, and until recently almost entirely, of the 
descendants of the original settlers of the country, there are 
always many persons bearing the same name ; and it is there- 
fore impossible for me tg state with accuracy the number of 
women among whom these 1135 labors occurred. But as 
may be seen from the above, the ratio of primiparous, to the 
whole number of labors, is as one to very nearly four ; and 
from this it will appear that the natural increase of population 
will average about four labors to each child-bearing woman. 



The next fact noted in my record has reference to the 
number of children born, and the relative frequency of 
single and plural pregnancies. The following is the result, 
viz : , 

Of single births 1,120 Number of children 1,120 

Oftwins 14 " " " 28 

Of triplets 1 " '' " 3 

Total labor cases 1,135 Total number of children . . . 1,151 

Ratio of twin cases to whole number of labors 1 to 81 1-14 

Ratio of plural cases " " " 1 to 75f 

On enquiring into the relative frequency of plural births in 
first and in subsequent labors, I find that in my practice the 
excess has been slightly in favor of first pregnancies, as 
follows, viz : 

Of primiparsB. . . . 285 cases. Plural cases in do.. . . 4, or 1 in 71 J 
Of multiparse 850 " " " " ... 11, or 1 in 77 2-11 

Total 1,135 cases. Plural cases in do 15, or 1 in 75f 

The only case of triplets in my experience occurred in a 
fourth labor, in a woman of about 30 years of age. This 
woman by the way, affords a most remarkable instance of 
female fecundity, or of impregnating power on the part of 
the male, I do not know which. She was a native of 
Holland, and in her first and second labors was delivered of 
single children. In her third labor, which occurred within 
four years of her first, she was delivered oftwins ; and fifteen 
months afterwards, in her fourth labor, she had triplets, 
making a total of seven children in five years. The husband 
of this woman also was a native of Holland, named Peter 
Van Kinderen. Now " Van Kinderen " translated into English, 
as some of you may be aware, is literally ^^ of the children" and 
if we give to the first e in Peter, its true Holland sound. 


the sound of a in Latin, we then have ^^ Pater van Kiniereny^ 
or ^Hhe father of the chUdreUy^ — a name to which, by the way, 
I think he was abundantly entitled. 

These triplets averaged five pounds in weight at birth, were 
well developed, did well for several days, and gave every 
promise of being successfully reared. But in the Second 
week, the woman was taken with crural phlebitis and was 
very ill. The children in consequence were deprived of their 
natural nourishment, got stomatitis, diarrhoea, &c., and died 
within the month. The mother recovered, and soon after 
the family removed beyond my " ride," generously forgetting 
to compensate me for my services. Whether they still 
maintain their reputation as breeders, I cannot say. 


This I find noted in 1138 cases, as follows, viz : 

Presentations of the vertex 1,578 cases. 

" of pelvis, or pelvic extremities 47 " 

" of shoulder or trunk 9 " 

" of the face. , 4 '* 

" not noted 18 " 

Total number of children 1,151 cases. 

Of the vertex presentations, two were complicated with 
placenta previa; one with prolapse of the funis and descent 
of the hand ; one with descent of the hand ; and one with 
prolapse of the funis alone. Of the breech cases, two also 
were complicated with prolapse of the cord. 

From the above it will be seen that one face presentation 
occurred in every 287| births ; one case of presentation of the 
pelvis or pelvic extremities in every 24" ; and one shoulder 
or cross presentation in every 127J births. 

In the twin cases, of the 28 children, 17 presented the 



vertex ; 10 the pelvis or pelvic extremities, and one the 
shoulder. In five cases, both children presented the vertex; 
in two cases both presented the breech or pelvic extremities ; 
in six cases, one child presented the vertex and the other the 
pelvis or pelvic extremities; and in one case, one child pre- 
sented the vertex, and the other the shoulder. In the case of 
triplets, the presentation was not observed, the last child being 
born without assistance, just as I entered the room. 


The sex of the child I find noted in 1,111 children, of whom 
567 were males, and 544 females; excess of males at birth 23, 
or about 4 per cent. It is a little curious, however, that in 
the plural births in my experience, this general rule is 
reversed, and females are largely in excess. Thus, of the 31 
children of plural pregnancies, my record shows that 22 
were females, and only 9 males. The following table shows 
the sex of multiple births, and also the number of cases in 
which the children were of the same, and of opposite sexes. 

Number of Cases. 

Number of Children. 











Twins . . . 





Triplets . . 





15 Cases. 

81 Children. 

9 Males. 

22 Females. 


From the commencement of the pains until the delivery of 
the child, I have noted 1,100 cases ; and I have found it to 


vary from one hour to 96 hours. Both the longest and the 
shortest labor occurred in the same woman ; her first labor 
lasting 96 hours, and her second, scarcely an hour. But 
there seems to be a law of compensation in nature. From 
her first labor, this woman recovered rapidly and entirely. 
From her second she convalesced slowly and with difficulty, 
and with symptons of leucorrhea, weak back, and other 
evidences of uterine relaxation. 


As a matter of curiosity I have noted the time of delivery, 
or rather the exact time of the child's birth, in 1104 cases ; 
from which it appears that a majority of children are born in 
the first half of the day, or between midnight and noon; 
592 births being recorded as having occurred within the 
first half, and 512 as within the latter half of the 24 hours ; or 
between midnight and 6 o'clock a.m., there were 327 births; 
between 6 a.m. and noon, 265 ; between noon and 6 p.m. 258 ; 
and between 6 p.m. and midnight, 254 ; total, 1104. 


There are many minor difficulties attending even the 
simplest cases of natural labor, which, with time and patience, 
will usually be overcome by the unaided efforts of nature; 
but which, at the same time, may generally be promptly 
remedied by a little judicious interference. But during the 
whole of my medical pupilage, I was educated into a perfect 
horror of everything like meddlesome midwifery : and for a 
long lime, in the early part of my professional life, I was 
restrained, by the fear of doing too much, from doing what 
was really necessary and proper. The fact that ^Habor is a law 
of Gody and comes at its appointed time^'^ as was taught by 


Avicenna, centuries ago, seemed to be regarded by the 
profession generally, as proof that the accoucheur had but 
little to do except to watch the operations of the law : 
" Parturition is not a pathological, but a physiological process ; 
and any interference with the natural processes is always 
unsafe, and generally injudicious." "In most cases of tedious 
or impeded labors, the remedy most needed is the tincture of 
time" "It requires more knowledge not to be officious^ 
than falls to the share of many of those who practice 
midwifery." "Never carry your forceps with you when 
called to a case of labor, for fear that you may be prompted 
to use them unnecessarily." Such maxims as these, scattered 
all over through the books, and constantly reiterated in the 
lecture room, acting upon my nervous and perhaps too 
cautious temperament, finally developed a degree of timidity 
that almost entirely unfitted me for the simplest duties of 
the lying-in room. Indeed, so thoroughly was I impressed with 
these teachings, that in many cases of excessive rigidity of the 
soft parts, or unusual toughness of .the membranes, &c., in 
the early part of my practice I always left my patients to the 
unaided efforts of nature ; thus wasting much valuable time, 
and permitting the woman to suffer many hours of agony, 
which, I have since learned, might have been, and ought to 
have been, avoided. 

There are many cases, for example, in which the labor is 
rendered tedious and difficult, from relaxation of the abdom- 
inal walls or a pendulous belly, in which the vertex cannot 
engage in the pelvic canal, simply because the direction of 
the uterine efforts is not perpendicularly to the plane of the 
superior strait, but towards the sacral promontory ; and in 
which the whole difficulty may be promptly remedied by 
placing the woman upon her back and having the uterus 
properly supported. So also in other cases, the vertex will 


descend covered by the anterior lips of the os uteri, seriously 
retarding the delivery, when by a little judicious support to 
the part during the pains, and a little backward pressure in 
the intervals, we may often obviate the difficulty in a few 
minutes, and very materially hasten the delivery. Then 
again, it is a very common thing for labor to continue, even 
for hours, after the full dilatation of the os uteri, without any 
change in the character of the pains, or the progress of the 
case, simply because from the toughness of the membranes, 
or the inefficiency of the uterine contractions, the waters do 
not break after they have fulfilled their proper physiological 
purpose. In these cases, the pains will at once become 
expulsive, and the labor progress rapidly to a favorable result 
by simply puncturing the membranes. And in presentations 
of the breech or pelvic extremities, there are but few cases in 
which some assistance is not needed in the delivery. Several 
cases have occurred in my own experience in which, on my 
arrival, I have found the child's body lying between- the 
mother's thighs and its head in the vagina — dead of course, 
for want of a very little assistance. In other cases I have 
been sent for where the attendant had failed to deliver the 
child's head, because instead of whipping its body quite over 
the woman's belly, and thus making his traction in a line with 
the pelvic outlet, he had drawn downwards and backwards in 
the direction of the perineum and anus ; and at least two 
cases have occurred in my own practice, in primiparse, in 
which, failing to deliver the child's head promptly, I have 
inserted my fingers and part of my hand into the vagina, and 
and by pressing back the perineum, permitted the child to 
breathe before its complete birth. These two cases, by the 
wayy and two or three others that I have seen, in which, in 
vertex presentations, the child evidently lived and breathed 
after the delivery of the head, and yet died subsequently 


during the passage of its chest and body, have strongly 
impressed my mind with the utter worthlessness of the 
hydrostatic test as a proof of the woman's having been 
delivered of a living child. 

Of these and many other minor difficulties attending even 
natural labors, I have made no note ; although they are really 
of much greater practical importance than most teachers of 
obstetrics seem to be aware. In my own experience they 
have occurred so often, that I soon learned to meet them very 
much as a matter of course ; and I have therefore only noted 
those graver accidents and complications which called for 
prompt and energetic interference. And first of these in 
importance perhaps is 


As an accident attending abortions, particularly in the 
earlier months, profuse hemorrhage is by no means uncom- 
mon. So also during and after the delivery of the placenta. 
But in labors at or near the full period of gestation and before 
the birth of the child, hemorrKage to an alarming extent is, 
in my experience, one of the rarest accidents of parturition. 

In my record I have only noted those cases of this compli- 
cation in which the loss of blood was so profuse as to show 
itself in sighing, rapid and feeble pulse, intense thirst, gaping, 
throwing the arms about, &c. ; symptoms which, whenever 
they occur, demand instant attention and prompt inter- 
ference. Of such cases I find that I have recorded forty ; of 
which five occurred before the delivery of the child, and 
thirty-five after. Of the five cases of ante-partem hemorrhage, 
two were cases of placenta previa, and three occurred in 
premature labors at the eighth and ninth months. One of 
these last was a case of concealed hemorrhage, the woman 
having all the symptoms of excessive loss of blood for 


twelve hours before there was any external flow. The 
placenta in this ease, on its delivery showed over nearly all 
its uterine surface, a large and oldish clot. In this case, the 
hemorrhage, as soon as it became external, was promptly and 
entirely arrested by the tampon. Unfortunately, however, 
labor set in eighteen hours afterwards, before the patient had 
rallied from her excessive prostration ; and although the 
blood subsequently lost was of very trifling amount, it was 
sufficient to destroy life. The only other case of fatal 
hemorrhage in my experience, was in a case of placenta previa, 
the patient living several miles from my residence. 

Of the thirty -five cases of post-partem hemorrhage, only 
two required the introduction of my hand to bring about uter- 
ine contraction. The others were all successfully treated by 
external manual support to the flabby uterus, and the free 
administration of ergot and opium ; the latter in the form of 
tincture or the liquor opii compositus, since this preparation has 
coilie into general use. In one of these cases, I must have torn 
off and left in the uterus apiece of the placenta, without being 
aware of the fact until it was iBxpelled a fortnight afterwards. 
In consequence of this accident, this woman very nearly flooded 
to death, 



Convulsions occurred in twelve cases, nine of which were 
in my own private practice, and three were seen by me in 
consultation. In three of these cases, the convulsions came on 
respectively six, eight and forty-eight hours before labor set 
in; in five cases, during labor; and in the remaining four 
cases, from one hour to six hours after delivery. In two cases 
there had been no previous evidence of uremic poisoning; but 
in the other ten cases, the convulsions were undoubtedly of 
uremic origin. All the cases which occurred before labor and 


after delivery recovered. Of the five cases in which the con- 
vulsions came on during labor, two recovered and three died 
— all the three fatal cases, singularly enough, being those I 
saw in consultation practice. 

In the eight cases in which the convulsions came on before 
or during labor, the modes of delivery were as follows, viz : 

By the unaided uterine contractions, In 4 cases. 

By the ergot, In 1 case. 

By the forceps, In 3- cases. 

Total, 8 cases. 

Of the five women who recovered, three were ' delivered 
naturally; one by the ergot, and one by the forceps. Of the 
three who died, one was delivered naturally, and two by the 
forceps. Only one child was born alive, and in this case the 
delivery was effected by the unaided natural efforts. 

A recent paper on " Blood-letting as a Therapeutic Resource in 
Obstetric Medicine/^ by Professor Barker, has given rise to a 
good deal of discussion lately ; more particularly as to the 
value of blood-letting in the treatment of puerperal eclampsia. 
My own practice in this disease has always been to bleed very 
freely y a practice based upon the maxim of Dr. Qooch, that wo 
must " take care of the brain^ and let the womb take care of itself 
This precept, it is true, was originally based upon mistaken 
ideas as to the pathology of puerperal convulsions ; but it does 
not therefore follow that the practice itself is either improper 
or even irrational. Its propriety is simply a question of facts. 
And as for the rest, even if the apparent cerebral congestion 
be due to a primary renal lesion, or to the poisonous accumula- 
tion of urea in the blood resulting from it, is there any mode 
of ridding the system of this poisonous excess of urea, so 
prompt, or so certain, as by the direct abstraction of blood ? 

And in these cases we must remember, as was suggested 


by Professor Jacobi^ that the question is not how will the 
woman be a we^k or a month hence ? but will she live a day, 
or an hour ? 

In all my own cases, as I have already stated, I bled very 
freely. Indeed, I never in all my life, bled as freely in any 
other class of diseases ; and my own patients all recovered. In 
one case — my first case — my record states that I took sixty 
ounces of blood at once, and afterwards bled a second time. 
And I recollect that this was by no means a very robust, nor 
a very plethoric woman. In another case^ in which the woman 
was suddenly seized with terrible pain in her head, nausea, 
vomiting, &c., and soon afterward went into a convulsion, my 
record says that " as soon as the fit passed off*, I opened a yein 
by a large incision, and drew blood until the pulse became 
indistinct. I do not know how much ; I did not notice it ; 
it was 'a very large quantity. She remained comatose about 
fifteen minutes, when she opened her eyes, looked up at me, 
and asked, ' Doctor j what has helped my head 2 ' " In another 
case my notes say that I bled to the extent of g xx., and 
repeated it, making forty ounces in all. In another I drew 
§ xxiv., in another S xl., in another § xxxii., and so on. Even 
in a case where the convulsions had long been imminent, and 
finally set in forty-eight hours before labor began, in a pale, but 
rather plethoric woman, whose blood was evidently much 
impoverished by several weeks of albuminuria and general 
anasarca, the vertigo, headache, double vision, etc., were twice 
promptly relieved, and the threatened convulsions averted for 
the time at least, by the extraction of from six to eight fluid 
ounces of blood ; although at the same time I deemed it neces- 
sary to give — and, in fact, had for some weeks been giving — 
iron, quinia, etc., as general tonics. 

In this connection, however, it is but proper to state, that 
the three fatal cases seen by me in consultation practice, had 


also been bled ^^ fredy^^ before my arrival. In one of these 
cases, the very judicious practitioner who was in attendance 
writes to me, that he bled twice — the first time to the extent 
of 3 xvi., and the second time § xii., or g xxviii. in all. In 
another case, he also bled to the extent of 3 xvi. In the third 
case, the physician in attendance informed me at the time 
that he ." had bled her freely " before my arrival. These three 
eases all occurred in short, stout, thick-necked, and plethoric 
women. Whether I would have bled them more freely had 
I been earlier present, it is of course impossible for me to say, 
and therefore improper for me even to suggest. 


As already stated, two cases of placenta previa have 
occurred in my experience, both of which were fatal to the 
child, and in one of which the woman also died from loss of 
blood. In this case the patient had lost an immense amount 
of blood before my arrival. The nature of the case was 
detected at once ; and as the os uteri was not yet dilated, I 
immediately applied the tampon. This restrained the hemor- 
rhage at once and effectually j until the pains became expulsive, 
when I removed the tampon, and delivered immediately by 
podalic version. Very little blood was lost in the operation, 
but that little was sufficient, with what she had previously 
lost, to destroy life. In the second case, the delivery was also 
accomplished by turning. The child was dead, but the woman 


Occurred in four cases; twice with presentation of the 
breech, once with the vertex, and once with the vertex com- 
plicated with the descent of a hand and forearm. Only one 


of these cases occurred since the postural method of treating 
this accident became known to the profession. In this case I 
tried it, but failed, probably because I did not keep the woman 
long enough upon her chest and kiiees. In no case did I suc- 
ceed in permanently returning the cord ; and in only one case 
was the child born alive — the favorable result in this case 
being due, not to any skill of mine, but to the unusually rapid 
progress of the labor after the membranes gave way. 


is an accident of very frequent occurrence, and in most 
cases is easily remedied, either by drawing down a loop of 
the funis and slipping it over the head, or, failing in this, by 
slipping it over the shoulders and allowing the child to pass 
through it. In some cases, however, I have failed in both 
these expedients, and have then been obliged to insinuate the 
blade of a scissors between the neck and cord, and to divide 
the latter before delivery. In a few instances of this accident, 
I have known the child's head to be drawn up over the 
pubes, and the delivery of the body effectually prevented by 
this cause. 


1 have found an obstacle to delivery in two cases. In both 
these cases the pains were good, and in both it seemed to me 
that a little more energetic contractions would overcome the 
obstruction ; and as both cases occurred in the early part of 
my professional life, I gave the ergot in both. The ergot pro- 
duced its full oxytocic effects in both instances, and in one, 
the delivery was thus effected ; but in the other case, the con- 
tinuousness and terrible violence of the uterine contractions 
alarmed me, and I hastened to deliver with the forceps. This 
was my first forceps case. Both children were born alive, but 


both of them bore for a day or two, the marks of the coccyx 
upon their foreheads. No other case of pelvic contraction, 
sufficient to interfere with delivery, ever occurred in my 


I have observed in two cases to interfere with labor. One 
of these was a tumor of fibrous feel, attached to the anterior 
lip of the uterus, and extending thence aloug the course of 
the urethra. The tumor was about as large as a small hen's 
eggy and seriously obstructed the dilatation of the os. Before 
the dilatation was sufficient to permit the passage of the foetal 
head, the pains became violently expulsive, and the vertex 
descended, covered by the anterior lip of the uterus, until 
the tumor itself engaged under the pubes. By supporting 
the parts during the pains and gradually pressing them back 
in the intervals, the vertex finally descended through the os 
and past the obstruction, and the delivery was effected with- 
out farther interference. 

The second case was of much more serious import. This 
case occurred in consultation practice. I was sent for because 
the physician in attendance was unable to discover any os 
uteri, or uterine outlet. The child's head, he informed me, 
was low down in the pelvis, but covered by the uterus, and 
was so when he was first called to the case. On making an 
examination, I found that what was supposed to be the child's 
head, was in reality an enormous tumor, lying between the 
vagina and rectum, and so completely filling up the pelvic 
cavity, as to leave less than an inch between it and the pubes 
at the superior strait. Passing my finger through this space, 
I found the os uteri, like an elongated slit, above, and partly 
in front of the pubes ; and above this, and still farther for- 
ward, lay the foetal head, feeling on external palpation, like 


an enormously distended bladder, which, in fact, I at first 
supposed it to be. The tumor itself felt very hard and solid, 
and I thought was immovable. 

Under these circumstances it was at once evident, that 
unless the tumor could be got out of the \^y, delivery by the 
natural passages was simply impracticable. By my advice. 
Dr. Sabine, an eminent obstretrician of the city of New York, 
was sent for. He came at once, and kindly took the farther 
management of the case. Having first satisfied himself as to 
the exact condition of things, he also concluded, that if the 
tumor could not be pushed up out of the way, the cesarian 
section offered the only chance of delivery. 

Having emptied the woman's bowels and bladder, by the 
request of Dr. Sabine, I placed her fully under the influence 
of chloroform, and kept her so during the subsequent pro- 
tracted procedures. Dr. S first introduced his hand into 

the vagina, and by a degree of force which I would not have 
dared to exert, he succeeded in pressing up the tumor partly 
out of the pelvis, and thus gained space enough, as he hoped, 
to reach the head and drag i t down. With great difficulty, and 
after repeated failures with several differently shaped instru- 
ments, he finally succeeded in applying a very long and strong 
forceps, and after protracted and most powerful tractions, 
finally brought down the head, and delivered the woman of a 
living child. Remembering that the tumor could not be pushed 
entirely out of the way, and that the foetal head lay quite 
above, and partly in front of the pubes, it will at once be seen 
that the successful application of the forceps and delivery of 
the child in this case, required, and was evidence of, a degree 
of self-confidence and practical skill which but few possess. 
To make the operation still more difficult, the. case occurred 
in a primiparsB forty-one years old. The tumor proved- to be 
ovarian, and after delivery could be seen and felt in the abdo- 


meo, by the side of the uterus, and about as large. Both 
mother and child recovered, the former after a serious attack 
of metro-pertonitis. 


I have seen one case of this, in consultation practice. The 
case was one of shoulder presentation, and the accident 
occurred during the operation of turning. The operation 
itself, the physician in attendance stated, was accomplished 
without the least difficulty, but after the version was com- 
pleted, the pains ceased altogether, and he failed to deliver 
the child's head. After this was accomplished the uterus was 
found ruptured at its posterior portion, at the junction of the 
cervis and body. The woman was completely collapsed, and 
died in a few hours. 


as already stated, occurred in two cases. In one of these the 
hand and head descended rapidly together ; and as the woman 
had a capacious pelvis, and the child itself was small and a 
little premature, the labor soon terminated, without any inter- 
ference whatever. 

In the other case, however, the result was not so favorable, 
the presence of the hand and forearm effectually preventing 
the descent of the vertex. In this case, the waters were dis- 
charged before my arrival, and before the os uteri was fully 
dilated. On examination, I found a loop of the funis pro- 
lapsed. Continuing my examination, I next reached a hand 
and forearm. I then introduced my hand into the vagina, to 
complete my diagnosis as to the exact position of the child, 
when I found the vertex presenting at the superior strait, in 
the left occipito-acetabular position, or the first presentation 
of Baudelocque. 


Here, surely, was an unusual mixture of presenting parts. 
Of course I attempted to replace the funis, and to press back 
the hand ; but, from lack of skill, probably, I failed. The 
case occurred before the postural method of treating prolapse 
of the funis was known. After the os uteri was fully dilated, 
finding no change in the position, nor any advance of the ver- 
tex, I placed the woman in position, and delivered by version. 
The cord had long ceased to beat. 



In my experience, has formed no impediment to delivery, 
except in one case, although three out of the four cases 
occurred in first labors. In the exceptional case, occurring 
in a sixth labor, the child's chin looked towards the pubes, 
and did not descend into the pelvis, although the pains were 
sufficiently strong. Finding it necessary to interfere in the 
case, delivery was accomplished by version. 


Of the 1,151 children, seven were more or less deformed, 
one of which was an anencephalous monster. Only one of 
these offered any obstacle to delivery. 

Of these deformities, two were cases of club-foot, one had a 
second thumb on the left hand, fully formed, and with a per- 
fect nail ; one was born without forearms ; one had a hare 
lip, the cleft extending through the jaw-bone and palate, leav- 
ing the mouth and nostril one cavity; one was a brainless 
monster; and one had an enormously distended abdomen, so 
as to require its evisceration, before it could be dragged 
through the superior strait. 

In this last case, the midwife in attendance — an ignorant 
German woman — had actually pulled the child's head nearly 


off, in her efforts to " helpf the womoLU^^ as she expressed it. 
The case may be found, reported in full, in the Transactions 
of the Society for 1865. 

Of the cases of club-foot, one was of the variety known as 
" talipes varus/' and the other " talipes vagus.'' In the first case, 
the child was cured when it began to walk, by wearing shoes 
with properly arranged springs attached. The second case 
was remedied by a simple roller bandage. This case occurred 
in 1851, and the roller was applied so as to bring the foot 
gradually in position, upon the principle which has since 
been applied in the treatment of these deformities by adhesive 
strips. For the suggestion, I was indebted to the late Dr. 
Richard K. Hoffman, of New York city. The roller was first 
applied when the child was but a few weeks old, and re- 
applied as often as was necessary to retain the foot in position. 
In neither of these cases, however, was the deformity very 

In the child without forearms, the arms appeared as if 
they had been amputated just above the elbows, terminating 
in conical stumps, upon one of which was a rudimentary 
finger. The child's legs were also imperfect, and of unequal 
lengths. The c?iild lived, and is now a young man of short, 
dumpy stature, and large head. 

In the anencephalous monster, the whole skull above the 
brow, and the posterior portions of the cervical vertebrae 
were wanting, leaving only the base of the skull, and bodies 
of the vertebrae remaining. The rough edges of the bone 
were covered, but without cuticle. There was neither brain, 
nor medula oblongata. The expression of its features was 
most hideous. Its eyes were large, and projected like the 
eyes of a frog. Its body and limbs, short but well shaped. 
Its neck was so short that its face seemed to be stuck 
between its shoulders, its chin apparently running into its 


sternum. Its lips were thick, fleshy, and protuberant: its 
nose flat and expanded ; its ears thick, fleshy and erect; and 
taken altogether it was one of the most hideous and repul- 
sive looking things that I ever saw. It was a female, and 
evidently lived a few moments before its birth, but never 
moved afterwards. 



In my experience, has been one of the most frequent of all 
the causes oftedious and impeded labors. In some of these 
cases, this character of the pains seemed to be due to over- 
distention of the uterus ; and in these, the rupture of the mem- 
branes and discharge of the liquor amnii, were often followed 
by a sudden change in the character of the pains, and by a 
more rapid progress of the labor. In other cases, however, 
this inefficiency of the uterine contractions could not be 
accounted for in this way. My record shows quite a large 
number of cases of this kind, in which it was deemed neces- 
sary, either to administer ergot, or to deliver with the forceps. 
To these cases I will refer more particularly by-and-by. 


Of the 1,151 children, 1,085 were delivered naturally^ — i, e. 
without any other interference than, as I have already said, 
is proper and usual, even in the simplest labors. In twenty- 
three cases the uterine efforts were stimulated to greater 
energy and intensity, and the delivery eff'ecxted by the ergot; 
twenty-eight were delivered with the forceps, in four of 
which the ergot had been given, and had acted well, but had 
failed to accomplish delivery; thirteen were delivered by 
podalic version ; one by opening and eviscerating the child's 


abdomen ; and in one case, in which it became necessary to 
resort to embriotomy, the woman died before delivery was 
entirely accomplished. 

This case, by the way, is the saddest in all my experience. 
And if it is always " a sort of desecration for an aecouchee to diCy" 
as remarked by the late Professor Meigs, what word in the 
language is sufficiently expressive to characterize the death of 
an aecouchee under circumstances like these : 

Case. Mrs. , aged about thirty years, a robust 

woman, the wife of a farmer, in her third labor, was seen by 
me, in consultation, twenty-two hours after labor began, and 
ten hours after the discharge of the liquor amnii. From the 
medical attendant I learned that he had been called early in 
the case ; that on his first examination, before the os uteri 
was dilated, he found the vertex presenting at the superior 
strait : that some time afterwards, the membranes broke spon- 
taneously, and the pains ceased entirely for " an hour and a 
half;" that the pains then came on again, and soon afterwards, 
on making another examination, he found the presentation 
changed from the vertex to the shoulder ; that he had waited for 
some time, " in hopes that spontaneous evolution would take 
place ;" and that he had attempted version, and, in fact, had 
" reached the feet, but desisted for fear of doing too much 
violence to the mother." And in the consultations which 
followed in the progress of the case, he suggested the use of 
ergot, " to aid in producing spontaneous evolution" 

On examination, I found the forearm and arm in the 
vagina, the hand swollen and edematous, lying beyond the 
vulva, and the shoulder wedged into the os uteri, and firmly 
grasped by it as by a thick band of gutta percha. The uterus, 
by external palpation, was felt to be firmly and continuously 
contracted, of stony hardness, and without any moment of 
relaxation. The woman was, and for some time had been, 


entirely free from labor pains, the uterus having apparently 
taken on its complete and permanent tonic contraction. Her 
general condition was tolerably good. 

The case occurred before the time of anesthetics, and I was 
therefore obliged to depend on blood-letting and nauseants 
to secure some degree of relaxation of this terribly firm 
contraction of the uterus; and while the patient was sick 
from antimony, and faint from the bleeding, I made a perse- 
vering effort to introduce my hand into the uterus ; hoping 
that if I could reach the feet, I might effect the delivery by 
turning. My efforts in that direction, however, were unavail- 
ing. I could not even introduce my hand into the os uteri, 
so firmly was it contracted ; and it became evident that the 
delivery could only be accomplished by embriotomy, or the 
cesarian section. Additional counsel and assistance were 
secured, and the attempt to deliver by embriotomy was made. 
But from the contracted state of the uterus, and the complete 
immobility of the foetus,the operation was rendered extremely 
difficult and tedious, and before it was entirely accom- 
plished, the woman sank exhausted. 

Three questions of great practical interest here arise, in 
connection with this case, viz : Ist. Is it possible for a vertex 
presentation to change, during labor, and without manual 
interference, to a presentation of the shoulder ? 

Both reason and experience, I apprehend, will answer in 
the negative. When in labor the vertex presents, the long 
axis of the child corresponds with the long axis of the uterus, 
and every uterine contraction must tend to fix it there ; and any 
change of position under these circumstances, it seems to me, 
is simply impossible. 

2d. Is it possible for the tonic contraction of the uterus, in 
a third labor, to become so firmly established in ten hours 
after the discharge of the waters, and before the delivery of 


the child, as to render the introduction of the hand impossi- 
ble? or, had the ergot already been given previous to my 
arrival, " to aid in accomplishing spontaneous evolution ? " 

My own experience in other cases would lead me to antici- 
pate but little difficulty in the operation of version, even ten 
hours after the discharge of the liquor amnii. At least I have 
delivered by version, in one case eight hours, and in another 
case twenty-four hours after the rupture of the membranes, 
without any difficulty whatever, ajid without the use of anes- 
thetics. And in another case, in which the shoulder pre- 
sented, I had no difficulty in introducing my hand into the 
uterus thirty-two hours after the waters were drained oft* ; 
although in this case I could not reach the feet, the delivery 
being finally effected by hooking down the knee. In neither 
of these cases did the uterine contraction approach anything 
like the firmness or the continuousness observed in this case. 

3d. Was it proper, under the circumstances, to attempt 
delivery by embriotomy ? or ought not the cesarian section 
to have been resorted to at once, after the failure to deliver by 
version ? 

Of this I now have no doubt whatever, and with the experi- 
ence gained in this case, I should never again attempt even to 
turn in a uterus so firmly contracted. 


Of the thirteen deliveries by podalic version, there were — 

Presentations of the shoulder or trunk 8 cases. 

Placenta Previa 2 cases. 

Presentation of vertex, hand and funis 1 case. 

Uterine exhaustion, the vertex being above the superior 

strait 1 case. 

Presentation of the face 1 case. 

Total 18 cases. 


In delivering by version, I have in two cases fractured the 
arm, in my eagerness to save the life of the child. These 
cases have always been to me a source of much mortification, 
as I regarded the accident as an evidence of undue haste and 
want of skill. But, recently I have been informed that a cele- 
brated teacher and practitioner of midwifery in the city of 
New York is in the habit of informing his pupils, that this 
accident is a very common one, and of trifling import ; union 
taking place in a few days, without injury to the limb : that 
in turning, the life of the child often depends upon its prompt 
and rapid delivery ; and that under these circumstances, any 
danger to the limb must not for a moment be allowed to 
weigh against the life of the child. In the two cases of this 
accident in my own practice, the children were both saved, 
and by the application of a simple pasteboard splint and roller 
bandage, both recovered, without deformity, in a few days. 


as already stated, was accomplished in twenty-eight cases, 
as follows, viz : 

In puerperal convulsions, 3 cases. 

In anterior projection, and apparent immobility of the 

coccyx 1 case. 

In arrest in the descent of the footal head, from some 

cause which I could not appreciate 4 cases. 

In ovarian tumor nearly filling the pelvic cavity 1 case. 

In suspension of the pains, or feeble, irregular, and 

inefficient uterine contractions 19 cases. 

Total as cases. 


The ergot was administered, and its full oxytocic action 
manifested, in twenty-seven cases, in twenty-three of which 


the delivery was thus effected, and in four of which it became 
necessary to employ the forceps to accomplish the delivery. 
The cases in which the ergot was given, occurred mostly in 
the first half of my professional life, and were as follows, viz : 

In puerperal convulsions, by the advice of counsel and 

contrary to the convictions of my own judgment 1 case. 

In anterior projection and immobility of the coccyx 2 cases. 

In arrest in the descent of the foetal head from some 

unappreciated cause 2 cases. 

In suspension of pains, or feeble, inefficient, and irregu- 
lar uterine contractions 22 cases. 

Total 27 cases. 


In 1856, Dr. Pierson, at that time Secretary of the Society, 
and now one of its honored Fellows, read before the Society 
an abstract of 2,000 cases of labor occurring in his own 
practice. The details of this paper I have forgotten, but I 
distinctly remember that the Doctor earnestly deprecated the 
use of ergot in labor, as always dangerous, and often fatal to 
the child, and that he advised, instead, a more frequent resort 
to the employment of the forceps. In closing this abstract of 
my obstetrical experience, I beg leave to present a few facts 
bearing upon this question, which, taken by themselves, per- 
haps, may not be a sufficient basis for correct generalization, 
but which nevertheless are valuable, as affording confirmation 
of the correctness of the rule of practice upon which Dr. Pier- 
son insisted, and which, at the present time, is, I believe, 
generally accepted by the profession, as strictly orthodox. 

When I commenced the practice of obstetrics, the profes- 
sion had not yet released itself from the paralyzing influence 
of the teachings of Denman and others, who regarded it 


as " uncertain whether the art of midwifery had been bene- 
fitted or injured by the introduction of instruments into its 
practice." The forceps especially was looked upon with 
dread, and as " always an evil, and never introduced into the 
vagina without hazard;" the use of which should be restricted 
to the most skillful hands, and to cases of immediate, pressing 

At the same time, the ergot had reached its highest point 
of popularity as an oxytocic agent, and was almost universally 
employed by the profession. In country practice, especially, 
it was given with a degree of frequency and freedom, which 
to the younger practitioners of the present time, must seem 
to be scarcely credible. 

Under these circumstances, it is not at all strange, that in 
the early part of my practice, I seldom resorted to the use of 
the forceps, or that I employed the ergot quite frequently. 
I confess, however, that I was never satisfied with its results. 
In a certain proportion of cases it proved to be entirely inert ; 
and I soon learned that it could not, therefore, be relied upon 
with certainty, in emergencies requiring prompt and ener- 
getic interference. But in most of the cases in which I gave 
it, its peculiar influence upon the uterus was promptly mani- 
fested ; and in some of these, it acted with a degree of vio- 
lence which seemed to me to endanger the integrity of the 
uterus, as well as the life of the child. Still my mind was 
not fully impressed with its dangerous tendency, until Dr. 
Pierson's paper led me to examine my own record, when, I 
confess that I was amazed at the large number of still-births 
that had followed its use in my own practice. Since that time 
I have given it in only three cases, and in these only because 
I felt certain that a very few energetic contractions would 
accomplish the delivery. 

In the twenty-seven cases in which the ergot was given, 


and its peculiar action proniptly manifested, the results, so far 
as the child is concerned, are noted as follows, viz : 

Delivered aliye and well 14 

" apoplectic, but recovered 2 

" " and convulsed, with paralysis of the 
extensor muscles of the forearm, from which the cliild 
ultimately recovered 1 

Total living children 17 

Still-bom 10 

Total number cases 27 

Of these still-births, however, one occurred in a case of puer- 
peral eclampsia ; and in this case it is probable that the death 
of the child resulted from uremic poisoning. And two other 
cases occurred in labors in which the pains were good, but in 
which the foetal head became stationary within the pelvic 
canal, from some cause which I could not determine. In 
these cases the ergot was given, because it seemed to me that 
a little more energy in the uterine contractions, would cer- 
tainly accomplish delivery ; and the death of the child in 
these cases may be due to other causes. But excluding these 
three still-births, — or for purpose of comparison, excluding all 
the cases in which the foetal head became arrested in its 
descent through the pelvis, and also the case of convulsions, 
as being cases in which the employment of the ergot was 
improper, or at least of very questionable propriety, — and 
there yet remain twenty-two cases in which the ergot was 
given for more or less complete suspension of pains, or for 
feeble, irregular and inefficient uterine contractions; and 
these are precisely the cases to which the ergot, if ever appro- 
priate, is peculiarly adapted, and in which, at the time they 
occurred, it was, by the general consent of the profession, 


almost exclusively resorted to. In these twenty-two cases, 
the results were as follows, viz : 

Cbildren alive 15 

" 8tiU-bom 7 

Total 22 

Now this certainly is a startling, and to me a most mortify- 
ing record, and fully warrants the declaration of Dr. Hosack, 
that instead of calling ergot ^^Pulvis ad partem,^' it should be 
named ^'Pulvis ad mortem." And it was probably in view of 
such results that Prof. Gillman remarked to his class, " I am 
glad that there is ergot, — but lam not very glad." 

The above results, when compared with those which have 
followed the employment of the forceps in the same class of 
cases in my own practice, will appear to still greater disad- 
vantage. As already stated, of the twenty-eight deliveries 
with the forceps, nineteen were cases in which the uterine con- 
tractions had become more or less completely suspended, or 
were exceedingly feeble, irregular and ineflBlcient, — just those 
cases in which if any interference be necessary, the choice 
must be made between the forceps and ergot; and in which, 
in country practice, particularly, the ergot is generally 

Now in these nineteen cases, sixteen children were deliv- 
ered alive and did well afterwards, and three were still-born. 
Of these three still-births, one had evidently been dead some 
time, as decomposition had already set in ; and one occurred 
in a twin pregnancy in which the membranes broke spontane- 
ously sixty-six hours before labor began ; and in which, from 
over-distention of the uterus, probably, the pains were exceed- 
ingly inefficient from the first, — so much so that twenty-six 
hours elapsed before the os uteri became fully dilated, or the 
vertex had descended suflEiciently to warrant me in applying 


the forceps. Then the pains, instead of becoming more efB- 
cient and expulsive, as I had anticipated, ceased entirely, and 
I was obliged to deliver with the forceps. The second child 
had its separate bag of waters ; and as the pains did not again 
come on, and as the patient was a good deal exhausted, I 
immediately after the delivery of the first child, introduced 
my hand, ruptured the membranes, and delivered by podalic 
version, both children being vertex cases. The first child 
gasped a few times, but respiration did not become estab- 
lished. The death of this child, I think, was due, not to the 
use of the forceps, for it was not injured at all, but to the 
protracted compression to which it was subjected during 
twenty-seven hours of labor. The second child, being pro- 
tected by its separate bag of waters, was delivered alive and 
did well. 

Now, excluding these two cases of still-births, as being due 
to other causes, and only one remains that can properly be 
attributed to the nse of the forceps. This case, by the way, 
was one in which the vertex had not descended into the pelvic 
cavity ; and only those who have tried to apply the instru- 
ments in this situation, can appreciate the great diflSiculties of 
the operation. 

The above facts, if they be insufficient to establish an invari- 
able rule of practice, have at least been sufficient to determine 
my own procedure in this class of cases. For the last five 
years, or more, I have not given the ergot in a single case 
with a view to its oxytocic influence ; while in the same time 
I have employed the forceps, on an average, once in every ten 
cases of labor. And although there may be cases of retarded 
labor, in which the use of the ergot may be proper and safe, I 
do not hesitate to say that I know of none in which the forceps 
is not equally appropriate, and a great deal more manageable 
and certain. 


But while deprecating the use of ergot in labor, or as an 
oxytocic agent, — more especially as it formerly was, and per- 
haps still is employed, in country practice, — I beg leave to 
bear my feeble testimony to its great value as a means of 
securing the prompt and perfect development of the tonic 
contraction of the uterus after delivery. When given imme- 
diately after, or immediately before, the delivery of the child, 
I know of nothing that can supply its place, or that will so 
certainly and effectually prevent post-partem hemorrhage 
and the terrific after-pains, to which some women of lax uter- 
ine fibre are so liable. 

It is now more than twenty-five years since I learned from 
my preceptor, the use of ergot in the treatment of after-pains. 
From employing it thus for their cure, I soon learned to give 
it for their prevention ; and for many years past, or more par- 
ticularly since the ergot can always be had in the reliable and 
convenient form of the fluid extract, I never attend a case of 
confinement, even in primiparae, without giving a drachm of 
the extract, either with or without opium, as the case may be, 
for the purpose of assuring my patient against the suft'ering 
and annoyance of severe after-pains and profuse lochia, which 
so often result from the tardy and imperfect development of 
the tonic uterine contraction. 


When anesthetics were introduced into midwifery practice, 
the natural conservation of my disposition led me to reject 
their employment in natural and uncomplicated labors, as 
unnecessary, and therefore injudicious. The pains of partu- 
rition, being no indication of disordered vital action, might, 
it seemed to me, subserve some useful physiological purpose, 
with which it might be improper to interfere. For many 
years, therefore, I never gave an anesthetic in labor, except 


when it became necessary to resort to some operative proced- 
ure. Even then, in the use of the forceps, it has always been 
my practice to apply the instruments while the woman is 
fully conscious, so as to assure myself that I am doing no 
injury to the maternal organs; then to have the anesthetic 
administered, and to deliver while under its influence. Even 
in cases of excessive rigidity of the soft parts, I have, until 
recently, declined to give the anesthetic, regarding this 
rigidity as being only the measure of the patient's power of 
vital resistance, and as generally indicative of a good '* get- 
ting up." 

But within the last few years I have got into the habit of 
giving an anesthetic occasionally, more especially in first 
labors. And I confess that I have found its effects so uni- 
formly pleasant and free from harm, that I now regret that I 
did not employ it earlier in my practice. I can recall to mem- 
ory many cases in which it would, I think, have been not 
only proper, but most valuable, in saving my patients from 
many hours of intense suffering. The only anesthetic that I 
have employed, is chloroform, either alone, or with a slight 
admixture of sulphuric ether. 


The meteorological observations made by Wm. A. White- 
head, Esq., of Newark, and published in the Newark Daily 
Advertiser, give the following results : 

1st. The mean temperature of 1870 (52.67) was nearly 
two degrees above the average of the preceding 26 years, 
which was 50.75. Of the whole series two only, 1850-1853, 
exceeding it ; every month, excepting March, having had 
a mean temperature above the average. 

2d. That while the max. temperature, 92 J deg., was ex- 
ceeded in 14 of the 26, in 23 of the series a lower tempera- 
ture was experienced, the minimum of the year having been 
only 5f deg. 

3d. That the mean temperature of the Winter months 
was 2.76 above the average — of the Spring months 0.30 
above-^of the Summer months 2.93 above — and of the Au- 
tumn months 1.66 above. 

4th. That the number of fair days was above the average, 
and so with the number of days on which snow was observed. 

5th. That the quantity of Water falling in rain, and 
melted snow, was almost identical with that of 1869, and 
nearly two inches and three-tenths above the average of the 
preceding 26 years. There was a deficiency in the fall of 
the last 4 months, which left the earth unusually dry at the 
close of the year. The weather was uniformly cold through- 
out the winter months, the drouth of the Autumn and the 
frozen ground of the Winter, causing a general drying up 



of the streams and wells. The atmosphere, remarks Dr. 
Culver, of Hudson, averaged drier during the past year 
than for several years immediately preceding. The favora- 
ble influence of this change on the public health, he further- 
more remarks, is quite apparent. A friend said to him in 
April, " last year I thought I was giving out, and hadn't 
long to live, but somehow this year I have recovered my 
former buoj^ancy and strength." Substantially the same 
remark has been made to him by otlu^r aged persons. 

The by-law recently adopted by the Society, giving a seat, 
with the privileges of delegated members, to Reporters of 
Dist. Societies, who furnish reports to the Standing Com- 
mittee by the 10th of May, has stimulated a prompt re- 
sponse to the call of the Committee. Ten reports were re- 
ceived by the 10th inst. ; others have been received subse- 
quently, one only failing to report. 

' Burlington County reports Roseola as continuing to be 
the leading Epidemic. The symptoms are sometimes grave, 
and diflfer widely from those of the simple Rose Rash, as 
manifested by the severe inflammation of the fauces with 
exudation of cataiTlial matter, or false membrane on the 
tonsils and parts adjacent ; and by inflammation of the sub- 
maxillary glands, with tumefaction and suppuration of the 
cellular tissue. Desquamation is sometimes one of the se- 
qu^elafle. Dr. Thornton, the reporter, regards the disease 
as zjonotic. It is mostly confined to children. 

In Beverly, a few cases of Scarlatina appeared in May 
last, in a mUd form, increasing in severity until June, when 
17 cases occurred of a malignant type. One died on the 3d 
day and 3 in later stages of the disease. 

In Moorestown, intermittents have not been as numerous 
as heretofore. Dr. Townsend, of Beverly, says that in the 
delta of the Delaware and Rancocas rivers, a general epi- 


demic of intermittent and bilious remittent fevers prevailed, 
persistent but not fatal, except in the hands of charlatans. 
Quinia in divided doses, broke the cliills, but they invaria- 
bly retui'ned unless the remedy was continued. He attrib- 
utes the epidemic to the freshets and high tides, which broke 
over all the river dykes, and for months submerged grounds 
which were afterwards exposed to the heats of summer. 

Camden County reports a fair amount of genel^al health, 
and freedom from epidemics of every kind. Intermittent 
and bilious fevers and dysentery, formerly so common, 
have greatly declined. In some neighborhoods where they 
were constantly present during the Summer and Autumn, 
they have entirely disappeared. Here the low ground and 
swamps have been drained, and the waste lands restored. 
So also in the city of Camden a systematic underground 
drainage has wrought a very decided improvement in the 
general health. The only disease, as noticed by Dr. Coop- 
er, the reporter, as prevalent, is Cholera Infantum, which 
appeared in some portions of the county in July and Au- 
gust, and also in Camden. It was severe, and in many cases 
resisted treatment ; a removal to a cooler atmosphere, or to 
the sea-shore, aflfording the only prospect of recovery. 

In Cape Mo.y County^ where there is no District Society, 
Dr. Marcy has politely volunteered the report that there has 
been the usual summary of diseases, differing from former 
years in its unusual amount. There has been, he says, at 
least one-third more sickness than he has known for the 
last twenty years, and yet no epidemic of any kind has pre- 
vailed. There were in the Spriag a few cases of Scarlet Fe- 
ver, Measles, and Wliooping Cough, but mostly mild. 
Diphtheria has appeared in a modified form throughout the 


year. Last Spring four cases of mixed disease occurred ; 
either irregular Scarlet Fever with severe Diphtheria or se- 
vere Diphtheria with an irregular and badly developed 
rash. They all died on the fourth day from the effects of 
the blood poison. 

Cumberland County is reported as being generally free 
from all forms of epidemics. An old practitioner of 37 years 
says that he never saw so near an approach to the standard 
of health — a little of Whooprag Cough and Measles of mild 
type, the usual bowel complaints of the Summer and a lim- 
ited amount of fevers, Remittent and Typhoid, with a few 
cases of Pneumonia and Bronchitis, constituted the med- 
ical record of the year, with the single exception of Diph- 
theria, which appeared to a limited degree, in Shiloh and hi 
Lower Hopewell, near Bridgeton. In both localities a few 
fatal cases occurred. 

In Essex County^ Small Pox has prevailed lq Newark to 
a large extent, and new cases are now of daily occurrence. 
Ninety-seven cases were noted in April, nine of which ( 7 
adults and 2 children) were fatal. Intermittents and Remit- 
tents have been epidemic in Newark, attributed there to the 
dyking of the meadows contiguous to the city, and to the 
deep cuttings in many of the streets .for the construction of 
sewers. 'There has been throughout the county a greater 
amount of intermittent disease tlian usual, and in localities 
where it does not commonly appear. Roseola was epidem- 
ic in Orange during the early part of last summer, remark- 
able for nothing but its general diffusion. Measles is at 
the present time endemic, usually mild, but with a few 
cases of severe form. NotwithstandiQg the continuous 
heat of the summer, the usual bowel complaints of the sea- 


son were very limited in Orange ; they prevailed extensive- 
ly in Newark, and were greatly aggravated by the long con- 
tinuance of the heated term. 

Gloucester County is reported as free from all epidemic 
disease. Bilious fever to a limited amount, and a few cases 
of Pneumonia are the only diseases rej)orted as visiting the 
county. The District Society holds quarterly meetings 
which are well sustained. The committee would express 
the hope that their well sustained quarterly meetings may 
afford material for fuller reports than have been furnished 
for some years past. 

In Hunterdon County^ epidemics, where they have oc- 
curred, have been mild and amenable to treatment. In the 
lower part of the county, Scarlatina Simplex was met with 
during the early part of summer. Pertussis was extensive- 
ly prevalent during the Fall, Winter and Spring. One 
case, in the hands of the Reporter, was attended with Pneu- 
monia, extreme emaciation, and paralysis of the lower ex- 
tremities. In Ringoes, typlioid fever occurred in July, Au- 
gust and September. Its course was rapid and ente^iic in 
character. It was traceable to the emanations of a stagnant 
pool receiving the drainage of a barn yard into which de- 
caying animals w(u*e thrown. During tlie autumn and ear- 
ly winter, numerous cases of insanity were met with. In the 
majority of sick persons at that p(^riod the brain seemed to 
be peculiarly involved. Many cases were uncomj)licated, 
the brain alone being affected. Others, with aberration of 
mind, suffered from sensitiveness of the spinal cord, and 
some with paralysis. The cases were slow to convalesce. 

Of the number which fell to the charge of the reporter 
(about 20) two died, one was sent to the asylum, one re- 
mains insane, the rest recovered. 


Tuberculosis in this district seems to be on the increase. 
Neglect of hygienic laws seems to be laying the foundation 
for the disease, while nostrums made up of Antimony, 
Squills, and Lobelia, used so extensively, call many latent 
cases into activity. Affections of the respiratory organs 
prevailed during the winter months, subsiding in March. 
They were more sthenic in their type than in former years 
and were successfully treated by venescetion and other an- 
tiphlogistic remedies. 

Hudson County has been distinguished by an unusual 
amount of endemic disease. Cholera Infantum was very 
general during the summer, particularly among bottle-fed 
children. The autumn brought with it a long train of mias- 
matic diseases. Localities long exempt suffered severely. 
The County House at Snake HUl became one large hospital, 
as many as 90 cases being under treatment at one time. 
The type was severe and resisted treatment. On the hights 
of Bergen the same disposition to malarial disease was man- 
ifest, most cases of ordinary disease exhibiting the traces of 
miasma. Measles and Scarlet Fever appeared upon the 
breaking up of winter, both of a mild type. Hoboken city 
has been visited with small pox. About 100 cases have oc- 
curred, with a larger proportion than usual of fatal cases, 
owing to unfavorable hygienic condition. 

In Mercer County the health of the community has been 
generally good. Scarlet Fever made its appearance in July 
in the township of Lawrence, extending its influence to 
Trenton during the autumn, where it may be said to have 
become epidemic, during the winter and spring. It has 
been generally of a mild type. Diplitheria, which prevail- 
ed in Trenton and vicinity during the fall and early winter, 
made its first appearance in August. From that time on- 


ward for a few weeks there were occasional cases, till finally 
it assumed the proportions of an epidemic. It appeared 
also in a serions form, in September, at Dutch Neck, in 
West Windsor township, and was exceedingly fatal. Its 
appearance was immediately preceded by a disease among 
the poultry, which had been very fatal. Dr. Desliler, of 
Hightstown, says that tlie visitation lasted about three 
weeks. The country is level, comparatively free from 
marsh miasm, the soil under constant cultivation, and the 
community one of the richest in the State. The endemic was 
limited in extent to an area of one mile by three. The cases 
were nearly all fatal, five deaths occurring in one family. 

A locality in Trenton, known as the Swamp, inhabited 
chiefly by negroes, was invaded by a fatal disease which 
gave rise to much alarm and discussion. The cases which 
occurred were nearly all fatal ; the number of deaths was 
twenty. The disease was a malignant malarial fever, a few 
cases assumed a haemorrhagic type. The white people liv- 
ing in the vicinity were not affected. After proper drainage 
and clearing out of the infected district the disease abated. 


Monmouth County during the early months of the year 
has been remarkably exempt from serious disease. About 
the first of August, Cholera Infantum and Cholera Morbus 
suddenly appeared with much intensity. The cases of the 
latter were numerous, the attacks resulting fatally in several 
cases. During the autumn a few cases of Typhoid fever 
made their appearance. Early in the winter, in addition to 
the usual diseases of the season. Rubeola was epidemic till 
March. They were of a mild type. A few cases of Scar- 
latina Simplex also occurred. 

Smnerset County has been invaded by epidemics of Per- 


tussis, which was everywhere present, and by Parotitis 
which was very general. 

In Sussex Count?/ Intermittents and Remittents have been 
everywhere more common. They have been noticed more 
particularly along the route of the Midland R. R., due 
probably to the disturbance of the soil in the low ground. 
Scarlet fever of a mild type has been noticed in some por- 
tions of the county through the entire year. During the 
Spring months there was an endemic in Newton, character- 
ized by the usual phenomena of Scarlet fever without the 
eruption. Rubeola has occun-ed to a limited degree and 
Diphtheria, in a mUd form, in Deckertown. 

In Warren County the chief epidemic during the last 
summer was one of mixed intermittent, remittent and bilious 
fever, which prevailed in the town of Hope and vicinity. 
From July to November cases occurred in every family — 
270 persons out of a population of 300 were the subjects of 
some form of fever. The village has an elevated site with 
good drainage, but surrounded on nearly all sides by ex- 
tensive meadows, the drainage of which is obstructed by a 
mill-dam. It had been previously healthy, but the epi- 
demic was co-incident with the raising of the dam six inches, 
thereby flooding a more extended surface. Scarlatina has 
been epidemic in the valley of the Paulus Kill, from Janu- 
ary to May of the present year, of severe form ; many 
adults being affected. The greatest dang(*r arose from the 
acute nephritic symptoms in the first stage, producing death 
by coma, and from the uremic symptoms during the sec- 
ondary stage. 

The treatment of disease has been noticed in the reports, 
to some details of which the committee would refer. Dr. 
Marcy commends the use of veratrum virid, in Pneumonia. 


He relies upon it as the basis of his treatment — ^having used 
it for ten years, he says, '' I have come to rely upon it with 
almost as much certainty as upon Quinine in intermittents : 
I trust to it almost exclusively, and it rarely disappoints 
me." He believes that there is some power in it indepen- 
dent of its effects in reducing the hearf s action. 

Dr. Elmer, of Bridgeton, commends the Hyd. of Chloral 
as of value in the treatment of Pertussis, relieving the 
whoop in a few days, in doses of gr. ii to gr. v according 
to age and repeated about every 4 hours. He commends 
also the use of the Sol. of Permaganate of Pot. and, with 
carbolic acid diluted with glycerine, in carbuncles, boils, 
felons, &c. They cleanse, sooth, and heal, without the great 
sloughing, pain and prostration he used to meet with under 
the fonner treatment. The dirt treatment as recommended 
by Dr. Hewson has been used by Dr. Elmer with satisfac- 
tory success. 

Dr. Larison, of Hunterdon, details four cases of croup suc- 
cessfully treated by heroic doses of whiskey, and remarks, 
''I have so much confidence in the alcoholic treatment 
of membranous croup that I rely upon it with more confi- 
dence than upon any other therapeutic agent." The cases 
which he very minutely details are certainly very striking. 

Dr. Forman, of Hudson, in writing upon the diet of chil- 
dren living in towns where good pure milk cannot be ob- 
tained, recommends the use of condensed milk prepared by 
Borden's process. He says ''next to the pure milk from a 
healthy cow properly f(id, slightly sweetened, and rendered 
alkaline by 1 gr. of Sod. Carb. to every oz., comes, in my 
experience, Borden's milk. Eagle Brand." Dr. McLean 
Forman, of Monmouth, when alluding to the severe cases 
of Cholera Morbus in his county, remarks that all the cases 
which came under his care w^ere promptly relieved by the 
hypodermic use of morpliia, and the internal administra- 


tion of chloroform, aided by the usual topical applications. 
He also details a case of poisoning by Strj'chnia, which 
was relieved by Chlor. Hyd. He considers it one of the 
best antidotes to that poison which we possess. 

Dr. Berg, of Somerset, reports that during an epidemic of 
Pertussis it was observed that vaccination, in a new subject 
proved to be a specific if it took. The paroxysms diminish- 
ing in frequency and violence as the pustules developed and 
ceasing entirely with the subsidence of the vaccine disease. 

Interesting Cases. 

Of these the Committee notice the following : Anoma- 
lous intermittent^ by Dr Tliornton, in a man 75 years of age. 
He was attacked every third morning with severe pains 
first in the feet, extending to the lower limbs and body, in- 
creasing in severity for three hours, when insensibility su- 
pervened, lasting till bed-time without cold, hot, or sweating 
stage. During the intermissions he was apparently well. 
During the attacks he lay moaning and muttering, but no 
noise or infiiction of ordinary pain could arouse hinj. After 
several weeks he was rid of the attacks under the use of 
Arsenic, Iron, and large doses of Quinine, and remained in 
health for some weeks, when he died suddenly without any 
premonitory symptoms. 

Dr. Thornton also notic(^s a case of deatli- in child-hed^ on 
the 16th day after parturition, of ovarian abscess ; large 
quantities of pus passed per vaginam and a large quantity 
was found in the cul de sac of the peritoneum in the right 
side of the pelvis and the recto vaginal space. The pecu- 
liarities of the case were, clearness of intellect from first to 
last, her hearing morbidly acute, had diaphoresis and almost 
colliquative sweating : neither palpation nor physical ex- 
ploration could detect disease during life. 


By Dr. Townsend a case of fistulous opening from the 
duodenum and through the fundus and body of the uterus 
terminating in death. 

Dr. Cullen communicates the full history of a case of extra 
uterine gestation at full term. When called to the labor, 
pains were violent and persistent. Upon making an exam- 
ination per vaginam, he was unable to find the os, the finger 
coming in contact with a hard smooth body, and dipped 
into a sulcus which could be clearly defined in all its parts, 
except at a point a little to the right of the symphisis pubis. 
Supposing from his examination, that there was an in- 
verted retort neck, he deemed it best to meet the immediate 
indications of the case by the administration of anodynes, 
and to wait for a more favorable condition of affairs. At 
the next examination everything was found to be as before, 
and continued so for two days, with the exception that the 
pains were less violent and less frequent. No change was 
observed upon examination except a slight show. There 
was no material change in the aspect of the case, and noth- 
ing upon which to found more than a presumptive diagi 
nosis, tili the evening of the following day, when the pa- 
tient rapidly sank from exhaustion, and died undelivered 
six days after the beginning of labor. A post mortem re- 
vealed a perfectly normal external uterine tumour. Upon 
opening the cavity of the abdomen, adhesions were found 
extending throughout, with evidences of peritonitis and en- 
tire adhesion of the omentum. The uterus was found tx) be 
six times its unimpregnated size. The os opposite the ex- 
ternal abdominal ring, tlie body entirely retroverted, and 
the fundus forced against the promontory of the sacrum. 
Upon opening the sack containing the child, it was found 
lying transversely in the abdomen, the head in the right 
hypochondrium, the back toward the diaphragm of the 
mother, the buttock in the left hypochondrium. The pla- 


centa, which was attached to the walls of the abdomen in the 
right hypochondrium and lumbar region was nourished by 
the mesenteric arteries, and was firmly adherent. It weighed 
4 lbs. The child was of full size and weighed 9 lbs. , having 
a hare lip and club foot. 

A case of rupture of the bladder is repori^ed in a man over 
90 years of age, caused by a fall from a hay loft the, abdo- 
men striking across a manger. Perfect rest with anodynes 
was enjoined, and a cure was eflTected, although the most of 
the urine passed per rectum for a number of months. 

A case of traumatic tetanus successfully treated by Dr. 
Jno. S. Cook, of Hackettstown, is appended to this report, 
attention is invited to it because of the persistency of the 
disease, the perseverance in one determined coui'se of treat- 
ment^ the quantity of opiates used, and the long periods of 
continuous attention bestowed by the surgeon, as also the 
practical points which he has emphasized in his history of 
the case. 

Dr. Pierson, Jr. , of Essex, reports two cases of great in- 
terest with a full history of each, which are commended to 
the attention of the Society. 

Miasm from Salt MARsnES. 

In a communication received last year and published in 
the vol. of Transactions for 1870, page 111, Dr. Price, of 
Burlington county, remarked, "iVb miasmatic diseases are 
produced by salt marshes.^^ The committee has made this 
statement the occasion of instituting enquiries among medi- 
cal observers in the coast regions of the State, for the pur- 
pose of obtaining the results of their experience upon this 
subject. The committee have been led to this investigation 
because the statement seemed to be at variance with long 
established testimony upon the effects of marshes washed 
by the sea. McCulloch, in his work on malaria, published 


in Great Britain about 1828, says, " Whatever may be true 
of the Northern and colder parts of Britain, no observer can 
donbt that malaria is produced by salt marshes in the 
Southern parts, and, as might be expected, most conspic- 
uously in hot summers ; the examples being found in so 
many places that it is unnecessary to name them, since the 
difficulty would be to find the exemption. Could any doubt 
remain about this, it would be removed by the examination 
of this kind of soil over almost the whole world. The salt 
marshes of Normandy, of which the country around Dol 
may be taken as a sample, are notoriously productive of 
intermittents, to such a degree that scarcely an inhabitant 
is exempt from them ; while the general effect on the popu- 
lation is what is usually produced in such cases. It is the 
same on the French shores of the Mediterranean ; it is the 
same in the Adriatic, on both shores, as it is in Greece and 
Italy generally, and as it is in Sicily, in Sardinia, in the 
Crimea, in Spain, everywhere in short in the middle and 
southern parts of Europe ; and it is equally true of every 
part of the African, Asiatic, and American continents, at 
least within the range of heat, which however indefinable, 
ext-ends far beyond the torrid into the temperate zones." 
Dr. Jos. Brown asserts (see Cyclop. Pract. Med.,) that 
' ' marshes whether salt or fresh, are prolific sources of ma- 
laria, especially in a certain stage of the drying process un- 
der a hot sun," and that malaria "is the product besides of 
various sorts of soil to which the term marsh is by no means 
applicable. The mud left by the retiring tide in sea-ports 
and estuaries is productive of malaria in hot climates, as is 
evinced by the fever with which the crews of boats are at- 
tacked in such situations, and we have seen reason to think 
that in certain seasons they are not perfectly salubrious in 
our -own," (England.) The wiiter of this report was fa- 
miliar during his early life with the climate of Long Island, 


and is infonned as to its topography in that portion of the 
Island with which he was familiar. The salt marshes were 
uniformly and universally malarious, both on the South side 
which is washed by the South bay connected with the sea, 
and which is flat, and on the I^orth side which is washed by 
the Long Island Sound, and which is more hilly and 

The responses made to the committee by observers in 
New Jersey confirm in part the statement of Dr. Price, and 
show that the subject is still open to investigation. Dr. 
Marcy, of Cape May county, says, ' ' I fully concur in the 
views expressed by Dr. Price in regard to malaria. Our 
salt marshes generate no malarial poison. The causes are 
apparent. The material of which they are composed, so far 
as it is vegetable, is the decayed plants that can live only 
in salt water, and theu' decomposition is so influenced by 
the particles of salt contained in their structure and upon 
their surface that malaria is not generated. The supply of 
salt cannot fail, for at least twice in each month during the 
spring and neap tides the whole meadow is overflowed to a 
greater or less extent by salt water, as also by the tides 
driven in by frequently recurring easterly storms. As 
proof of this we can instance the exemption from chills and 
fever of the inhabitants of our beaches, and the little city of 
Cape Island, while upon the main land miasmatic fevers are 
very prevalent. I am told by my father. Dr. S. S. Marcy, 
who has practiced medicine here for fifty years that until 
the last five years he never knew a case of chills and fever 
originating on the island; the few cases which occurred 
there being traceable ii^ all cases to the influence of the ma- 
laria of the main land to which the parties had been ex- 

The reporter of Cumberland District says that the subject 
was introduced at the meeting of the District Society, and it 


was the unanimous opinion of the members that salt marshes 
were not miasmatic ; every member having something to say 
upon the subject, nearly all of whom have more or less ex- 
perience by practicing in the vicinity of salt marshes. The 
opinion of some was that their influence was beneficial in 
miasmatic diseases on account of their tonic power. 

The reporter for Essex says that ' ' there can be no doubt 
that the extensive meadows lying between Newark and 
Elizabeth known as the salt meadows do produce all sorts 
of miasmatic diseases." Per contra^ Dr. Southard, of New- 
ark, whose practice is in the portion of the city more or less 
contiguous to the marshes, draws a distinction between the 
upland traversed by creeks which contain salt and fresh 
water and which are only partially supplied with salt water 
and the true salt meadows. The former are malarious, but 
the latter, so far as his observation goes, are healthy. Dr. 
Whitehead, of Elizabeth, says in reference to these same 
meadows, '' I do not hesitate to say that I coincide with Dr. 
Price in the opinion expressed in the paper to which refer- 
ence is made. So far as the immediate vicinity of the true 
salt meadows, known as the Newark and Elizabeth great 
meadows, is concerned, I have always doubted their pro- 
duction of the deleterious effects so often charged to them." 

In Middlesex county the' medical men of Amboy all re- 
port intermittents in the vicinity of salt marshes. Dr. Hunt 
of the same county remarks, '' I have on the borders of my 
practice some salt meadow patients, and I have always 
thought them specially exempt from intermittents, et cetera, 
but have attributed it rather to the sandy and favorable na- 
ture of the soil than to the salt meadows. ' ' 

Dr. Robert Laird, of Squan Village, Monmouth county, 
attends all the families residing on the beach from Barnegat 
Inlet to the head of the bay. He says, ' ' I cannot recall to 
my recollection a single case of disease originating in miasm 


from salt marshes." He instances a large family, of all ages 
from infancy to the e:5treme old age of 105 years, living on 
a site surrounded by hundreds of acres of salt meadows — 
also another family residing where the effluvia from the 
marsh is as strong as the bilge water from an old ship, and 
the water they drink so impregnated that strangers can 
scarcely drink it, producing no deleterious effect except a 
slight diarrhoea. '' So my experience is," he says, "that 
salt meadows rarely if ever product miasmatic diseases. ' ' 

Dr. I. E. Arrowsmith, of Keyport, says that ''from 1844 
to 1870 I do not think that I saw half a dozen cases of chills 
and fever in our town, unless contracted in other localities 
and brought here to cbnvalesce." Last year he had a few 
cases, and did not know how to account for them. His 
opinion is that salt meadows of themselves do not develop 
miasm, but where sea water gets into ponds haviag no out- 
let, and is exposed to the rays of the sun and become dry, 
malaria is generated. 

Tlie chainnan of the committee requested a communica- 
tion upon this subject from his valued associate Dr. Culver, 
of Hudson. His response is as follows : 

" I agree with Dr. Price, of Burlington county, who, in 
his report last year, says, ' No miasmatic diseases are 
produced by salt TnarsTies^ provided this sentence be ac- 
cepted in its most literal sense ; but I think that any other 
interpretation of it should be taken cum grano salts, I 
confess to have lost faith in 'marsh miasmata,' and, indeed 
in all ideal creations assigned as iatangible substitutes for 
etiological knowledge. The authors and worshippers of 
unknown gods, reckless of the pedigrees of ills to be engen- 
dered, have turned loose such a motley multitude of ' spe- 
cific poisons,' and ' animalculse,' and 'vegetations,' and 
* germs,' and 'spores,' into the atmosphere — not to mention 
our food and drink — that the wonder is that mankind are 


not all continually sick, with promiscuous generations of 
hybrid diseases, of ever-varjdng types, baffling nosology 
and setting at nought the established rules of therapeutics. 

^'Dr. Price appears to be an accurate observer, and the 
facts he records considerably qualify, if they do not neu- 
tralize his too sweeping generalization. He says ' Intermit- 
tent fever is almost entirely unknown.' ^Our watermen 
often come home sick with the chills,' — caught of course in 
some far-off land, — and ' there is a type of fever occurring 
here, perhaps half a dozen cases annually having a remit- 
tent character.' 

' ' For myself I know of salt marshes which are overflowed 
by almost every spring -tide high water, — perhaps not at 
every neaptide, — the sea water of flood-tide being generally 
but very slightly freshened during the submergence ; and 
I know that malarial diseases abound every year, more 
or less, among the people who live near their borders, and 
almost exclusively after protracted heated terms in July, 
August or September. I have also watched with much in- 
terest, the annual recurrence, at the self-same mid-summer 
season, of malarial diseases, not only in the vicinity of 
brackish and fresh water marshes, but in littoral and inland 
regions distant from marsh-lands of every description. In 
a few instances I have observed malarial fevers which orig- 
inated in-doors in mid-winter, the family attacked having 
been for weeks supplied with an atmosphere highly heated 
and surcharged with agueous vapor. Dr. E. W. Buck, of 
this city, has reported a similar occurrence. No part of 
Hudson County is ever exempt from malarial diseases ; but 
they are notably more prevalent in Spring and during the 
redundance of atmospheric dampness after Summer 
droughts. I allude to only one of the several conditions 
which concur to produce malaria, at the same time permit 
jne to protest against their unification. ' ' 

report of standing committbb. 237 


The deatli record of the year is as follows : Alfred B. 
Dayton, of Mattewan, Monmouth county, died July 19th, 

1870, aged 57 years. Dr. Da3rton was a Fellow of this Socie- 
ty, having been President in 1854. He was present at our 
last meeting at Trenton, and at that time complained of fee- 
ble health. In less than two months we received a notice 
of his decease. Dr. Charles C. Clarkson died in Newark, 
January 10th, 1871, aged 27; Dr. Jno. R. Conover 
died in Freehold, Monmouth county, March 31st, 1871 ; Dr. 
Lorenzo F. Fisler, in Camden, March 30th, 1871, aged 73 ; 
Dr. Ed. I. Grant, of Trenton, aged about 60,'died in March, 

1871. No obituary notices have been received of the above 
by the committee. They hope to obtain them for publica- 
tion in our vol. of Transactions. 

At the last meeting of this Society, a communication was 
received from Dr. W. Quinby, of Hudson county, as fol- 


To the President^ Fellows and Members of the Medical Society of Neu) Jersey : 

Gentlemen : The undersigned, a graduate in medicine of the University 
of the city of New York, in 1859, and since then a physician in Jersey City, 
New Jersey, has been excluded from membership in the Hudson county 
District Medical Society ; and he therefore asks the Medical Society of New 
Jersey, to appoint a committee of disinterested persons, who shall investigate 
his case, and report, at the earliest date practicable, whether there is any suffi- 
cient reason for this action. 

(Signed,) W. Quinby, M. D. 

Jebset City, May 24th, 1870. 

This communication was "referred," on motion of Dr. 
Pennington, ''to the Standing Committee, with instructions 
to inquire into and report on the rights of persons making 
application for membership of the District Medical Socie- 


The object of this reference, as the Committee understand 
it, is to obtain a report upon the jurisdiction of the State 
Society over the District Societies in the election of mem- 
bers^ and upon tJte rights of those applying for member- 
ship of the same^ without reference to the application of 
Dr. Quinby, except so far as his case has raised the con- 
templated inquiry. 

Sec. 3, Act of Incorporation, provides for the adoption of 
such rules and regulations for the due management of its 
concerns, and of the '' several District Societies as may be 
deemed necessary." The by-laws. Chap. II, Sec. 7, direct 
the Standing Committee to report all irregularities on the 
part of the District Societies or of members connected with 
them. Chap. Ill, Sec. 1, implies the right of any recog- 
nized physician to become a member of a District Society 
within the limits of the district where he resides. Chap. 
VII. Sec. 7, provides that the State Society shall exercise 
only ^,ppellate jurisdiction in reference to members of Dis- 
trict Societies. 

These provisions of the Constitution embrace all which 
relate to the subject under consideration. The conclusions 
of the Committee are as follows : 

1st. There is no provision which meets the case of one 
who appeals to the State Society from the unjust action of 
any District Society, in rejecting him as a member of the 

2d. The Society has the power by Sec. 3, Act of Incorpo- 
ration, to make such provision. 

3d. If any irregularities, either of members of district so- 
cieties, or of the societies as corporations, come to the 


knowledge of the Standing Committee, from any source^ it 
is made their duty to report the same to the State Society. 

4th. Appellate jurisdiction applies to the case of mem- 
bers of the District Societies, and not to them as corpora- 

The Committee recognise it as theoretically true, that the 
State Society is organized and sustained for the protection 
of the profession of the State, and of the rights of all regular 
medical practitioners therein. It is possible that cases of the 
kind contemplated in this inquiry may arise, which might 
render it desirable for the State Society to have the power 
to interfere, and review the action of the District Societies, 
but they must be very rare. It seems to be just that every 
society should possess the privilege of choosing its own 
members ; and any action which should deprive them of 
this, would be inconsistent with the harmonious relations 
of the State and District Societies. 

The Committee does not deem it a part of its duty to 
recommend any action to the Society, and with these re- 
marks leave the whole subject in its hands. 

Stephen Wickes, 
J. E. Culvek, 
Jno. Woolverton, 

Standing Committee. 




f tt piem0mm. 



Born Dec. 25, 1812. Died July 19, 1870, aged 57 years. 


Born Nov. 10, 1843. Died Jan'y 10, 1871, aged 27 years. 


Born Nov. 11, 1812. Died March 13, 1871, aged 58 years. 


Died March 30, 1871, aged 73 years. 


Born in 1813. Died March 26, 1871. 




Died, Tuesday, June 10th, at 4 o'clock, A. M., CHARLES C. CLARK- 
SON, M. D., aged 27 years. 

The subject of this memoir was the youngest and last surviving son of 
Thomas and Amelia Clarkson. He was bom in the city of Newark, on the 
10th day of November, 1843. In his early youth he had the advantages of 
a good education, but was prevented from passing through the usual college 
curriculum, by the impaired condition of his health. He commenced the 
study of medicine, under the instructions of Dr. M. H. C. Vail. 

During the late rebellion, he oflfered his services to the government. He 
entered the Navy Department as Surgeon's steward, on board the U. S. 
steamer Susquehanna. It was his first trip to sea, when the Susquehanna 
made an unsuccessful attempt to overhaul the Confederate steamer " Tala- 
hassee," at the time she made her appearance off New York harbor. He 
participated in the ever memorable Fort Fisher engagement, and the many 
others for which the Atlantic squadron became so famous. Subsequently, he 
accompanied the vessel to South America, visiting most of the large seaport 
cities. In returning, he spent several months at the West Indies and Bahama 
Islands. During the time he was with the vessel, he continued his studies 
under the direction of the Surgeon, Dr. Wm. Barclay, and shortly after his 
return entered the New York University, from which he graduated with the 
class of 1868. He soon after began the practice of medicine in the city of 
Newark, and at once became an active and useful member of the Medical 
Society. Nothing ever prevented his being present at its regular meetings ; 
during the three years of his membership, his name cannot once be found 
among the absentees. He was also connected with several charitable institu- 
tions. At the time of his death, he was acting as attending physician to the 
Newark City Dispensary, attending surgeon to the Eye and Ear Infirmary, 


and had just been appointed in charge of a clinic connected with the out- 
door department of " St. Michael's Hospital." 

Dr. Clarkson entered the profession with glowing and brilliant prospects. 
Already ripe in knowledge, few young men enter its ranks with a mind so 
fully stored with its great leading facts and theories, or with such readiness 
in the application of its practical callings. He was a diligent student, a 
close observer, and a careful practitioner. His aims were high and ambi- 
tious, but he would rather fail in attaining them, than to do so by any 
deviation from the fair and direct path, or by any cringing or reproachful 
means. His professional reputation, in which he took such especial pride, 
he was daily extending, and had already gained a success far above the usual 

In stature he was a little below the medium height, though he was dig- 
nified in appearance, and easy and graceful in his manners. He was particu- 
larly distinguished for great integrity of character, and an inviolate regard 
for truth. Upon all occasions he exhibited the manners of a true gentleman, 
and his conversation was instructive, and entertainingly adorned with the 
effusions of a brilliant and lively imagination. 

In a word, he was a young man with a heart filled with generous impul- 
ses, and deeply imbued with warm and ardent feelings of love for humanity. 
To many in the profession, he was attached with greater ties than usually 
bind them. In him they found a true and loving friend, a faithful and con- 
fiding companion, and an exemplary brother. 

For several months previous to his last illness, his friends were pained to 
see a gradual but perceptible decline in his health, although no particular 
disease was discernable. He died suddenly, — almost instantly, — and in full 
possession of his mental faculties, after a short illness of but three days, from 
the rupture of an abscess in the region of the glottis, causing a convulsive 
seizure which only relaxed with death. A post mortem examination was 
made, in the presence of a large number of medical gentlemen, which 
resulted in the confirmation of the diagnosis and theory of death. 

The funeral services were held in the First Methodist Protestant Episcopal 
Church. There was a very large congregation of his friends in attendance, 
completely filling the edifice. The Essex District Medical Society attended 
the funeral in a body. His remains were interred in the Fairmount 




Edwabd Ingleton Grant, M. D., son of William and Martha R. Grant, 
was bom in the city of Trenton, Mercer county, New Jersey, on November 
lltb, 1813, and died in the same city, on the 13th day of March, 1871. 

He received his preliminary education in his native city, and then entered 
upon his collegiate course at Nassau Hall, in Princeton, New Jersey, whence 
he graduated with honor in 1883. 

His medical studies were pursued at Trenton, N. J., under the direction of 
Dr. James T. Clarke. 

He received his medical degree at the University of Pennsylvania, in 1837, 
immediately after which he commenced the practice of his profession in the 
city of his birth, where he continued to reside and pursue his vocation until 
the time of his decease. 

In 1839 he was married to Miss Mary Westcott Roe, of Woodbury, N. C. ; 
and of a family of four children, the widow and two daughters survive 

As a physician. Dr. Grant was eminently successful and popular, not by 
any effort at show, or fictitious brilliancy, but by close study and careful 
investigation of every case which he treated. When a patient was placed in 
his charge, he deemed it to be a sacred duty to bestow constant and unremit- 
ting attention to the case, bringing all his knowledge and scientific acquire- 
ments to the relief of the sufferer, as he recognized and acknowledged to the 
fullest extent the responsibility which a physician assumes when human life 
is placed in his hands.. Feeling thus, he was careful to keep pace with the 
progress of the science of medicine, and to make himself thoroughly 
acquainted with medical literature and the discoveries of the age. In this 
manner he qualified himself for the performance of his duties, and gained, as 
he merited, the entire confidence and heartfelt love of those who placed 
themselves under his care. 

In all matters he faithfully followed his conscientious convictions of duty, 
regardless of the sacrifice of self which such a course might require. Fear- 
less and firm in his views upon all subjects, still he was always gentle and 
considerate in the expression of those views, ever regarding, with great care, 
the feelings of others who might hold different opinions, and ever careful to 
avoid giving offense. During an intimate personal and professional friend- 
ship and communion with the deceased for nearly twenty years, the writer 
has never heard him speak harshly or unkindly of his fellow men. 


Naturally reticent and of a quiet disposition, he possessed in a remarkable 
degree those virtues of character so essential to a physician, — silence and cir- 
cumspection. No professional secret ever escaped his lips,— the follies and 
weaknesses of his patients, which sickness so often betrays in frail human 
nature, were never made known by him, — so that all who trusted him, never 
had cause to regret the confidence reposed in him. 

He was an active Christian, ever ready to perform those duties which the love 
of Christ devolved upon him. But what he did and what he bore, was done 
and borne quietly and unobtrusively; as he preferred to have the substance, 
rather than the form and show of godliness, thus illustrating the beauties of 
the Christian character more by practice than profession. At the time of his 
death, he was a member of St. Michaers Episcopal Church, of this city. 

For many years Dr. Grant was subject to severe and prolonged attacks of 
inflammatory rheumatism, which eventually caused very great cardiac disturb- 
ance. For over two years the heart symptoms were very prominent, causing 
him great pain and distress. Drs. John Wolverton, James B. Coleman and 
W. W. L. Philips were associated with the writer, in the treatment of Dr. 
Grant during his last illness, and it was the opinion of all, that great hyper- 
trophy of the heart, with valvular insufficiency, existed. This opinion could 
not be positivsly verified, as no autopsy was made. 

During his last sickness, which continued for five weeks, the dyspnoea 
and insomnia attending the case, were distressingly severe. As an evidence 
of this, it need but to be stated, that during one night, in a space of not 
more than ten hours, he took one hundred grains of hydrate of chloral, and 
fifty drops of McMunn's elixir of opium, without having sleep produced, or 
the dyspnoea materially improved. And yet, during all these weary days 
and nights of agonizing pain and suffering, no impatient word escaped his 
lips. He bore his trials and afiiictions with that calm resignation and gentle 
patience, which none but the true Christian can feel. 



Db. Lorenzo F. Fisler died in Camden, New Jersey, March 80th, 1871, 
in the 74th year of his age. He was the son of Dr. Benjamin Fisler, for many 
years a well known and highly esteemed practitioner of medicine in Port Eilza- 
beth, in Cumberland county, where the subject of this notice was bom, and 
where he resided until 1887, when he removed to Camden, and has for many 


years engaged in active practice. Dr. Fislef graduated at the University of 
Pennsylvania in 1818, and was in active practice until a little over a year 
ago, when he was attacked with symptoms of softening of the brain, which 
obliged him to relinquish practice, and finally proved fatal. His remains 
were interred in the old family burying place at Port Elizabeth, April 1st, 
1871, to which he was removed at his own request. 

Ifotices of Drs. Dayton and Conovbr form a part of Dr. 
Thomason's "History," Ac, in the previous pages of this 




Chairman of Standing Commiiiee^ ^c. ; 

I have only received reports from two of the physicians of 
the county. From these, it will appear that there has been 
rather more than the usual amount of sickness during the year, 
but nothing has occurred calling for special notice, excepting 
the prevalence of Intermittent Fever — several cases of Scarla- 
tina Maligna, — and Pneumonia. 

A. S. BURDETT, Beparter. 

Hackensack, N. J., May 28th, 1871. 

Communication by Dr. Nkkr. 

During the months of September, October and Noyember last, there were, 
in this district, a few cases of Scariatina, of a mild character and terminating 
favorably. No other cases occurred until February 20th, when a child, aged 
six months, that had been a few days before in Paterson, was attacked with 
scarlatina maligna, terminating fatally on the second day. The mother 
afterward had a severe attack of it. About the same time a child from 
Hackensack, visiting in the vicinity, had scarlatina, not severe, but somewhat 
protracted. During the months of October and November last, there were 
several cases of diphtheria in this vicinity. One terminated fatally, by exten- 
sion into the larynx, and one left extensive ulceration of the Schneiderian 
membrane. There also occurred, about the same time, an unusual number 
of cases of croup. During the past few weeks, there has been an epidemic 
of measles in that part of Rockland county, N. J., embraced in my practice. 
About twenty-five cases have come under my observation. The catarrhal 
symptoms were somewhat severe ; a few had pneumonia, and one had a 
strange anomaly of nervous symptoms, resembling severe chorea. Among 
other diseases, nothing of note has occurred. 

Park Ridge, March 1st, 1871. 



No. I. • 

In communicating the result of my observations in reference to the diseases 
of the last six months, their character, treatment, etc., I would remark, that 
while there has certainly been more than the average amount of sickness, the 
prevalent diseases, with a single exception, have only been such as are usu- 
ally met with during the Spring and Summer months. For example, I have 
not seen a case of diphtheria, nor of typhoid fever, since the date of my last 
semi-annual report ; and but a single case each of scarlatina and measles, and 
two cases of whooping cough have occurred in my practice since the first of 
March. The cases of scarlatina and measles appeared to originate spontane- 
ously, and although other children were exposed, the disease has not extended 
beyond those first attacked. The two cases of whooping cough are at 
present under treatment. 

The ordinary pulmonic and catarrhal affections of the winter, continued to 
a greater or less extent until late in the Spring, — pneumonia, broncho-pneu- 
monia, and particularly sore throat, being especially prevalent, but at the 
same time presenting nothing in their character, or indications of treatment, 
that calls for special notice. 

Early in the summer, bowel complaints began to prevail, and through the 
whole season, or at least until the latter part of August, were, I think, more 
frequent and severe than usual. Dysentery, however, must be excepted. Of 
this disease I have only seen a very few mild cases. But diarrhoeas, and par- 
ticularly cholera morbus and cholera infantum, have been unusually preva- 
lent, and the last unusually fatal. 

Cholera infantum began to prevail earlier in the season than usual, — my 
first case occurring early in June — and continued through the whole Summer, 
or until a fortnight ago. The disease, as it has occurred in my practice, was 
unusually violent, tending early to great prostration. Infants apparently in 
robust health, after a few discharges from the bowels, and perhaps vomiting 
a few times, would at once sink into a state approaching collapse, with 
sunken eyes, cool or cold surface and livid extremities, &c. ; requiring early 
and free use of active stimulants. In my experience, the disease was confined 
entirely to children brought up, wholly or in pait, by the bottle, or on arti- 
ficial food. I do not now recollect a case in a child confined exclusively to 
the breast. 

In the treatment of this affection, I am accustomed to rely principally upon 
measures directed to the improvement of stomach digestion. Pepsin and bis- 


muth, or oxalate of cerium, "with or without minute doses of calomel, or 
calomel and Dover's powder, occasionally, as the color and character of the 
dejections may indicate, have in my experience had the best effects in quiet- 
ing the irritable stomach and bowels, and promoting digestion. Mustard to 
the epigastrium, a flannel bandage to the belly, and constant attention to the 
diet, are also of the utmost importance. The ordinary astringent mixtures, 
chalk mixtures, etc., it seems to me, are worse than useless. Fresh air out of 
doors, and perfect ventilation within, are essential to successful treatment. 

In spite of every effort, however, several of my cases proved fatal — some of 
them within a few hours after seizure, others after several days, — the children 
dying, perhaps, with symptoms simulating acute hydrocephalus. In a few 
cases, in which death appeared to be imminent, the child has rallied under 
the free use of stimulants, particularly the spirits of ammo, aromat. and 

The only other fact of special interest that has fallen under my observa- 
tion, in connection with the diseases of the past six months, is the sudden 
abrupt appearance, and unusual prevalence of intermittent fever among us 
the last few weeks. 

Hackensack has for many years been almost entirely exempt from the 
malarious forms of fever. Such, at least, has been the case during the fifteen 
years that I have resided in the village. During that time, isolated cases o 
intermittents have occasionally occurred, but so seldom as scarcely to be 
recognized. Within the last few weeks, however, there has been a sudden 
irruption of this fever among us, and it still continues to prevail to a consid- 
erable extent. 

Early in April, two cases occurred in my practice, in infants of a few 
months old, which I did not at first recognize as intermittent fever at all, the 
disease occurring so rarely among us. In the first case, the child appeared 
as if it hacj. taken cold, coughing a good deal, with dry bronchial tubes, and 
fever. The next day it was better, and I did not again see it in several 
days. I was then told that it again had fever, etc., and on more careful 
watching, I found that I had a case of intermittent fever. The other case 
was in a child convalescent from a very severe attack of capillary bronchitis, 
or broncho-pneumonia. In this case, also, several paroxysms occurred before 
I discovered the true character of the disease. Both recovered readily on 
quinia, followed by Fowler's arsenical solution, in small doses, to prevent a 

After these cases, I do not recollect having another until late in June, and 
it was not until late in July that the fever burst upon us, and prevailed to 


any extent. Even now, perhaps, it scarcely deserves to be dignified by the 
name of an epidemic ; but its occurrence is so unusual, that it has excited a 
good deal of attention and alarm among our citizens. 

The causes of this sudden and unusual prevalence of the disease, I appre- 
hend, must be sought in the intense and protracted heats of the past Sum- 
mer. The last Winter was exceedingly mild. For most of the time, the 
ground remained uncovered with snow, and free from frost, the grass remain- 
ing green almost the whole Winter. This was followed by an early 'and 
warm Spring, vegetation being perhaps a fortnight earlier than usual in 
June. The cataipa, for instance, which usually blooms in the first week in 
July, was in full bloom the third week in June ; and on the 4th of July, 
when we always expect to see the tree in full bloom, it had already dropped 
nearly all its blossoms. Early in* June, the heat became intense, and 
remained so, continuously, through June, July, and most of August. 
Even the violent thunder storms which occurred several times during this 
time, did not seem to relieve in the least the great heat and oppressiveness 
of the atmosphere. * 

That this long-continued and excessive heat had something to do with 
the prevalence of the fever, cannot be doubted. But whether through its 
direct effect upon the skin and nervous system, or through the development 
of malarious or other poison, may be a question. I apprehend, however, 
that we have yet much to learn in reference to the etiology of the so-called 
malarious diseases ; and in the present state of our knowledge, it is wiser, 
perhaps, not to indulge in theorizing upon it. 

P. S. — Since writing the ajjove, another case of scarlatina has occurred in 
the same family, the patient being a sister of the one above mentioned. The 
first case was taken August 23d ; the last, September 2d. I have also learned 
that one of the children exposed to the case of measles has also taken the 

Seftembbr IsT, 1870. 

No. n. 

Intermittent fever, which, as I stated in my semi-annual report of October 
1st, 1870, had prevailed to some extent all tlirough the Summer and early 
Autunm, continued to show itself until late in the Winter, but mostly in 
those who had the disease before. Since the last meeting of our District 
Society, in October, when Dr. Stuart drew our attention to the sulph. cincho- 



nia, in the treatment of malarious ferer, I have made use of it in most of my 
cases, and with entirely satisfactory results. From fifteen to twenty grains, 
given in the intermission, has uniformly arrested the paroxysms, and that 
without any of the distressing head symptoms which sometimes follow the 
use of quinia, and without the nausea and vomiting which chinoidine in full 
doses is very apt to produce. These qualities, with its comparative cheap- 
ness, make it valuable, and to me it is singular that it is not more generally 
prescribed by the profession. 

The only other facts in connection with the diseases of the past six months, 
of ahy note, are the prevalence of scarlatina, and the frequency of cases of 
pneumonia. In the latter part of December, scarlatina began to prevail, and 
has continued to do so until the present time. 

Most of the cases were. of the milder form of the disease, but in several 
it assumed a more anginose character. Three of my cases were fatal, two of 
whom were infants at the breast, and the other a feeble boy of twelve years 
old, who died on the fourth day, apparently overwhelmed by the virulence 
•f the poison. Dropsy, with albuminuria, has followed in about one-sixth 
of the cases, one of which is yet under treatment. 

Pneumonia, which, it seems to me, has prevailed to a greater extent for 
the past few years than before, has been even more conmion than usual dur- 
ing the past Winter. From the first of December until the last of February, 
I was called to no less than eighteen cases, in private and consultation practice, 
of which seven were double. The disease has also seemed to me of a 
more highly sthenic character than a few years past, requiring the prompt 
and energetic use of active sedative treatment. In my own cases, I have 
not resorted to blood-letting— not because of any prejudices against the 
lancet, nor because of any doubt as to its value, but because I believe that in 
most cases the same indications can be as certainly and as well met by the 
use of veratrum, antimony and the neutral salts. In this connection, I beg 
leave again to express my great confidence in the veratrum as a cardiac 
sedative in the treatment of this disease. In my experience, when given in 
doses of from four to eight drops of the saturated tincture, every hour or 
two, it never fails to bring down the pulse to and below its natural standard 
of frequency in a short time, with relief to the breathing as marked as that 
which will frequently result from a full bleeding. Then, by a little watch- 
ing, it may be kept there. And I know that by this treatment alone, the 
disease can be arrested in its earliest stage, before any great damage is done 
to the lung structure. 

Hackensack, April 1st, 1871. 



Chairman of the Standing Committee^ ^c. .- 

We have had to deal with a considerable variety of spora- 
dic diseases, and a few epidemics, mild in form. 

Epidemic Roseola still continues to be the master epidemic. 
Its symptoms are sometimes grave, and differ widely from 
those of the common rose rash. Severe inflammation of the 
fauces, attended with exudation of much catarrhal matter, or 
false membrane, on the tonsils and adjacent parts, were some- 
times the most prominent symptoms. Also, inflammation of 
the submaxillary glands, extending to and ending in great 
tumefaction and suppuration of the cellular tissue, were occa- 
sionally seen. Sometimes a furfuraceous desquamation was 
one of the sequelae. The etiology of diphtheria, scarlatina, 
and other zymotic diseases, warrant the assertion that this 
disease, also, is dependent on zymosis. 

The suppuration of the submaxillary glands, and the exuda- 
tion from the fauces, are just as much the evidence of catalysis 
in this disease, as the principal symptoms of the other zymotic 
diseases are the result of fermentation. 

In affections of this class, from whatever part the disease is 
thrown oflT, that is the one that probably will suffier most. 
The disease is almost always confined to children. As adults 
have it very slightly, it may be owing to the fact that they 
do not swallow the discharges from the fauces, — and thereby 
prolong the disease by supplying the blood' with fermenta 

The treatment of this disease consisted of warm baths, 
frequently repeated, Watson's chlorine mixture, and when 
apyretic, tinct. ferr. chlo., &c. 

Dr. Townsend has written, " Early in May, a few sporadic 
cases of Scarlatina appeared in a mild form, but they increased 


in eeverity until June, when seventeen cases occurred, of a 
malignant type. One died on the third day, and three died 
in the later stages of the disease, from pyemic absorption." 
In the few districts with which I am acquainted, malarious 
diseases have not been as numerous as heretofore. Those on 
the northeast sides of streams were their principal long 

At this time several are sick with intermittent fever ; some 
of whom did not have it since last fall, others who did not 
have it until now for several years. 

Farmers, and those whose occupation subjects them to 
rains, are by far the most frequent subjects. Dr. Townsend 
reports, "We had in the delta formed by Perkins' lane on the 
east, and the Delaware and Rancocus rivers, a general epi- 
demic of intermittent and bilious remittent fevers, persistent, 
but not fatal in its character, except in the hands of homeo- 
paths, and other charlatans. Quinia, in divided doses, usually 
broke the chills ; but they as invariably returned on the first or 
second week, unless the quinia was continued. As to the 
prevalence of bilious diseases, I attribute it to the January 
freshets and high tides, which broke over all the river dykes, 
and for months submerged grounds which were afterwards 
exposed to the unusually hot weather of the summer months, 
and I think I am upheld in this opinion by similar results all 
along the Delaware from the bay to Trenton." 

The most unusual case of intermittent disease, was that of a 
gentleman aged seventy-five years. 

The prodromic signs were atrocious pains, which began in 
the feet, and gradually advanced up the lower extremities and 
body. They began A. M. of every third day, increased in 
severity for three hours, when insensibility came, which did 
not leave until bed time. During the intermediate days, he 
apparently was, as he himself thought, well. No cold, hot, or 


sweating stage constituted a part of the disease. No noise 
or pinching could start or arouse him. During the attacks, 
he lay in bed, constantly moaning and muttering. Small 
doses of arsenic and iron, with large ones of quiniae sulp., 
were given during the intermissions. After several weeks he 
got rid of the attacks, remained well several weeks longer, 
and died suddenly, without any premonitory symptoms of 
approaching death. 

Of the diseases peculiar to women, the most important have 
been those connected with pregnancy. A few cases of 
retained placenta, with flooding, were treated with small doses 
of opium and acetate of lead, ergot, the tampon, or vaginal 
injections of diluted Monsel's solution. For other uterine 
hemorrhages, the tinct. Erigeron Canadense proved to be a 
valuable hsemostatic. 

One died in child-bed, on the sixteenth day after parturition, 
of ovarian abscess. Large quantities of pus passed per vagi- 
nam, and a large quantity was found in the cul de sac of the 
peritoneum, in the right side of the pelvis, and the recto 
vaginal space. 

The peculiarities of the case were that her mind was clear 
from first to last; her hearing became exceedingly acute; was 
apyretic; had diaphoresis — almost colliquative sweats; and 
that by neither palpation, nor any physical exploration, could 
the disease, during her life, be detected. And if the pus 
escaped in part through the fallopian tube, its diameter must 
have been considerably larger than it was at the examination 
post mortem. Chronic cervical endometritis is the most com- 
mon of uterine diseases. Constitutional remedies make but 
little impression. The most successful plan, is the direct 
application of the solid arg. nit. The same remarks apply 
to chronic corporeal endometritis. 

The application of the remedy in these diseases is best 


accomplished with an iridium probe, on the point of which 
the arg. nit. is fused. 

Dr. Townsend reported to the County Society a peculiar 
case of " fistulous opening from the duodenum, and through 
the fundus of the body of the uterus, resulting in death " 

In obstetricy, chloroform has been safely administered in 
many cases, for several years. It is a valuable assistant to the 
obstretrician, in the obstreperous cases, and of great benefit 
to the parturients, — particularly to those whose labors are pro- 
tracted or difficult. 

When the os'uteri is thin and unyielding, a few inhalations 
of chloroform, repeated at short intervals, relaxes the circular 
fibres, and greatly shortens the first stage. 

In puerperal cases, daily vaginal injections of warm water, 
or of antiseptic ones, when the discharges are offensive, pre- 
vent the septic fluids from poisoning the woman by absorp- 

In Dr. Townsend^s practice, " a primipara case of a young 
woman, nineteen years of age. Immediately after the first 
pains of labor set in, she was attacked with convulsions. On 
examination, I found the os dilated about the size of a half 
dollar, and the head presenting. Finding it impossible to 
turn, and the convulsions returning every fifteen or twenty 
minutes, I opened the head, and after great difficulty suc- 
ceeded in delivering, about four hours after the commence- 
ment of the convulsions. The convulsions continued about 
twenty-four hours, and the patient died. 

The convulsions were of a hyperemic character, and deple- 
tion therefore not admissable." 

For the convulsions of children, which were caused by an 
excited state of the arterial system, interfering with the due 
performance of the functions of the nervous centres, the sub- 
cutaneous injection of a very few drops of the tinct. ex. aco- 


nite, as recommended by Dr. Bowstead, in the Lancet ; for 
the eclampsia of parturition, or of tr. verat. vir. , which Dr. 
Townsend, of Beverly, prescribes for eclampsia, has been 
practised. The force and frequency of the pulse are in a very 
few minntes reduced, and the convulsions soon after cease. 
It is worth recording that a cure of obstinate singultus was 
made by quinia snip., in two gr. doses, every two hours. 
This disease came during an attack of erysipelas. The sub- 
ject, a gentleman seventy years of age, and very ill. 

Various remedies had been ineffectually tried, — including 
musk, assafcetida, valerian, camphor, ehloral, chloroform, 
opium, &c. "When the quinia was omitted, the disease 
returned, and left when it was resumed. 

As we have to dea^ no longer with pneumonitis and pleu- 
ritis of the dynamic type, venesection is not practised in their 

Not in these alone, but in all others, the prevailing type is 
adynamic. When the transition from the present type to the 
dynamic occurs, it is probable that it will take as long to dis- 
cover that a more energetic treatment will be demanded, as 
it formerly did, to induce the milder or tentative plan. 

8. C. THORNTON, Beporter, 
MooBESTOT^, May Ist, 1871. 


To Chairman of Standing Committee ; 

Camden County has, during the past year, enjoyed a fair 
amount of general health. We have been free from epidem- 
ics of every kind, and the ordinary diseases incident to the 
different regions have neither been very frequent or fatal in 
their character. At the period of the close of the report of 


last year we noticed the fact, that Scarlatina of a severe 
character had been prevalent almost as an epidemic, in the 
city of Camden and some of the neighboring villages. As 
the warm weather came on this disease gradually disappeared, 
or at least ceased to occur in an epidemic form. During the 
autumn and winter it has been occasionally met with, but 
only in sporadic cases of not a very grave form. The same 
remarks will apply to Diphtheria, which has occurred to a 
slight extent during the autumn and winter months. This 
disease has, in several cases, proved fatal, from the extension 
of the disease into the larynx, involving in its course the 
epiglottis and vocal chords, causing almost entire loss of 
voice; the patient dying from deoxidation of the blood, 
owing to the difficulty of breathing. In some cases death 
was caused by the poisonous effect of the diphtheritic poison 
on the blood, after the acute attack had, to all appearances, 
passed off, and the local symptoms in the throat entirely dis- 
appeared. Some of the graver forms of this fearful disease 
got well from almost hopeless debility, by the use of iron and 
quinine by the mouth, and the persistent use of nutritive in- 
jections by the rectum. The injection seemed to supply suffi- 
cient nutriment during the crisis of the disease, while the 
little patient was unable or unwilling to swallow, by the 
mouth, sufficient nourishment to sustain life. 

The Summer of 1870, in Camden County, like that of the 
preceding year, was noted for its very high degree of heat, 
and long-continued dryness, and freedom from storms or 
thunder gusts, the heat and dryness continuing until the 
middle of October. In consequence of the long drought, the 
streams and wells in many places became entirely dry, oblig- 
ing the farmers to haul water for considerable distances, for 
domestic purposes as well as for watering their live stock. 
This want of water for domestic purposes was severely felt in 


several of the villages in the County, causing an incon- 
venience that lasted for several months. 

Notwithstanding the long continuance of hot and dry 
weather, the health of the County continued remarkably 
good. The only exception to this was in children under two 
years, of age ; among them Cholera Infantum was very pre- 
valent, during July and August, in many cases seeming to 
resist every method of treatment. In such cases an entire 
change of air seemed to be the only chance to save the 
patients. A removal to the country or to the sea shore had a 
very beneficial effect in many cases, — twenty-four hours seem- 
ing to cause a manifest change in all the symptoms, so that 
in a few days medicines could be almost entirely dispensed 

In the city of Camden several cases of acute Cholera 
Infantum were fatal, from the direct effect of the heat alone, 
the disease, in some cases, lasting not more than thirty-six 
hours from its first commencement; in such cases, as we 
have already mentioned, removal to a cooler atmosphere 
seemed to be the only remedy, or at least without such re- 
moval all of our therapeutics were of no avail. Dysentery, 
which a few years ago was very frequently seen in the 
summer and autumn months, was of comparatively rare 
occurrence. This may, we think, be in a great measure ac- 
counted for from the great diminution of malaria and 
miasma. In past years, when Intermitteot and Remittent 
Fevers were constantly seen during the summer and early 
fall months, then it was that we so often met with acute 
Dysentery closely connected with these diseases ; but of later 
years, since fevers have so very much diminished. Dysentery 
has also very much disappeared, for the reason that it was 
very much dependent upon, or at least closely associated with, 
malarious fevers. 


The united testimony of physicians from all parts of the 
County agree in the assertion, that both Intermittent and Re- 
mittent Fevers have been on the decline for several years, 
and in some neighborhoods, v?^here they were constantly met 
V7ith every Summer and Fall, they have almost entirely dis- 
appeared. Whether this disappearance is permanent or only 
for a short cycle of years, time alone can positively decide ; 
but as the causes of these diseases have almost universally 
been acknowledged to be owing to the prevalence, at certain 
seasons of the year, to the evolution of malaria from low 
grounds and swamps, and as these causes have in a great 
measure been removed, by means of surface and underground 
drainage, as well as by the clearing out of swamp and waste 
lands which were formed on almost every farm, it is but fair 
and reasonable to conclude that as the acknowledged causes 
have in a great measure been removed, the effects will cease to 
be produced. This is certainly true of the city of Camden, 
where the system of underground drainage, alluded to in 
several former reports, is still being each year extended, with 
a manifest and decided improvement in the health of the in- 
habitants of the districts in which such improvements have 
been made. 

Dr. J. W. Hewlings, of Haddonfield, in a letter to your 
reporter, mentions the fact that in his circle of practice Re- 
mittent Fevers commenced last year quite late in the autumn, 
continuing more or less through the entire winter, into the 
spring months. They almost always commenced as simple 
tertian intermittents, which if neglected or improperly treated 
changed into a continued fever, often assuming a low or 
typhoid character. 

Typhoid fever, as a distinct disease, has been of compara- 
tively rare occurrence during the past year ; but, as has been 
already mentioned, some forms of our ordinary continued 


fevers, which began their invasions as simple intermittents, 
gradually passed into a fever of a low or typhoid character ; 
but this form of disease we regard as distinct from the genuine 
Typhoid Fevers of later years, when the symptoms were of 
the typhoid character ab initio, and as such stamped the 
disease from the very first invasion ; and the treatment was 
also of an entirely different character from the various forms 
of our ordinary autumnal fevers. In those latter forms of 
disease, quinine, and its different preparations, was always of 
advantage where it could be tolerated by the stomach ; but in 
the true Typhoid Fever, quinine, in any form, rarely, we may 
say with truth never, had the slightest beneficial effect in 
cutting short or even in moderating the disease. 

The winter of 1870 and '71 was much colder than for 
several years past, it being steadily cold from the middle of 
December until near the end of February ; the thermometer 
in some exposed places reaching zero, the ground being 
covered with snow the greater part of the time. During the 
cold weather the health of the community was, as a general 
thing, very good, although Pleurisy, Pneumonia and Bron- 
chitis were often seen, but could always be traced to imprudent 
exposure to cold after coming out of a warm room. From 
the same causes Croup and Catarrhs were frequently seen 
in children. As the spring approached, a great number of 
cases of Influenza were seen in the city of Camden and its 
vicinity ; this disease was easily managed, except in young 
children or in persons advanced in life, whose powers of vital 
resistance were feeble; in such persons, barely able to carry on 
the vital functions in their ordinary normal state, an attack of 
Influenza was most generally fatal. 

In addition to giving a general review of the sanitary 
condition of each County for the past year, it is also made 
the duty of the reporter to communicate to the Standing 


Committee a history of any case of remarkable interest that 
may have come under the notice of the individual members of 
the District Societies ; but in the busy routine of daily practice 
comparatively few practitioners take notes of such cases as 
they occur ; and although they may make a strong impres- 
sion on the mind of the physician at the time, yet after the 
lapse of a few months fade away from the memory, and are 
thus lost to the great body of the profession, from the want of 
being properly noted down and communicated to the profes- 
sion. So far as has come to the knowledge of your reporter, 
there has been an unusual number of difficult and dangerous 
cases of labor during the past year. Some of these have been 
preternatural, from either mal-position of the foetus or from 
accidents occurring during the process of parturition. The 
difficult and tedious cases were, in some instances, owing 
to excessive rigidity of the os uteri and perineum ; in 
others to a faulty condition of the body of the uterus itself, 
or at least of the muscular fibres of the uterus, causing 
labor to last for two or three days, when all other things 
seemed to be natural. 

Case, — Dr. Alexander McCray, of Camden, has communi- 
cated to us the history of a case of recovery from rupture of 
the uterus, which may prove of interest. The case was that 
of a colored woman, in her fifth labor, at full term ; all of 
her previous labors had been tedious and difficult ; she was 
always attended by a midwife, as was the case in the present 
labor. The doctor was called at 4 P. M., when he was in- 
formed, by those in attendance, that she had been in labor 
twenty-four hours ; she was found in an almost collapsed 
condition, pulse excessively frequent and feeble, respiration 
hurried, and countenance anxious, skin cold and clammy, with 
excessive tenderness over the whole abdomen, with only an 
irregular pain at long intervals, which pain was referred to 


the fundus uteri. Stimulants were immediately given ; an 
examination per vagina showed the os uteri to be fully dilated, 
with the head of the foetus impacted at the superior strait, in 
a vertex posterior position, the head being firmly held against 
the pubic arch by a too prominent promontory of the sacrum. 
She had been in this condition fully six hours before Dr. 
Mecray's arrival ; all pain, it was stated, suddenly ceased, 
after a violent expulsive effort, and she immediately sank 
into the collapsed condition in which the Dr. found her 
on his arrival. Delivery was at once attempted, by means of 
the forceps, but owing to the position of the head it was 
found difficult to make the blades lock so as to make sufficient 
traction. Dr. Alexander Marcy, was now called in consulta- 
tion, and, upon a more careful and thorough examination 
being made, rupture of the uterus was then made out, one 
leg of the child, from the hip to the foot, being plainly made 
out beneath the parietes of the abdomen. The forceps were 
again applied, this time with success, and a firm hold secured 
on the head, which after a tedious effort was brought down 
to the inferior strait ; the patient being in the meanwhile sup- 
ported by whiskey, given freely and without stint. Her 
strength rapidly failing and the child being dead, it was deemed 
advisable to hasten the delivery by opening the head of the 
foetus, which was easily done by means of Smith's scissors, 
the head being still held in the lock of the forceps. Delivery 
was then easily accomplished, and the placenta removed with- 
out delay. The woman was put to bed in a completely 
exhausted condition, and stimulants and milk punch ordered 
to be given freely through the night. Next morning she had 
rested a little, and the symptoms were more favorable. The 
next day the abdomen became tympanitic and very tender. 
Under the use of calomel, opium and ipecacuana and oil of 
turpentine, with blisters and poultices over the abdomen. 


all these symptoms gradually disappeared, and the woman 
made a good recovery ; and at the present time earns her liv- 
ing by going out washing. The case is interesting on account 
of recovery ; death being the rule, and recovery the exception, 
in such cases. Also on account of adverse circumstances, to 
be found in extreme poverty. It is probable that only one 
leg of the foetus escaped through the rent in the uterus, as 
this was all that could be felt through the walls of the abdo- 
men; and consequently the head did not leave the supe- 
rior strait. 

Dr. Thomas F. Cullen reports the history of a case of extra 
uterine gestation at full term, which is furnished with this 

Camden, April 24th, 1871. 

Case of Extra Uterine Gestation, occuRRma at Full Term. 


On the 14th of September, 1870, 1 was called to see Mrs. C, and engaged 
to attend her in her expected confinement, about December Ist, 1870. She 
had had a miscarriage about seven years previously, at seven months, and 
one three years ago, at three months. She complained of malaise, but was 
in good spirits, although somewhat timorous about the result, and evidently 
feared another miscarriage. I saw her occasionally during the following month 
for slight fugitive pains in the abdomen, and on October 13th was called to see 
her, after having had a fall from the front door-step, while reaching to save 
a child in the act of falling. The abdominal pains were reproduced, but 
were easily relieved by opium and camphor, and almost entirely disappeared 
until November 22d, when they became somewhat more violent, and were 
again relieved by the same remedies, until the 26th of the same month, when 
they became persistent, and labor seemed to be coming on. The abdominal 
tumor was perfectly normal in appearance, and she was evidently at full 
term, although there was no " show." I made a vaginal examination, and 
was unable to find the os uteri, although the finger came early in contact 


with a hard, smooth body, and dipped into a sulcus which could be touched 
and clearly defined in all its parts, except at a point a little to the right of 
the symphisis pubis, about opposite the external abdominal ring, when its 
depth could not be reached by the finger, although a slight rigidity led me 
to suppose I was approaching the os uteri. Supposing there was an abnor- 
mal formation of the uterus, most probably inverted retort neck, in order to 
allay the nervous irritation caused by pains that were seemingly of no avail, 
and also to produce relaxation of the circular fibres of the os uteri, I gave an 
anodyne, expecting in the evening to find a more satisfactory state of affairs, 
or at least be able to touch the os tincae. But I was disappointed, as every- 
thing remained about the same at the next examination, in which state they 
continued during the 27th and 28th, with the exception that the pains were 
less frequent and violent, doubtless being controlled by the anodynes admin- 
istered. No change was observed on vaginal examination, except that on 
the 28th there was a slight rose-colored show. 

In view of the case, one of four conditions seemed necessarily to exist. 
1st. Distortion of' the neck of the uterus forward, (like an inverted retort), 
and inclining to the right of the symphisis pubis. 

2d. Great anteversion of the uterus, with distorted neck, throwing the os 
uteri high up towards the promontory of the sacrum. 8d. Entire occlusion 
of the OS uteri. 4th. Extra uterine gestation. 

I was inclined to adopt the first of these as the proper diagnosis in the 
case, viz : An inverted retort neck of the uterus, with the os lying about 
opposite the external abdominal ring of the right side, as I had distinctly 
felt what I could only describe as a rigidity symptomatic of the immediate 
neighborhood of the os uteri at that point. 

At my request. Dr. J. V. Schenck met me in consultation next morning, 
the 29th inst., and by a thorough digital examination by both of us, we 
detected what we believed to be the outer edge of the os uteri, high up, 
directly opppsite the external abdominal ring of the right side. The exami- 
nation was followed by a slight pinkish discharge, the examining finger 
being also slightly discolored by it. The diagnosis made the night previous 
was confirmed by Dr. Schenck's opinion, and we decided that one of two 
conditions existed, viz : inverted retort of os uteri, or extra uterine gestation. 
The anodyne treatment, by hypodermic injection, (her stomach being sick), 
was continued, under which treatment she remained tolerably comfortable, 
but positively refused to have another vaginal examination made, unless she 
was put under the influence of ether, which was done on the morning of the 
dOth, Drs. Schenck and Ridge being in consultation. Under the influence of 


the anesthetic, with very considerable effort we were able to feel the os uteri, 
and could insert the tip of the fore-finger into the os tinese, which was 
slightly dilated and dilatable. Some moderate efforts were made to bring it 
into line with the axis of the superior strait, but they were not persisted in, 
as they were futile and might be dangerous. 

The examination made only confirmed the opinion at first entertained, viz : 
an " inverted retort neck," in which we all perfectly agreed, and we hoped 
for some favorable change during the day. The propriety of the csesarian sec- 
tion was discussed, in the event of its not taking place, but was abandoned on 
account of the evident signs of peritoneal inflammation that were observed. 

In the morning it was found that no change in the uterus had taken place, 
and the woman was rapidly sinking from exhaustion, although supported as 
much as possible. She continued to sink rapidly during the night, and died 
undelivered on December 3d, six days from the commencement of her labor, 
A post mortem was made thirty-four hours after death, Drs. Schenck, Ridge, 
Marcy, White and myself being present. It revealed a cadaver not ema- 
ciated, and with a perfectly normal condition of the abdominal tumor. Upon 
opening the abdominal walls, adhesions were found, extending from four 
inches above the umbiticus, describing an arch of about six inches in diame- 
ter towai'ds the right side of the umbilicus ; also adhesions on the left side, 
extending to the crest of the ilium of the same side. There were great 
evidences of the'peritonitis, and entire adhesion of the omentum. The uterus 
was found to be six times its imimpregnated size. The os was discovered 
exactly opposite the external abdominal ring, in the exact position diagnosed 
by vaginal examination. The body of tlie uterus was entirely retroverted, 
and the fundus was forced against the promontory of the sacrum. The sulcus, 
which upon our vaginal examination we found so perfectly defined, except 
at the point where the signs of the os uteri were discovered, was the posterior 
wall of the vagina stretched over the posterior portion of the body of the 
enlarged and retroverted uterus. Upon opening the thin adventitious sack, 
which enclosed the child, it was found lying in the abdominal cavity, trans- 
versely, the head in the right hypochrondiac region, the back presenting 
towards the diaphragm of the mother, the buttock in the left hypochrondium. 
The placenta, which was attached to the walls of the abdomen in the right 
hypochrondiac and lumbar region, was nourished by the mesenteric arteries, 
and was firmly adherent. It weighed about four pounds. The child was of 
full size, and weighed nine pounds. It had a hare lip and a club foot. 

EemarJcs, — The post mortem evidently showed a mistake in diagnosiSi 


which, however, was not positiye, except as to the position of the os uteri. 
What led to the mistake in diagnosis, was the fact that the uterus, although 
not impregnated, had attempted to perfonn its functions instinctively, 
fecundation being present in the body of the woman, the great enlargement 
of the womb, its perfect retroversion throwing the os uteri entirely out of 
reach, except under anesthesia, together with the fact that\he os was slightly 
dilated and dilatable, very naturally led to such an opinion ; for we do know 
that pregnancy in an inverted retort uterus, dependent upon great antever- 
sion, might produce just such an apparent condition of affairs; and the 
entire absence of any positive diagnostic symptoms of extra uterine gesta- 
tion, especially in cases where the os and neck of the uterus cannot be thor- 
oughly examined, and where the uterus has instinctively enlarged itself, may 
be some apology for a non-arrival at a correct conclusion on our part. One 
thing is certain: had we known the patient's exact condition, (which we 
learned by post mortem examination), no other treatment than what she was 
subjected to would have been more proper, and any other interference would 
have been positively mischievous, and would have resulted in hastening her 


Chairman of Standing Committee^ ^c. ; 

The medical history of Cape May county, for the past year, 
presents nothing of special interest. The usual summary of 
diseases, is all I can oiFer for the consideration of the profes- 
sion. In one thing only has it differed from former years, 
and that is in the unusual amount of sickness. There has 
been at least a third more sickness than I have known for 
the last twenty years, and yet we have had no epidemic of any 
kind prevailing. In the late Winter, and through the Spring 
months, there were a few cases of scarlet fever, a sprinkling 
of measles, and some whooping cough ; but, for the most part 
mild, and quite amenable to treatment. Diphtheria, in its 
modified form, has shown itself all through the year, with 
now and then a case of the true form of the disease, but fatal 


in only one instance. There were, last Spring, four cases of 
mixed disease ; either irregular scarlet fever, with severe diph- 
theria, or severe diphtheria, with an irregular and badly devel- 
oped rash. It was scarcely possible to determine to which class 
of disease to assign the cases. They all sank and died on the 
fourth day, in spite of the strongest stimulants and tonic 
treatment, from the terribly prostrating effects of blood poi- 
son. We have had, too, a few cases of pneumonia, of a pretty 
severe form in some instances, but yielding readily to treat- 
ment adopted, the basis of which was verat. viride. I must 
here be permitted to speak in praise of this drug, in the treat- 
ment of pneumonia. I have been using it freely for ten years 
back, and have come to rely upon it with almost as much cer- 
tainty as upon quinine in intermittents. I trust to it almost 
exclusively in pneumonia, using very few adjuvants, and 
it rarely disappoints me. I feel satisfied there is some 
power in verat. viride., besides its ability to reduce the heart's 
action. I have seeb its beneficial effects upon pneumonia, 
when there was not enough reduction to make any account of. 
I mix the saturated tincture of dried root with eyr. simple, or 
syr. scilloe, equal parts, and begin with ten drops, and increase 
one drop every four hours until the disease moderates, or. the 
stomach rejects it. Can generally get up as high as twenty 
to twenty-two drops, before the stomach is sickened. Then 
the dose is lessened three or four drops, and if necessary 
increase as before. 

During the Summer, the usual amount of cholera infantum, 
but less than usual of dysentery. Through the Fall, inter- 
mittents and remittents, the latter sometimes of a typhoid 
character, not differing much from former years. Ague and 
fever, which has prevailed more than usual during the fall 
and spring months for some years past, has very considerably 
diminished, and we are getting back to our old stand-point. 


While upon this subject, I can say that I fully concur in the 
views expressed by my friend, Dr. T. T. Price, of Tuckerton, 
in regard to malaria. Our salt marshes generate no malarial 
poison. The causes are apparent. The material of which 
they are composed, so far as it is vegetable, is the decayed 
plants that can live only in salt water, and their decomposi- 
tion is so influenced by the particles of salt contained in their 
structure and upon their surface, that malaria is not generated. 
The supply of salt cannot fail, for at least twice in each month, 
during the " spring " and " neap " tides, the whole meadow is 
overflowed to a greater or less extent by salt water, as also by 
the tides driven in by frequently occurring easterly storms. 
As proof of this, we can instance the exemption from chills 
and fever of the inhabitants of our beaches and the little city 
of Cape Island, while upon the main land miasmatic fevers 
are very prevalefit. I am told by my father. Dr. S. S. Marcy, 
who has practiced medicine here for fifty years, that until 
within the last five years, he never knew a case of Chills and 
Fever originating on the Island ; the few cases which.occurred 
there being traceable, in all cases, to the influence of the 
malaria of the main land, to which the parties had been 
exposed a longer or shorter time. The island is separated 
from the main land by a strip of salt meadow, from one hun- 
dred yards to half a mile in width, with a little stream of salt 
water winding through it, not more than fifteen to twenty 
feet wide. I believe, too, that the salt meadow not only does 
not generate malaria, but that it acts as an absorbent of the 
poison, when blown across it. In no other way can I account 
for the exemption spoken of above. As frequent as Chills 
and Fever are on the main land, some of the poison would be 
carried across the little stream, only twenty feet wide, if it 
were the only barrier. Within the past five or six years, 
there have been some cases of Intermittents or Ague on the 


Island, not traceable to outside influence. Precisely about 
that length of time, the spirit of improvement has been 
"marching on." Quite a space of salt meadow has been 
filled in with, first sand off" the shore, which was all well 
enough, but the redeemed land was dressed for about a depth 
of twelve to fourteen inches with surface soil from the main 
land, and during the same time, too, many of the streets were 
ploughed up and graded, by which means a considerable 
amount of new soil was brought under the sun's influence, 
upon the surface. The consequence has been the occurrence 
of more cases of Chills and Fever among the inhabitants in 
five years, than had been known during the preceding fifty. 
In regard to the main land, the causes of malaria are appar- 
ent. The drainage of the lower half of Cape May county is 
exceedingly bad, a few little streams accomplishing all that is 
done ; while the middle of land, (I cannot call it ridge), 
between the bay and ocean, is filled with "swamps" of stag- 
nant water. These are overflowed by the winter and spring 
rains, and drying up in summer, constantly leaving more or 
less decaying and decayed vegetable matter exposed to the 
hot sun, to give off the poisonous exhalations from which we 
suffer. Intermittents have been very prevalent for the past 
three or four years, caused doubtless by the excessively wet 
winter and spring months, succeeded by hot, dry summers. 
I do not think Cape May county can be called by any means 
unhealthy. We can count as many inhabitants that have 
reached their three-score and 'ten, and even four-score and 
four-score and ten, as any sister county; but Phthisis is as 
common with us, as it seems to be, at least, in other counties. 
The sea air is evidently not a prophylactic, the mortality from 
this disease keeping up its average here about equal to most 
sections of the country. Although the amount of sickness 
has been greater during the past year than usual, the mor- 


tality has been less ; probably becanse no disease was epidemic. 
I append a report of an interesting case by S. S. Marcy, M. 
D., Cape May City. 

P. M. D. MARCY, M. D., Beparter. 

Case: by Dr. S. S. Mabct. 

Was Bninmoned to attend Mrs. at 9^ o'clock A. M., August 8th, 1870. 

Liquor amuii escaped at 7 o'clock A. M. Labor proceeded naturally, and 
delivery accomplished at about 11 o'clock A. M. Full grown female child. 
Nothing abnormal about the case. At about 8 o'clock P. M., a sudden gush 
of water of a pint or more occurred, flooding everything. It resembled 
liquor amnii in appearance and smell. It was ejected with force, as though 
by contraction of the womb. Found the uterus well contracted, about the 
usual size. This was followed by other gushes, at intervals of a few hours, 
lessening in quantity until the 14th. No secretion of milk until the 18th. 
Lochia, normal ; bladder and urine, normal. During this time the womb 
could be felt, contracted to its natural size, and somewhat tympanitic. 
She was treated with mush poultices, filled with sp. turpentine, and 
made as good a getting up as usual. The water was evidently from the 
womb, as it had no smell or appearance of urine, and came with such sud- 
denness and force as to preclude all idea of its coming from the bladder. 


Chairman of Standing GommUtee .- 

The sanitary condition of our County during the last year 
has been remarkably good. Seldom have twelve months rolled 
by so generally free from all sorts of epidemics and endemics. 
Dr. E. E. Bateman, of Cedarville, writes me that in a prac- 
tice of thirty-seven years, he never saw anything approach so 
nearly the standard of health ; indeed this is the universal 
testimony of the physicians of our County, most of whom I 
have consulted, either in person or by letter. There has been 


a slight epidemic of Whooping Cough and of Measles, and 
these of a very mild type. The usual bowel affections of the 
summer, the fevers of the fall, either Remittent or Typhoid, 
and the cases of Pneumonia and Bronchitis were unusually 
limited. A few cases of Diphtheria occurred in November 
and December, in Dr. Tomlinson's practice, some of which 
proved fatal. In another locality. Lower Hopewell,' near 
Bridgeton, there were also a number of cases of Malignant 
Diphtheria met with by Dr. Potter, remarkable for their sever- 
ity and quick fatality. Of three very severe cases, one died 
from poisoning of the whole system, another from strangula- 
tion from great enlargement of both parotids ; the third by 
great care and attention recovered. Several more felt the in- 
fluence more or less severely. These cases extended over a 
very limited neighborhood, near the marshy grounds of the 
Creek, and by careful sanitary precautions were hindered 
from making greater progress! Dr. W. Elmer, of Bridge- 
ton, found the Hydrate of Chloral of great service in the 
treatment of Whooping Cough, relieving the whoop in a few 
days, in doses of gr. ij. to v., according to age of the child, and 
repeated about every four hours. The same gentleman has 
been particularly pleased with the treatment of Carbuncles 
Boils and Felons with Sol. Permang. Pot., and with Carbolic 
Acid and Glycerine, diluted. He says they cleanse, soothe and 
heal, without the great sloughing and pain and consequent 
prostration he used to have under the former treatment. 

Our County Medical Society is in a very flourishing condi- 
tion. We number about twenty regular, and one honorary 
member. Dr. Fithian, of Greenwich, who in 1818 was the 
first Secretary of this now venerable Society. 

Our meetings are held semi-annually, in April and Octo- 
ber, and are looked forward to as seasons of intellectual and 
social enjoyment, as well as of profit. 


The question, " Are miasmatic diseases produced by salt 
marshes ? " was introduced before the Society for discussion, 
and it was unanimously decided " They are not ;" every mem- 
ber present having something to say on the subject. Nearly 
all have more or less practice in the neighborhood of salt 
marshes, and the opinion of some was that the influence of 
salt marshes was beneficial in miasmatic diseases, through its 
tonic qualities. The " dirt " treatment of Dr. Hewson was 
discussed by Dr. Elmer, having tried it in four cases, one 
upon a wound of the head, where it worked like a charm. A 
female falling down stairs injured her head severely, and a 
large rhombus formed with slight abrasion of the skin. Ac- 
cording to Dr. Hewson's plan, he procured some dirt from 
just below the surface of the ground, and having dried it by 
the fire, made it into a poultice with water, and placed it 
upon the head without removing the hair. The application 
was very grateful to the patient ; it soon caused relief from 
all unpleasant symptoms, and in three days not a vestige of 
trouble remained. The other cases were upon open sores, 
and in these he was satisfied it did not answer as well as 
other poultices. 

Dr. Newell, of Millville, recommended the use of Chloro- 
form during labor ; has used it in between seventy-five and 
one hundred cases, without any untoward result, save in two 
or three cases, where he attributed excessive hemorrhages to 
its use. He simply poured a small quantity upon a folded 
handkerchief, and allowed the patient to hold it herself, 
deeming the effect sufficient when she drops the handker- 
chief — he never produced complete Ansesthsesia, and only 
used it during the uterine contractions. 

Dr. T. I. Smith reported an interesting case of transverse 
firacture of the patella, in a young woman, which healed nicely 
and made a good recovery in a few weeks, by application of 


adhesive straps in form of figure eight around the knee, and 
with limb elevated on an inclined plane. 

In the treatment of a very severe case of Erysipelas, some 
months ago, I tried the internal use of Bi-Sulphite of Soda, 
upon the recommendation of Dr. Nebinger (I believe) of 
Philadelphia, in an article on Erysipelas, published in the 
Reporter J according to the following formula : 

B . SodeB Bi-Sulph. z i« 
Syr. Zing. 
Aquae a a 3 ij. 

S. A tablespoonful every three hours. To this I added an 
external application of the Sulphite, a table spoonful to 
water Oi, with Tr. lodin. penciled just beyond the inflamed 
surface. I believe there is no better treatment. It seemed 
to control the disease at once, and in seven days the patient 
was discharged, well. 

There is a cordiality and fraternal spirit existing be- 
tween the physicians of our County, well worthy of imitation, 
and I truly believe these meetings tend vastly to strengthen 
the ties that bind them so closely together. 

Deerfield, May 1, 1871. 

Chairman of Standing Committee : 

The diseases prevalent in this County during the past year, 
have, for the most part, been the ordinary diseases incident to 
season and climate. 

Small Pox and Remittent and Intermittent fevers furnish 
the nearest approach to anything like an epidemic. 


Small Pox has prevailed in Newark, especially in the outer 
wards, to a much greater extent than for several years previ- 
ously, and new cases are still of daily occurrence. Such an 
epidemic furnishes a weighty argument for compulsory vac- 
cination, under proper supervision. Only by such a method 
can we expect to succeed in stamping out this loathsome 

Of ninety-seven cases of Small Pox in Newark, during 
April, 1871, nine (seven of children and two of adults), 
proved fatal. 

Intermittent and Remittent fevers prevail so extensively 
throughout the summer and autumn, that they also may be said 
to have become epidemic. Cases occurred in localities in which 
none have been observed for years before ; and- the intermit- 
tent influence has appeared to modify almost all other dis- 
eases, rendering the preparations of Cinchona necessary in the 
treatment of many. Occasional cases of Intermittent Fever 
occurred throughout the winter and spring, up to the present 
time. This unusual prevalence of sickness of miasmatic ori- 
gin is doubtless due, at least in great measure (in addition to 
the causes stated in my report of the last two years, the dyk- 
ing of the Newark meadows), to the extraordinary dryness of 
the summer and fall, by reason of which, in many localities, 
grounds ordinarily under water, were deprived of their 
watery covering and exposed to the direct rays of the sun, 
thus presenting the conditions most favorable to the produc- 
tion of miasmata. Probably the general prostration resulting 
from the great heat of the summer, was not without its 
effects as a predisposing cause. 

In answer to the inquiry of the Chairman of the Standing 
Committee, " As to the effect of salt marshes in producing 
miasmatic diseases," it may be stated that there are no purely 
salt marshes in this vicinity ; but there can be no doubt that 


the extensive meadows lying between Newark and Elizabeth- 
town, known as the " salt meadows," do produce all forms of 
miasmatic diseases. 

The summer of 1870 was, as all will remember, an extra- 
ordinary hot one, and remarkable, among the heated terms 
of past years, for the large number of persons who died 
from the eftects of the heat. 

The Meteorological report of the Newark Daily Advertiser 
says of it : 

As the Bummer now closed has established for itself a notable reputation, 
it may be interesting to compare its characteristics with those of its prede- 
cessors somewhat in detail. The temperature and quantity of rain in each 
season is given in the following table : 

Min, Max. I>wy% 90 Mean Bain in 

Temp. Temp. and oner. Temp. Inches. 

1843 88t 92 16 71.16 26.36 

1844 46 92i 4 70.47 10.46 

1845 43 98i 9 72.09 10.88 

1846 48 94 6 70.86 11.01 

1847 451 93i 4 70.13 10.44 

1848 40i 941 6 70.54 9.03 

1849 48i 99f 7 72.05 11.54 

1850 46i 93i 8 72.96 15 08 

1851 41 93i 8 70.21 9.06 

1852 43t 95i 6 70.95 8.42 

1853 45i 97 9 72.49 18.13 

1854 46J 99 18 72.22 7.21 

1855 48i 94i 6 70.45 13.15 

1856 48i 97 11 72.26 10.28 

1857 50 89 69.05 14.44 

1858 46 91i 4 71.25 11.86 

1859 43 9H 3 68.12 14.23 

1860 51i 90 1 69.69 10.77 

1861 48 9H 2 69.55 7.69 

1862 44 90i 2 71.08 12.63 

1863 50 90i 1 70.18 11.98 

1864 ....45 94i 4 71.48 7.74 

1865 49i 91i 1 71.35 14.17 

1866 48i 981 8 70.34 9.69 

1867 45i 88 69.55 24.12 

1868 49i 92 4 71.28 19.19 

1869 47 91i 8 70.80 10.89 

1870 53* 92i 6 73.73 13.18 


From this table it will be seen that, during the period it covers there was 
no summer in which the mercury did not fall lower, although in fourteen of 
them it rose higher ; yet the mean temperature of the season this year was 
a degree and a quarter above that of any of the series, and nearly three de- 
grees above the mean of the twenty-seven, which was 70.80. A similar re- 
sult seems to have been experienced through the Eastern and Middle States, 
if not in other quarters of the Union. The quantity of water falling 
during the season, 13.18 inches, was more than half an inch above the aver- 
age having been recorded in only eight of the preceding twenty-seven sum- 
mers, the average of the whole number having been" 12.63 inches. Atten- 
tion is drawn to the fact that in twelve of the summers covered by the table, 
there were more days in which the mercury rose above 90 degrees than in 
the last. W. 

Nbwabk, September 1, 1870. 

It is of course impossible to estimate accurately the amount 
of mortality caused by this oppressive and long-continued 
heat. Many cases of sunstroke occurred, and doubtless many, 
especially the very old or very young, sick with other dis- 
eases, were so prostrated by the heat, that their complaints 
proved fatal, which might, perhaps, under more favorable cir- 
cumstances, have turned favorably. [Of 2,469 deaths re- 
ported as occurring in Newark during 1870, 100 were of per- 
sons between 70 and 80 ; 56 over 80, and 1,161 under 2 years 
of age.] 

The customary affections of the bowels. Diarrhoea, Dysen- 
tery, Cholera Infantum, etc., prevailed extensively and were 
greatly aggravated by the heat. In the official report of in- 
terments in Newark for the year, 225 deaths are attributed 
to Cholera Infantum. 

As to the various other diseases, as seen in the ordinary 
routine of practice, which, as already observed, have occurred 
in their time and season, there has been nothing about them 
calling for more extended remarks. 

From the report of interments in Newark for the year, it 


appears that Consumption caused the greatest number of 
deaths— 884, 

I have the pleasure of transmitting two papers by Dr. Wm. 
Pierson, Jr., of Orange, and a communication by Dr. South- 
ard, of Newark. 

EDWARD D. G. SMITH, Beporter. 
Newark, May, 1871. 

Salt Mabshes: bt Dr. Southard. 

That portion of the City of Newark lying east of the New Jersey Rail- 
road, and known as the Fifth, Tenth and Twelfth Wards, is bounded on 
three sides by what is known as Newark Salt Meadows. They comprise sev- 
eral thousand acres, and are traversed by Bound Creek, Maple Island Creek, 
Fishing Creek, and Halsey Creek. They are covered at high tide with salt 
water, and grow what is called salt hay. Along the upland border of these 
meadows, and on either side of these creeks above tide water, is a consider- 
able quantity of land, covered most of the year with fresh water and grow- 
ing wild grass, flag and reeds. In addition to these there are several sloughs, 
or marshes, which extend into the upland ; in two cases, entirely across this 
portion of the city. The Salt Meadows proper are uninhabited and seldom 
visited except by hay makers, hunters and fishermen. As far as I can learn, 
these seldom suffer much from Ague. The upland bordering these sloughs 
and marshy creeks, are in some places quite densely populated, and Fever 
and Ague and miasmatic fevers have been more or less prevalent ever since 
my practice in this locality — 19 years. Some four years since, flood-gates 
were placed at the mouth of these creeks, which has kept back much of the 
salt water, and during the same time considerable sewering has been in 
progress, which has thrown much new earth t© the surface and drained 
many ponds and marshes heretofore covered with water. The result, as 
might and was expected, has been to fearfully increase the number of cases 
of Ague in the immediate neighborhood of the ponds, marshes and sewers. 

That Ague prevails in the vicinity of our salt meadows, none can deny ; 
but the fresh water ponds and shoals in the immediate contact, render it 
very likely that they, not the salt marshes, are the cause of the malaria. 
Sueh I believe is the opinion of all the physicians of this vicinnity. 

reports of district socibtibs. 279 

Cases: by Wm. Pierson, Jr., M. D., of Orakgb. 

Casb I. — Ulceration of the Appendix Vermifonnis, Portal PMMtis, and Multiple 

Abscess of the Liver. 

On the 24th of April, 1870, 1 was requested to visit Miss McC, a pupil at 
school, aged seventeen years. I was told that for several weeks past she had 
been failing in health, although continuiog at school until within a few 
days. Had had restless nights, poor appetite, and repeated attacks of head- 
ache. Two days previously, during a regular menstrual period, she had 
been suddenly attacked with pain in the ileo-ccecal region, accompanied by 
a chill. The following day had another chill, followed by fever and profuse 
perspiration. The bowels had been moved several times during the past 
forty-eight hours, the stools being of a watery and blackish brown appear- 

This morning, April 24th, she had another rigor, at the same hour as on 
the previous day; pulse 110, temperature 102 degrees; considerable tender- 
ness upon pressure in the right iliac region, with some meteorism. The 
pain in this region is paroxysmal, and sometimes quite severe. The men- 
strual flow was arrested two days ago, having lasted only two days. 

On the assumption .that the attack was one of intermittent fever, attended 
with slight intestinal irritation, quinine and morphine were administered. 

For three days following there was no essential change in the symptoms. 
The rigors returned at irregular intervals, and were followed by profuse noc- 
turnal perspiration. 

The quinine had produced no effect upon the chills. The abdominal 
symptoms had somewhat improved. There was less pain on pressure, and 
the stools were less frequent and of a lighter color. 

The quinine was continued, increasing the doses to four grains every two 
hours ; beef tea and milk for diet. 

On the eighth day the condition of the patient seemed considerably better. 
Had had no chill for twenty -four hours ; had some appetite ; could sit up in 
a chair for an hour or two at a time, without inconvenience ; pulse 94, tem- 
perature 101 degrees ; tongue clear ; still some tenderness on pressure in the 
right iliac region ; the colic pains much less severe. On an average, there 
was one stool daily of a liquid character. Reduced the quantity of quinine 
to two grains every four hours. This course was continued four days, during 
which time there was no return of the chill, and the patient seemed to be 
g^radnally recovering, when she was again attacked with rigor, accompanied 


with severe pain in the right hypochondrium. Pulse rose to 130, tempera- 
ture to 104 degrees ; appetite gone ; occasional vomiting was present ; some 
pain, though not invoked on pressure over the liver, which organ seemed of 
normal size. There was still tenderness on pressure in the region of the 
ccecum. In a few days it became very evident, by palpation, that the liver 
was enlarging. This symptom, together with the continued recurrence of the 
rigors plainly indicated abscess of this organ. There would be from one to three 
rigors daily, recurring at irregular intervals, without any connection with 
the temperature of the body or perspiration. The temperature ranged from 
102 to 106 degrees. The pulse from 120 to 150. There was occasional vom- 
iting, and an average of one stool daily, of a liquid character. The tongue 
was usually but slightly coated with a whitish fur. The pain in right hypo- 
chondrium at times was quite severe. 

This train of symptoms continued until the morning of the 12th of May, 
when the patient died. She had passed the previous night more comfortably 
than usual, having slept nearly the whole time. In the morning, feeling so 
much refreshed by the sleep, she expressed a desire to be placed in a chair, 
and while her friends were preparing her chair, she suddenly, without a sigh, 

At no time during her illness was there any disturbance of her intellect; 
nor was there any jaundice. The urine was normal. 

Autop»y. — There were present Drs. Thompson, Wilmarth and Floyd. 
Examination forty-eight hours after death. Rigor mortis ; no emaciation ; 
suggillations about neck, shoulders, back, nates and posterior surface of 
the thighs. On palpation, a firm tumor is felt, projecting from below the 
ribs on the right side to the umbilicus ; abdominal walls not distended. 
No evidence of fluctuation. 

Head not opened. Lungs healthy. Heart small ; valves and muscular 
tissue normal. There were from six to eight ounces of straw-colored serum 
in abdominal cavity. Liver very much enlarged ; extending from the fourth 
rib to the umbilicus, occupying about one-fourth of the united capacity of 
the thoracic and abdominal cavities ; its upper surface was of sound appear- 
ance. On removing the liver, no adhesions were found until the transverse 
fossa was reached. Here there was a fleshy mass running to, but not attached 
to the hepatic substance. This mass, which was about one and one-half 
inches thick, glued together the portal vein, hepatic artery, the common 
hepatic and cystic ducts, the head of the pancreas, and was attached to the 
duodenum above, and the vena cava below. Upon section through this mass 
close to the liver, the cystic duct was severed close to the gall bladder, and 


there was projected with some force a straw-colored bile ; upon continu- 
ing the section, a quantity of very dark pus escaped. Upon the under side 
of the liver, there were several elevations of a dark, gangrenous hue, involv- 
ing both the right and left lobe, and the lobus spigelia. These elevations 
were about two inches in diameter, and gave to the touch indistinct fluctua- 
tion. On section the substance of the liver was very much softened, — com- 
pletely infiltered with pus throughout its whole extent. At the part corres- 
ponding with the dark elevation, the texture was somewhat broken down, 
and had the appearance of the commencement of a cavity. There was no 
where any appearance of an abscess with distinct walls to be observed. 
Towards the upper surface of the liver, the texture was healthy for about 
three-eighths of an inch thick ; in all other parts pus followed the knife. 
The portal vein was found plugged with a firm clot of a reddish color. 
There was no gangrenous odor. Upon continuing the examination of the 
portal vein, in the fleshy mass before spoken of, it was found plugged to its 
bifurcation. At this point the plug was white in color, flrmly attached to 
the walls of the vessels, and was in layers. 

The stomach, small intestines, pancreas and kidneys were in a healthy 

On gently raising the large intestine, the pelvic tissues in the immediate 
vicinity of the caput coli, presented a blackish appearance, and were with facil- 
ity torn. The lower portion of the ascending colon, and the major portion of 
the appendix vermiformU were adherent to the parietal layer of peritoneum. 
An opening, the result of ulceration, through the walls of the appendix, 
existed near its attachment to the bolon. The remaining portion of this 
appendage had a dark hue ; its internal surface was bathed with a purulent 
fluid. No abnormal substance found within, save that resulting from inflam- 
matory action. 

Extending from the point of rupture beneath the adhesions, was a small 
sinus about two inches in length, flUed with pus. Some of the lymphatic 
glands in the vicinity were enlarged and blackened ; others in a state of sup- 

The mucus membrane of the ascending colon exhibited a moderate degree 
of capillary congestion. 

The genito-uiinary organs in a healthy condition. 


Case n. — Diabetes Insipidus and Graniotabes. 

The patient, Margaret McC, died June 24th, 1870, aged six yeara and one 
month. Her parents were Irish, and are living, and are in vigorous health. 
They have never had syphilis nor any chronic disease, excepting the father, who 
has psoriasis over the tibije. There are three other children in the family, 
two older and one younger than Margaret. They are all healthy and well 
nourished children. 

Up to August, 1868, the patient was a robust child. About this time, 
while at play, she fell forward upon her face, and when lifted by her mother, 
was found to have bruised her face and to walk lame on the right side. 
The injuries, at the time, were not considered to be of a serious nature. No 
physician was called in to see her. The lameness continued for some months. 
There was an inability to get in and out of the bed without assistance. The 
head could not be turned without pain. She could lie only on the right 
side. Physicians were consulted, who prescribed various liniments, but to 
no purpose. Six or seven weeks after the fall, a swelling was observed over 
the right hip. Attending this the patient would scream out at night, 
complaining of pain over the right hip, and down the right leg and thigh. 
These symptoms continued for weeks. Abscesses made their appearance 
behind the right ear, which continued to discharge for a long time, at inter- 
vals. Following these there were fugitive pains over the whole body. For 
the relief of these pains, brandy, whisky and beer were given, and mustard 
applied over the seat of pain. This was about six months after the fall. 
About this time the mother observed spots of eczema on the scalp, which 
gradually spread over the top of the head. 

About the middle of June, 1869, the child was attacked with excessive 
thirst, and the passing of large quantities of water. The invasion of the 
thirst was sudden. It was about this time that the case first came under my 
observation. The child was greatly emaciated. The swelling about tlie 
hip had disappeared, and there was no deformity about the spine or hip to 
be observed. There was still some stiffness and lameness. There were 
patches of eczema, still on the scalp and body. The abscesses on the head 
had healed. The thirst was the prominent symptom, the child drinking 
from seventeen to eighteen quarts of water during the twenty-four hours, 
and voiding about the same quantity of urine. 

In October it was ascertained, by actual measurement, that the child drank 
eighteen quarts of water, besides beer, during twenty-four hours, and during 
the same period of time, fifteen quarts of urine was collected, and besides 
this the bed was soaked through with it. 


The nrine was carefully examined by Dr. Lloyd, who saw the case fre- 
quently. Specimens of the urine that was passed in the morning and in the 
evening, and on different days, were examined with the following result : 
Specific gravity, 1.001 to 1.003 : feebly acid, very light in color, and without 
deposit. AU the tests for sugar failed to detect the smallest trace ; and 
nitric add and heat of albumen. The microscope showed no crystals or 
organic element. 

Vomiting after drinking was a frequent occurrence. The attacks of vom- 
iting afler a while became paroxysmal, occurring at about seven o'clock in 
the evening. Before going to bed the patient would drink freely of water, 
and then sleep one or two hours, and after the first nap she would be very 
restless, waking up three or four times an hour to drink. A twelve-quart 
pail filled with water, was always placed by her bedside that she might help 
herself throughout the night. 

In the early part of the summer there were observed round depressions 
in the parietal bones on both sides. Felt through the scalp, the edges were 
smooth, the depressions circular, and, about three-fourths of an inch in di- 
ameter. They were situated near the squamous portion of the parietal bones, 
and near the lamdoidal section below and behind the parietal prominence. 
These gradually increased in size, and others formed, until the whole top of 
the head had a boggy feeling. 

Ten days before death, there was extensive ecchymosis over the neck, and 
the discharge from the eczema over the body was considerable ; and in 
order t^ keep the scabs from sticking to the bed clothing, it was necessary 
to have the patient wrapped in oiled cloths. 

She had now become quite emaciated. The abdomen was quite enlarged, 
and gave the sense of fluctuation on palpation. A fortnight before 
death, the ears began to discharge pus, and there was deafness. In the 
afternoon before death, the thirst decreased so that she merely sipped her 
water. The secretion of urine also greatly diminished, and for some hours 
before death there was a complete suspension. The mght before her death 
she slept well until day-light, when she got up, without assistance, and had 
a fluid movement from the bowels. 

During the whole course of the illness, the bowels were regular. The ap- 
petite was generally poor, though variable, hunger sometimes being great, 
and the quantity of food taken excessive. At no time was there any dis- 
turbance of the intellect. The skin was usually dry, although in the early 
part of the illness there .was excessive perspiration, especially about the 




Post Mortem, Thirty Hours after Death, 

Drs. Chandler, Thompson, Wilmarth and Lloyd were present. Body ema- 
ciated, but not excessively so ; scalp, breast and back were covered with 
patches of chronic eczema ; abdomen enlarged ; from back of head to lower 
part of nates one mass of ecchymosis, and over both shoulders denuded of 
cuticle ; no eruption upon or discoloration of the extremities ; the crown and 
back ot head in a boggy state ; on pressing on the vertex, with the index 
finger alone, both parietal bones gave way with a crack ; no opening 
through the scalp ; after dissecting the scalp, the bones of the cranium were 
found to be destroyed along the neighborhood of the lamdoidal, coronal and 
squamous sutures, so as almost to isolate the parietal bones ; also the bone 
was destroyed along the saggital suture in the position of the frontal fontanel. 
The skull was exhibited to many physicians, among whom were some of 
the leading pathologists of the city of New York, but no one seemed to 
have recognized the disease. 

Rokitansky speaks of a cancerous condition of broad bones, under the 
title of Osteolyosis. His description ,of the pathological appearance of 
the bones of the skull affected with the disease is not unlike what 
was observed in this case; but in all my reading I have not found 
anything which so fully accords with what was observed in this case, 
as that detailed in Vogel's recent work on the diseases of children, under the 
head of Rachitis of the Skull. According to this author, Elsasser was 
the first to discover this disease. lie calls it Craniotabes. The gen- 
eral impression has been that the bones of the head never soften 
through rachitis. Vogel says the disease is met with in children from the 
third month on, but is seldom seen in those who have passed the second 
year. This case was an exception to that rule, the child being five years 
old when the dise:ise was first noticed. 

He speaks of spasms of the muscles, the most dangerous of which is 
spasm of the glottis, as being the most frequent complications of this 
affection. Nothing of the kind appeared in this case. In the frontal 
and occipital bones there were also a number of places, irregular in form, 
and varying in size from half of a line to nine lines in dimension, where 
the bone was destroyed. In places less than two lines in dimension, the 
destruction of bone was confined to the inner plate and diploe; and in 
all of these places there was a greater destruction of the diploe, than of 
the compact 'plates. (See wood cut.) The margins of the places where the 
bone was destroyed^were very uneven and the compact plates were beveled 
from within, outward. All the places were filled with an abortive, connec- 


tive tissue and fat, as obserrable under the microscope, and were all covered 
with periostium. The bones at the base of the skull were perfectly sound. 
The hrain and meninges appeared healthy. The thoracic organs were in 
a sound condition. The stomach and small intestines were as large as an 
adult's. The muscular coat of the bladder, somewhat thickened. The ca- 
pacity of the bladder was about four or five ounces. The kidneys, liver, 
pancreas and spleen, normal. 

Bections of the bone under the microscope show a gradual diminution of 
the outer table, and rather abrupt termination of the inner^ — the diploe 
traversed by numerous canals about the size of the Haversian, wbich radiate 
somewhat like the arms of a lady's fan, from the diseased edge, and pene- 
trate into the compact tubes. The lacunte along the side of these canals are 
arranged with no definite plan. At the dist.ince of about a line from the 
diseased edge, the Haversian canals are seen with the usual regular ar- 
rangement of the neighboring lacunte. The lacuna themselves appeared to 
be normal. 

Crhe microecopic obaervations were made by Dr. Lloyd.) 

Ftw of Inner SuTfaee of top of Skull, repTeunting only a por 
bonei thai were dUeated. 
A— Parte whera the destniotion was oonflned to inner pUt« and diploe 
B— Parts where t^e whole ot the bone was destroyed. 



The saDitary condition of this County, as given by the 
reporter, Dr. Sickler, is noticed in the report of the Standing 

Chairman of Standing Commiitee^ ^c. .- 

In presenting a report from this County, it is very difficult 
to make any comparative statements, so rapidly and com- 
pletely is the whole face of the country, as well as its popula- 
tion, changed. Our growth by immigration is chiefly from 
the most energetic class of our neighboring city's bone and 
sinew, — ^young men with growing families. This increase 
has been at such a rate as to turn farms to city lots, roads to 
streets, meadows to gardens, and even the bay itself to docks 
and wharves. Miles of sewers, acres of newly-made land 
filled in, grading of streets, laying of water and gas pipes, 
taking up of thousands of acres of salt meadow, have all had 
their share, (and who can say how much ?) in affecting the 
health of this county. The past year has been marked with 
an unusual amount of endemic diseases. Early in the Sum- 
mer, Cholera Infantum made its appearance, and prevailed to 
an unusual degree — the extremely hot weather acting most 
depressingly on many of those attacked, especially with 
" bottle-fed " children. The difficulties in the way of procur- 
ing pure milk, or milk from healthy cows, or " one cow's 
milk," have led many who are unable, or prefer not to 
nurse their children, to the use of " condensed milk," pre- 
pared by Borden's process ; others to the use of substitutes 
for mothers' milk, prepared by Liebig, Comstock, Nestle and 
others. Next to the pure milk from a healthy, properly fed 


COW, slightly sweetened and rendered more alkaline by one 
gr. soda carb. to every four ounces, comes, in my experience, 
Borden's milk, Eagle brand. There seems to exist an almost 
insuperable repugnance in this part of the country to what is 
so highly esteemed abroad, and what is certainly so much 
better for the child — a wet nurse. 

Autumn came after a very long rainless period, and brought 
to most sections of our county a long train of miasmatic 
diseases. Localities for a long period exempt, suffered 
severely. The County House at Snake Hill, where appar- 
ently there had hitherto been no malaria, became one large 
hospital, as many as ninety cases being under treatment at 
one time; and as Dr. J. F. Finn, its physician, informed me, 
the type was severe, and obstinate to treatment. A combina- 
tion of quinine, iron and arsenic proved most efficient in his 
hands, while quinine alone failed frequently. In my own 
neighborhood, the heights of Bergen, the same disposition to 
malarial disease was and is manifested. Indeed, traces of 
miasmatic poisoning may be seen in most cases of ordinary 

The breaking up of Winter was this year attended by, — I 
had almost said, our usual epidemics of Measles and Scarlet 
Fever; neither of them proving of severe type. This Spring 
a portion of our county, Hoboken City, has been visited with 
the Small Pox. The very unfavorable hygienic conditions of 
certain sections of the town, the houses being built on posts 
driven into a marsh which is frequently subjected to flooding 
by storm and tide, and very imperfectly drained, rendered a fit 
nidus for such a disease, and about 100 cases have occurred ; 
a much larger per cent, than usual being fatal, for reasons 
named above. 

I enclose herewith, a report of Dr. Hunt, of and concerning 
the Jersey City Charity Hospital ; also one from Dr. J. E. 


Culver, late of Hudson City, with cases of interest and notes 
of meteorological phenomena, together with a few cases of 
special interest which came under my own observation. 

J. R. FORMAN, Reporter, 
Jbbset Crrr, May, 1871. 

Dr. Forman's Cases. 

L — FRA.CTURB OP Astragalus, with Dislocation Forwards. 

W. M., a slightly-built young man, about five feet ten inches in height, 
fell from the limb of a tree a distance of about twenty -five feet, striking on 
one heel in the sandy soil of the woods. I saw him in a very few seconds, 
and found the astragalus dislocated forwards, giving the appearance of a 
double heel. Relaxing by flexion the muscles as far as possible, placing my 
knee in the instep as he lay on his side, flexing the foot on the leg and push- 
ing with one hand on the foot and drawing with the other on the leg, reduc- 
tion was immediately effected without the use of very great force. There 
was no lesion of the soft parts, but a careful examination gave distinct 
osseous crepitus at the neck of the astragalus, on lateral motion. There was 
no displacement, and in a few minutes swelling ensued. The rarity of the 
injury leads me to place it on record. To an immediate examination was 
due both the detection of the nature of the injury, and the ease of reduction. 
He made a speedy recovery, with almost perfect use of the joint, no limp 

I add also a therapeutical note on Cholera Morbus. 

n. — Cholera Morbus. 

J. A., taken sick with extreme prostration, purging, vomiting and severe 
cramps ; had exposed himself to draught of air on ferry-boat, after being tired 
out on a very hot day. I treated him with opium and astringents, with fric- 
tion to allay cramps ; but purging continued, with rice water discharges ; the 
thirat was intense and prostration extreme; he calling for ice, — brandy 
could not be retained. I gave him, on the second day, eight drops Fowler's 
Solution, and fipr an hour he was relieved &om cramps and nausea, and purg- 
ing. The cramps and discharges came on again, when I ordered acetate of 
lead and opium, without much benefit. I then again resorted to Fowler's 
Solution, giving five drop doses every fifteen minutes tUl purging ceased, which 


was after second dose ; after that five drops per hour. He had taken but 
two more doses when, there being no more discharges, I stopped the medi- 
cine ; but in the course of three or four hours they returned, but were 
checked by a single dose of five drops. I then left him, with directions to 
take a dose every two hours. Convalescence progressed slowly but surely. 

G. P., a boy of two years, was taken sick with vomiting and profuse diar- 
rhoea, without much pain. The discharges, at first blackish, became green- 
ish, and then light colored. They were very frequent, and prostrated the 
patient much. When called to see him, I found him feverish and listless, 
complaining of no pain, but weakened much by discharges occurring every 
two hours. I g&ve him three drops of Fowler's Solution, and in half an hour 
two drops more. He then, having had no discharge, and vomiting having 
ceased, fell asleep for an hour. On awakening I gave him two drops more, 
when he again fell asleep, and slept soundly for several hours. Another 
dose was given, and in about two hours, having had no passage from his 
bowels, he fell asleep, and slept all night so soundly that the attendants 
thought I had given him a narcotic. In the morning a discharge occurred, 
after which he took another dose of two drops ; was somnolent all that day, 
but recovered forthwith. 

E., a servant, after exhaustion during a hot day, and a little unusual 
indulgence of the appetite with green com, was seized with vomiting and 
purging in the night, with great prostration. Three five-drop doses every 
half hour checked the disease, and she went to sleep and slept six hours. 
On awakening, she had a single discharge, but after taking five drops no 
more occurred. That night she did not sleep any, but had no return of her 
disease. The dose was repeated every three hours. 

Mrs. F., a fac-simile of the foregoing, except that there was not so long a 
sleep induced. I say induced, for it cannot be a coincidence that four times 
sleep should follow. The arsenic may not have a narcotic eff'ect, except sec- 
ondarily, by relieving the distressing symptoms, and thus allowing sleep. 
That there was some narcotic power in it, the lady, an unusually intelligent 
woman, assured me she was confident from her sensations. 

These cases occurring in quick succession, led me to a prolonged use of 

the remedy. In many, not the majority, the beneficial eff'ect was as marked 

as in the first four, but in many others which I was unable to distinguish by 

comparison of symptoms, there was an utter failure. Who can explain this, 

' or give the reason, not theory, of its marked beneficial action in some cases 9 


Communication by J. E. Culver, M. D. 

The atmosphere has averaged drier during the past year than for 
several years immediately preceding. The favorable influence of this change 

. on the public health is quite apparent. Said Mr. S to me, yesterday, 

" Last year I thought I was giving out and hadn't long to live, but somehow 
this year I have recovered my former buoyancy and strength." Substantially 
the same remark has been made in my hearing this Spring by several aged 
persons. In many ways, our patients of every age and class attest their 
agreeable experience of the improved atmospheric condition. 

From about one year ago to near the 1st of July, 1870, the rain-falls were 
heavy and frequent. During the remaining months of the year, the rains 
were less frequent and abundant. For the months of July, August and Sep- 
tember, the rain-fall must have been considerably below the monthly average 
for the year. 

May, 1870, averaged nearly five degrees Fahrenheit warmer than May, 

1869. The Summer of 1870 was continuously warm, the temperature rising 
very high on some few days. The Winter was cold and bracing; the 
Autumn variable and intermediate. 

Intermittent Fever we are never for a day without a specimen of, and its 
markings are stamped indelibly on more than half the countenances we meet. 
Last Spring it was more prevalent than ]iow. Nevertheless, we are now 
daily prescribing iron, quinine, and tonics adjuvant to these with great liber- 
ality ; not only with benefit, but of necessity. Last Spring a few mild cases 
of Measles, Scarlet Fever and Whooping Cough were seen by me, which all 
recovered without much medication. I saw no case of sun-stroke last Sum- 
mer. Cases of Diarrhoea, Dysentery and Cholera were rare. Cholera 
Infantum attacked bottle-fed children only. I met with only three deaths 
from this cause. A few cases of Cholera Asphyxia occurred under the lee of 
offtil heaps and bone-boiling shanties. A Seacaucus farmer manured his field 
with putrifying offal, and immediately three of his family suffered attacks of 
the Cholera, one of whom, an aged and feeble man, died. 

'The annual drying up of the ditches, pools and quagmires of the meadows 
lying west of Bergen Hill, made rapid progress in the early part of August 

1870. The atmosphere soon became surcharged with moisture, which 
formed dense night-fogs ; and following close upon these came the annual 
afflux of Intermittent Fever over our country. The endemic influence so 
augmented persisted long, but gave way at length beneath the freezing tem- 
perature and dry atmosphere of Winter. 


In November and December, attacks of Catarrhal Bronchitis were numer- 
ous, interspersed with an occasional Catarrhal Pneumonia. During January, 
February and March, 1871, an unusual number of cases of Croupous Pneumo- 
nia presented themselves. Now and then Pleurisy complicated the Pneumo- 
nia, — seldom it existed alone. Articular Rheumatism occurred during the 
same period, from time to time. None of these cases proved fatal. It was 
found practicable so to give two or three ten-grain doses of quinine sulphate, 
as measurably to relieve the "congestive stage" of Pneumonia, whether as it 
exists at the onset, or as it repeats itself in the course of the disease ; and 
thereby to arrest the progress of the exudation process, and limit the area of 

To-day we are attending patients suffering from Scarlet Fever, and others 
from Measles ; one year ago t6 day we were similarly engaged. It has been 
our fortune to meet with one or both of these epidemics, air this very season 
of every year. Does the extinguishment of the winter fires, in the first warm 
days of Spring, play any part in their causation and temporary prevalence ? 
Albuminous matter, derived from the breath or from other exhalations, is 
deposited on the interior surfaces of dwellings and school-houses, and is pre- 
served in a dried state as long as the artificial warmth and dryness of the air 
are maintained therein. House-cleaning and disinfection should doubtless 
precede the discontinuance of fires in the Spring, but such is not the infrangi- 
ble law of fashion. Consequently the organic matter absorbs moisture from 
a damp atmosphere, putrifies and contaminates its lodgment and the air 
of the room with disease-bearing particles. Furthermore, the weather of 
Spring is most changeable, and if the day happens to be cool and damp, 
and especially if fires have just been dispensed with, ventilation is apt to be 
reduced to a minimum, by strict closure of all doors and windows. We are 
compelled to regard these, and similar conditions, as eminently conducive to 
the propagation of Measles and Scarlet Fever. 

Recently there happened two cases of Choleric vomiting and Diarrhoea in 
children, aged three and five years respectively, in a family of whom another 
child, aged ten- years, was then lying five days sick with Scarlet Fever. The 
child of five years was first seen by me about three hours after the beginning 
of the attack, already in a state of collapse, and he died from Asphyxia. 
The child of three years survived ; and he did not take the Scarlet Fever, 
although exposed to the contagion of the sick room every day for two weeks 
or more. Meanwhile the mother and two other children successively sick- 
ened with the disease, and recovered. I have met with like occurrences 
twice in former years. They suggest the possibility of an element common 


to the origin of both Cholera and Scarlet Fever. Tlie alvine evacuations in 
both these diseases are, from the first, invariably putrescent, and although 
the phenomena of constipation in Scarlet Fever remains to be accounted for, 
nevertheless, it is perchance philosophical to infer, that alike in both diseases, 
the gastric distress and nausea which initiate the attacks, and the vomiting 
and diarrhoea, when present, are caused by irritant products of the putrefac- 
tion of the undigested contents of the alimentary canal ; especially the phos- 
phide and the sulphide of hydrogen. 

Jersey City Charity Hospital. 

By Dr. J. W. Hunt. 

The Jersey City Charity Hospital has prospered, during the past year, 
beyond the most sanguine expectations of its friends. The Committee on 
Alms of the Common Council, (and particularly the chairman of the Commit- 
tee, Alderman Budlong), have appreciated the benefits guaranteed by the 
institution to the diseased and injured poor of the city, and have sought to 
favor its growth, increase its facilities, and render it in all respects second to 
none. To this end they have labored in perfect harmony with the medical 
board of the Hospital, and the following statistics show the extent of its 
service : 

From May Ist, 1870, to April 15th, 1871, embracing a period of eleven 
months and a half, there were admitted to the Hospital 509 patients, of 
whom 408 were discharged convalescent or entirely well, forty-six died, and 
there were fifty-five remaining under treatment. 

This record of the second year of the Hospital's existence is sufficiently 
encouraging to warrant the hope, that if no accident befalls, no malignant 
pustule fastens upon or epidemic cuts short its brittle thread of life during 
babyhood, it will grow to the estate of manhood, sturdy and full of vitalizing 
power. It is no longer an experiment ; its success is established, if it con- 
tinues to be properly conducted. The admissions were more than double 
those of the first year, and the mortality is reduced from twelve and a half 
to nine per cent. There were treated twenty-one cases of fracture, and three 
dislocations ; nine amputations were performed ; one operation for removal 
of epithelioma of lip ; and one case of colloid disease of testis, which was 

In the Dispensary, 2967 patients were prescribed for. 

About the 1st of October, the number of the patients had increased to an 


extent requiring the services of an interne, as Household Physician and Sur- 
geon, and on the 1st of April, 1871, the continued increase rendered necessary 
the services of an Assistant. The service is six months as Assistant, and six 
as House Physician and Surgeon. 

The incumbent of the latter position is Dr. B. G. Henning, who has fur- 
msbed the notes of the following case of Rabies Canina : 

Mary E., aged ten, bom in New Jersey, was admitted to the J. C. Charity 
Hospital, December 27 th, 1870, with the following history : Some time in 
September last she was bitten on the left cheek, a little below the outer 
canthus of the eye, by a dog not known to be rabid. She was seen by a 
physician soon after, but the wound was a mere scratch, and it is not remem- 
bered whether it was cauterized or not. It healed readily, leaving but a 
trace of cicatrix. Her health remained good till two days previous to her 
admission. On the evening of December 2oth, she was seized with nausea 
and vomiting, which continued two or three hours ; she then slept well dur- 
ing the remainder of the night. In the morning she made the general com- 
plaint of not feeling well, and remained in bed ; ate some bread and drank 
a little tea, which it was noticed she swallowed with some effort ; vomiting 
recurred occasionally. She drank water several times during the day, always 
swallowing it with an effort. Her parents also remarked that she seemed 
timid and nervous, and during the night of the 26th would start in her sleep. 
On the morning of the 27th she refused to eat or drink, turning away as if 
afraid when her breakfast was brought. She was was admitted to the Hos- 
pital about eleven o'clock that day, presenting the following symptoms and 
appearance : Physically well nourished ; mind perfectly clear ; countenance 
wore a look of anxiety or fear. Pulse 144 ; respiration 28. Temperature in 
the axilla, 101 degrees. A bath is given each patient on admission, unless 
contra-indicated ; when she was made ready for it, the sight of the water 
produced convulsions. No attempt was made to give it, but an anesthetic 
was administered, which only increased the convulsions. 

Dr. T. R. Varick, the attending physician on duty, saw her in the after- 
noon, and ordered sol. morph. (magendie) 9 gtt. V, hypodei'mically. Convul- 
sions recurred quite frequently during the afternoon. In the evening several 
of the attending physicians and surgeons of the Hospital saw her. At that 
time the sight of a glass of water convulsed her ; likewise a current of air. 
She made several attempts to drink milk, and with great effort succeeded in 
swallowing a few ounces. There was a continual flow of viscid saliva. Dur- 
ing the convulsions she would grasp the bedstead, and with labored respira- 


tion, appear as if trying to get away from some frightful object, and after 
the paroxysm had passed, beg that she might be smothered before another 

Dr. Varick ordered hydrate of chloral, gr. X, every hour, but it produced 
no perceptible effect ; the paroxysms became more frequent and severe, and 
the submaxillary glands swollen. About 2 A. M. on the 28th, she became 
delirious, and continued so till five, when she died, after an almost constant 
convulsion for some time previous. She took in all about fifty gr. of chloral 


Chairman of the Standing Committee, ^^c. .- 

The health of this County for the past year has been very 
favorable. Epidemics, as they have prevailed in various 
localities, have generally been mild and amenable to treat- 
ment. In the lower part of the County, Scarlatina prevailed 
during the early part of Summer. As Fall drew on, we were 
troubles with Diarrhoeas, and also with Colitis. But nothing 
remarkable occurred, either in the nature of the ailment or in 
its treatment. During the Fall, Winter and Spring, Pertussis 
prevailed extensively; but no deaths have occurred therefrom. 
One case that fell to my charge, — complicated with Pneumo- 
nia, — was attended with extreme emaciation, and paralysis of 
the lower extremities. The remedies which have given the 
best satisfaction are acid hydrocyanic, bromide of ammonium, 
belladonna, quinia and iron. 

An epidemic of Typhoid Fever occurred in this village and 
vicinity, in the months of July, August and September, of a 
somewhat peculiar nature. The course of the disease was 
more rapid than that of any other Typhoid epidemic that I 
have witnessed. The emaciation was very rapid ; but when 
the materies morbi had been entirely eliminated, the patients 
recovered rapidly. One patient, a lad of seventeen years, 


whose weight was 103 lbs. at the attack, in seven days was 
reduced to 70 lbs., and at the end of ten days more, was on his 
feet in the open air. In all of the cases, there was a tendency 
to diarrhoea, with a great deal of tympanitis and deliriums. 
The cause of this epidemic, — as the cause of all the epidemic 
of Typhoid Fever in this district have been since I have been 
located here, — was traceable to its cause. At the west of the 
barnyard of my neighbor, T. C. S., 100 yards north of my 
house, was a stagnant pool, into which was thrown from time 
to time, dead hens, dead pigs, &c., &c., and into which the 


fluids of the barnyard were drained. The pool was about 
thirty feet long and twelve feet wide. I observed the condi- 
tion of this pond some time in May, and pointed out the dan- 
ger of leaving it as it was, particularly as it was almost west of 
his own residence, and only about 100 yards away. But he 
neglected to cleanse it until the 26th day of July, when I was 
called to see one of his laborers, — the lad above mentioned, — 
who was prostrated with Typhoid Fever. I now reminded 
him of the condition of that pool, and the necessity of attend- 
ing to it immediately, which was done. But on the following 
day I was called to see another of his laborers, affected in the 
same way ; and a few days later, a lad from the city of Phila- 
delphia, who was visiting there, was seized with the same 
malady. His father, mother, sister, and nurse, who came 
from the city to wait on him, were all seized with it, but all 
but the mother returned to the city before becoming prostrate. 
The father, I learn, died of the disease. Mr. and Mrs. S., 
their two children and maid-servants, were also victims of the 
disease; as well as a number who occasionally visited the 
premises before the cleansing of the noxious pool. None of 
the patients that fell to my charge died. As a diet and refrig- 
erator, I advised four eggs, beaten up with a half pint of 
cream, frozen after the manner of making ice cream, and 


given frequently in small quantities. This the patients 
seemed to relish well, and I believe was of much value to 
them. I used, with entire satisfaction in most case, the fol- 
lowing : 

B. Acid phosphor., Jii. 

Oil lemon, gtt. x. 

Syr. Simp., 3ii. 
S. Teaspoonful every four hours. 

In one case, in which the prostration was extreme, I used 
the Oleum Phosphoratum with advantage. 

During the months of October, November and December, 
numerous cases of insanity occurred. In fact, in the majority 
of patients at that season, the nervous centres seemed to be 
peculiarly involved, — particularly the brain. Many cases 
were uncomplicated, the brain alone being affected. Others, 
with aberration of the mind, suffered from a sensitiveness 
of the spinal cord ; others with paralysis. 

The patients so affected were very slow to convalesce. Of 
the number (about twenty) that fell to my charge, two died, 
one was sent to the Asylum, one remains insane, — the rest 
have recovered. 

The treatment consisted of counter-irritants, a generous 
diet of meat, the bromide of potassium and the bromide of 
ammonia, citrate of quinia and iron, and strychnia. 

We have been less troubled with Pneumonia this Winter 
and Spring, than usual. Very few cases have occurred, and 
these few have been confined chiefly to children. The free- 
dom from this ailment may be attributed to the steadiness of 
the weather during these seasons. We have also been freer 
from Rheumatism than usual. 

Tuberculosis seems to be steadily on the increase. Folly 
in dress, and errors in diet, seem everywhere to be laying the 


foundation for this disease ; while the vast amount of expect- 
orant nostrums, — made up of antimony, squills, lobelia, and 
the like, — used so extensively in many families, calls many of 
the latent cases into activity, and hastens the deluded victims 
to their final repose. 

Our District Society, in order to facilitate the collection and 
diflusion of such facts as relate to our art, instituted four 
departments : — a department of practice ; of surgery ; of 
obstetrics ; and of materia medica. 

The chairman of the department of practice, Dr. M. Abel, 
read before the Society, at its last meeting, the following com- 
munications from physicians practicing in various parts of the 

Dr. Abel says : — In my own practice, I have nothing of 
material interest to communicate. We have had the diseases 
incident to the different seasons, attended with no unusual 
characteristics. We have been free from epidemics, with the 
exception of Pertussis, which prevailed during the Spring and 
fore part of Summer. Tn its treatment a variety of remedies 
were used. The bromides of ammonium and potassium in 
small and large doses were used ; but I am compelled to say 
that I did not receive the benefit from them that others have 
claimed for them in this disease. If attended at the onset 
with some febrile movement, I prescribed ipecac in doses suf- 
ficient to produce nausea ; if attended with constipation, calo- 
mel sufficient to move the bowels. After a few days, as the 
febrile movement passed off, some of the preparations of iron 
was used with benefit ; and of these, the simple precipitated 
carbonate seemed to answer the best purpose. When the 
patient was anemic, or attended with no arterial excitement, 
the iron was used from the first. Hydrocyanic acid, in the 




following combination, which is a prescription of Dr. 

Hydrocyanic acid, gtt. vi. 
Extract belladonna, gr. ii. 
Paragoric, §iii. 
Syrup Balsam of Tolu, Ji. 

Water, giii. 


S. Teaspoonful four times a day. 

Other remedies, not necessary to enumerate, were used in 

Capillary Bronchitis, Pneumonia, and other kindred affec- 
tions of the respiratory organs, prevailed very extensively, 
beginning about the middle of December, running through 
January and February, and subsiding about the middle of 
March. The cases were not marked by that Typhoid tend- 
ency that has accompanied these complaints in former years, 
in this neighborhgod ; and consequently did not bear the sup- 
porting treatment, as it is called. 

Venesection was resorted to when the arterial excitement 
ran high, with decided advantage. Calomel and tart, emetic 
were the remedies principally used. The cases all recovered. 

Typhoid Fever, the past year, has not been as prevalent as 
heretofore. Scarlet Fever had not made its appearance in 
this section for the past five years, till the month of February 
last, when it broke out in one family containing four children. 
All four of the children were attacked within ten hours of 
each other ; but the disease did not spread. They all recov- 

Enteric diseases prevailed through the latter part of Summer 
and during the Fall. In the beginning of Diarrhoea, I used 
hyd. submuriate ; or, hyd. cum creta, with opium ; and after 


the stools began to show the action of the mercury, and in the 
taore advanced stages of Diarrhoea and Cholera Infantum, in 
which the power of digestion was feeble, pepsin, bismuth and 
opium, variously combined to meet the indications of the case, 
were used with advantage. During the Autumn, Dysentery 
occurred less frequently than formerly. 

Incontinence of urine, in a boy aged thirteen years, who 
from infancy had. been troubled nightly with inability to 
retain his water, and which had resisted all former treatment, 
yielded promptly to pulv. cubebs and carb. soda. In a few 
days after the commencement of this treatment, the boy had 
no more involuntary passages. 

Dr. A. M. Armitage writes : — Epidemics in this section are 
very rare, none having occurred for more than two years, until 
the present time, when Pertussis has made its appearance in 
mild form. The cases that have come under treatment, are 
those occurring in very young and unhealthy children. The 
bromides, with nitric acid- solution, have given the best satis- 
faction in the way of treatment. 

Dr. S. Lilly, of Lambertville, details a case as follows : 

Case. — M. L. R., Esq., aged 52, rather delicate in form and constitution, has 
had partial paralysis of the right hand and right leg for some time. The affec- 
tion of the hand and arm he attributed to the duties of his calling, — bank 
officer,— calling his trouble " book-keeper's palsy." Some two weeks since, 
without any premonition, he was seized with hsBmoptysis of a severe charac- 
ter, for which he took a quantity of salt and water, with the effect of tempo- 
rarily arresting the discharge ; which, however, returned in a few hours with 
increased violence, when I was called to see him. I prescribed acet. plumb. 
g. v., pulv. opii gr. i, in pill every hour, until the bleeding is arrested, with 
cold drinks, free circulation of air, hot pediluvia, sinapisms to the feet, ankles, 
&c. ; with tinct. verat. viridse gtt.^^iv every four hours, until pulse is reduced 
in frequency. This treatment was faithfully persevered in for sixty hours, 
with the addition of tannic acid to the above named pills ; but without any 
benefit. The bleeding continued at intervals of four or six hours, with 


increased violence. On the third day of the attack, the prostration of the 
system was alarming in the extreme, — so much so that he was at one time 
thought to be in articulo mortia I was at his bedside at the time, and by 
dint of the active use of brandy, solution of morphia, ammonia carb., and 
other stimulants, he revived. I then abandoned the lead, tannin, verat. virid. 
and other astringents and sedative treatment, and gave the following: 
B. oil tcrcbin. gtt. 80, ferri sesqui chlorid. 3ii, glycerine S^h a^l^a fo^* ^' s. to 
make a mixture 5ii. S. teaspoonful every four hours, with a teaspoonful of 
morph. solution and a tablespoonful of brandy between each dose. The regi- 
men was to be continued the same as before. From that time forward he 
had little if any hemorrhage. His bowels, which had been confined by the 
astringents, were opened by stimulating enemata. And now, by the use of a 
generous diet, free circulation of air in his room, &c., he is going on to what 
seems to be a rapid convalescence. 

The principal point of interest to me in the case, is the 
immediate and marked relief from the hemorrhage by the use 
of the turpentine and iron, combined with the morphia, after 
the astringent course of treatment had so signally failed. My 
theory of the case is, that this was a passive hemorrhage, 
caused by relaxation of the coats of the blood-vessels of the 
lungs, together with an impoverished or thinned condition of 
the blood, thus permitting it to ooze from the vessels as milk 
passes through a strainer. The turpentine gave tone to the 
vessels, the morphia quieted the irritation, until the iron sup- 
plied the vital fluid with the necessary material to thicken it 
to a normal condition. 

Dr. C. W. Larison, of Ringoes, details four cases of Mem- 
branous Croup, treated with alcohol, as follows : 

Case I. — December 21st, 1870, 10 o'clock P. M., was called to see the son 
of W. B., a child about seven years old. I learned that the child had been 
complaining of Croup about twenty -four hours, and that the mother had 
been giving the usual family remedies, but with no apparent benefit. On 
examination, I found the pulse quick, nearly 100, skin hot and diy, and the 
fauces covered over in places with dii^htheritic membrane. The breathing was 
difficult, and at times the patient was excessively restless. The case seemed 


to me to demand tonics ; and, accordinglj, I advised tr. feni. chl< 
chlorate of potassa. On tlie 22d, 1 saw the child. It was not 30 wt 
membrane was thicker and more diffused, wliile tlie respiration \ 
difficult I advised qninia to lie added to the altovc named remed 
nutritious diet. On tlie following morning was sent for before < 
The messenger stated that the cliild was choking fearfully. Espccl 
the only thing that could be done at this late hour would be to 
tracheotomy, I took with me the necessary instruments for perforn 
operation, and Dr. A. B. Larison to ns^t me. But on examine 
found that the membrane had extended down into the ramificatioi 
bronchia, on the loft side, and concluded that an operation wouk 
advisable. Eipectiog that the patient would live but a few Ik 
brother, Dr, A. B. L., suggested that we give him, in addition to tl 
named rcmediee, soom whiskey. Afier reflecting a moment on hi£ 
tion, I replied, " philosophically, it is just the thing; but I do not 
can do much good in this ca-ie." He remarked that if we give i1 
doses, it will at least relieve the patient of considerable suffering. 
concluded to give the boy one-half ounce of whiskey every twenty 
until he had taken three doses; ailer this quantity had been taken 
advised to take one-half ounce every half hour till I should see him. 
five hours afterwards I called, and was sui'prised to find the 
alive. The nurses told me that after be had taken the third dose, 1 
to grow more quiet, and that his breathing began to improve. 
learned that they had ^ven the whiskey reguUrly for the precet 
hours, I expected to find the lad dead drunk ; hut in this wiia disaf 
I found his skin relaxed — sweating profusely — pulse fuller— rcspirn 
_quite so labored. I advised that the whiskey should now be given 
ounce every hour, and that the other remedies should be continued 
directed. The breath was now well charged with the odor of alcol 
hours later, I found the patient sweating profusely; respiratio 
improved ; pulse full and quick. On examination, I found the m 
'was loosening and exfoliating in places. Its appearance was lig 
more friable than it was eleven hours before. We advised a contiui 
the treatment 

Nejtt morning I found the patient improving. I advised the wl: 
be given every one and a half hours. In the evening found tht 
improving, I advised the whiskey every two hours. On the f 
morning we found the patient convalescing. No traces of the » 
could DOW be seen in the fauces ; the breathing was almost natural, 


patient coughed at times very severely. No change in the treatment. In 
ihe evening I found the patient convalescing, I now advised one-half ounce 
of whiskey every three hours, which was continued the following day. As 
the patient was now doing well, the tr. fer. chlorid. and potas. chloras con- 
stituted the treatment. The patient now enjoys good health. 

Case n.— June 80th, 1870, 2 o'clock, A. M., I was called to see the son of 
I. A. H., aged two years and seven months. I learned that the child had been 
laboring under croup for about twenty-five hours. The father, thinking 
liimself competent to manage such cases, had given the child some blue mass, 
he said ; and had also been giving syrup of ipecac, lobelia, vin. antimony, 
alum, &c., &c., till the patient had been vomiting tremendously, and purged 
not a little. On examination, I found the fauces coated with a deposit of 
lymph, rapidly organizing. The respiration was very labored, the child 
lying upon its side, with its head and shoulders curved back, eyes glaring, 
and the whole countenance showing that the child was on the verge of suffo- 
cating. Occasionally the child would seize its throat with both hands, as if 
it wished to tear it open ; again, it would thrust its little hands into its 
mouth, as if by this means it might force an ingress of air. But all to no 
purpose. I adviiicd the tr. fcrri. chloras, ten drops every two hours ; whiskey 
one-half ounce every half hour. This we continued till 5 o'clock, A, M., 
when the child began to perspire very freely, and breathe with more ease. 
The whiskey was now given every hour; tr, iron was to be continued the 
same as before. At 5 P. M., I found the membrane had begun to exfoliate, 
and the patient seemed to be convalescing. Treatment continued without 
alteration. Next morning I found the child still convalescing ; fauces tender 
and very red; breathing almost natural, but coughing considerable, with^ 
slight expectoration. From this time on the patient rapidly convalesced, and 
is now in good health. 

Cask in.— On the 10th day of June, 1870, 1 was called to advise for the 
daughter of T. C. S., a child about one year and eight months old, I learned 
that the child had had a croupy cough about twenty hours ; but as yet had 
not become very alarming. But as they had lost a child with Membranous 
Croup about fourteen months before, they felt somewhat anxious. On 
examination, I found the deposit of lymph scattered here and there over 
the fauces and on the tonsils. The pulse was quick, and the skin dry and 
hot. I advised tr. ferri. chlorid. and potas. chloras. In the morning of the 
11th, found the child not so well; breathing was worse, more fever, and the 


pulse quicker. I now advised 3ii whiskey every half hour, in addition to 
the above remedies. In the evening found the child with relaxed skin, and 
respiring more easily. The deposit in the fauces was growing lighter, and 
seemed in places to be exfoliating. I continued the whiskey as above 
directed. In the morning the patient seemed to be convalescing. The skin 
was moist ; the pulse fuller, and not so quick ; and but few traces of the 


membrane was to be seen in the fauces. There was now considerable cough, 
with slight expectoration. Continued the above treatment, and advised a 
generous diet. In the evening found the child convalescing, but coughing 
more than seemed pleasant. I now advised 3i of whiskey every hour. Other 
remedies the same. . In the morning of the 18th found the child convales- 
cing, and ordered 3»i whiskey to be given every two hours, and the potas. 
chloras. to be withdrawn. In the evening found the child convalescing. 
Continued the treatment. On the 14th advised the whiskey and iron to be 
given every three hours. 15th, child convalescing. Withdrew the whiskey 
— continued the iron until the^child was considered out of danger. 

Case IV. — ^November 4th, 1870, 4 o'clock, A. M., was called to see the son 
of R. H., a child aged fourteen months. I learned that the child had com- 
menced with symptoms of croup on the morning of the previous day, and 
that the mother had been giving some domestic remedies, but that the child 
had been steadily growing worse. I found, on examination, the skin dry 
and hot, the pulse over 100, the tongue furred, respiration frequent and 
labored, and the fauces covered in places with diphtheritic membrane. 

I advised tr. ferri. chlorid. gtt. iv. every four hours, and whiskey 3iss. every 
twenty minutes, until the respirations should become less frequent and less 
labored ; after which, ^i every hour. In the after part of the day, I found 
the child sweating profusely ; the respirations less labored ; pulse quick, but 
less frequent; the breath well charged with the odor of alcohol, and the 
flake in the fauces assuming somewhat a curdy appearance. The nurse 
informed me that she had given the whiskey every twenty minutes for two 
hours ; after which, every hT)ur. I advised a continuation of the treatment. 
On the following morning saw the child. Pulse rather less frequent ; per- 
spiration free ; respiration improving, and the deposit in the fauces exfoliat- 
ing. Advised a continuation of the iron as before ; but the whiskey to be 
given 3i every two hours. In the evening I saw the patient. Symptoms 
seemed to be ameliorating. Advised a continuation of the remedies as 
before directed. On the following morning I found the patient with symp- 


toins less favorable ; pulse quicker ; skin dry ; respirations more diflScult, and 
a renewal of the deposit in the fauces. On inquiry, I learned tliat the patient 
was inclined to be quiet, and that the nurse had neglected to give the whis- 
key for about ten hours, and that for the last two hours it had been rapidly 
growing worse. I now advised the whiskey to be given in 3ii doses every 
twenty minutes, until perspiration should supervene, and the breathing 
become less labored ; after which time the whiskey should be given 3i every 
half hour till I saw it. At evening I found the skin relaxed, the pulse less 
frequent and softer, respiration easier, and the flake in the fauces becoming 
more curdy and friable. I now advised whiskey to be given 3i every hour 
until I should see it again. About twelve hours later I found the patient, as 
I thought, better. I now advised the whiskey 3i every two hours. Saw the 
patient in the^evening; seemed to be convalescing. The following morning 
found the patient convalescing ; advised 5i whiskey every four hours. The 
following day found the patient doing well, and advised Z\ of the whiskey 
every four hours. This was continued two days, when the patient was dis- 
charged. It now enjoys good health. I should not omit to say that Dr. C. 
M. Lee attended the patient in connection with me, and will bear testimony 
to the apparent beneficial effects of alcohol in this case. 

Besides the above cases, I have treated five other cases in a similar manner, 
and with like results. I now have so much faith in the alcoholic treatment 
of Membranous Croup, that I rely more upon it than upon any other thera- 
peutic agent. 

I am inclined to look upon it as the rational or philosophic 
course. We all know that when the system is thoroughly 
charged with alcohol, the mucous membrane of the air- 
passages is called into requisition in eliminating it. In this 
process of elimination, the alcohol it seems to me, acts first as 
an astringent upon the tissues of the membrane, — causing the 
membrane to be toned up to the highest pitch, as it were, and 
thereby prevents the exuding of the plastic material of which 
the false membrane is formed ; — and in the second place, as 
the alcohol is eliminated, it is brought in contact with the 
under surface of the false membrane, which is thereby pre- 


vented from organizing, by the coagulation of its lymph — ren- 
dered pliable, and compelled to exfoliate. 

All the patients of this ailment that I have treated with 
alcohol, have been troubled with a great deal of cough, from 
the exfoliation of the membrane, till they had entirely rccovy 
ered ; but the cough has been attended with very little expec- 

Dr. S. Lilly, of the division of Surgery, reports as follows : 
" As chairman of the section on Surgery, I have to report 
that I have received an interestinsr communication from Dr. 
Abel, of Quakertown, containing a report of two surgical 
cases. One, a case of ruptuie of the bladder in a man over 
ninety years of age, caused by a fall from the hay loft, striking 
the abdomen across a manger. The urine passed per rectum 
for some time, thus showing a connection between the two, 
caused by the fall. Perfect rest, with anodynes, sufficed to 
eftect a cure; although most of the urine passed per rectum 
for a number of months. The other is a case of punctured 
wound of the knee-joint, in a lad twelve years of age, caused 
by a fall from a load of hay, upon the tine of a pitchfork. It 
was treated by perfect rest, in a straight position, cold water 
to the joint, bowels kept free, — followed by passive motion of 
the joint as soon as deemed safe. The recovery Was perfect 
in three weeks, with full use of the joint." 

Dr. O. H. Sproul, of Stockton, writes: "I wish to report 
two cases of surgical interest, — both luxations. The first, a 
case of dislocation of the left femur on the dorsum illii, 
occurred July 11th, 1870, — the result of a railway accident. 
Dr. T. H. Studdiford, of Lambertville, saw tlje case with me, 
within a few hours from the time of injury. The patient was 
put under the influence of chloroform and ether, and we 
endeavored to reduce by the usual method. After using all 


the force we thought advisable by the extension method, and 
failing to bring the bone down to its place, we resorted to the 
method of Reid, or that of manipulation ; and we were entirely 
successful after the second attempt, the head of the femur 
gliding into its cavity with an audible snap. The patient 
made a very good recovery. 

Case 2d was also a luxation, but of the right humerus into 
the axilla, — the result of a bank of earth falling on the subject 
of it while the arm was extended to its full extent. Patient 
was put under ether, and the dislocation was promptly reduced 
by manipulation. This was followed by a good and prompt 

C. W. LAKISON, Beporter, 
RiKOOBS, April 29th, 1871. 


Chairman of Standing Commiiiee .- 

The District Medical Society for the county of Mercer is in 
a prosperous condition. Meetings are held monthly, which 
are well attended, and at which one or mose papers are read ; 
discussions are held, and the proceedings are of decided 
interest to^the members. 

The health of the community within the limits of this 
district has been generally good. Scarlet fever has prevailed 
in some portions of the district. So far as I can learn, it first 
made its appearance, after a long absence, in July, 1869, in a 
German family living^ in the township of Lawrence, about 
three miles from Trenton. Six children in this family were 
attacked, of whom three died; one early in the attack from 
the malignancy of the disease, and two at a later period, 
exhausted by the amount of suppuration of the parts about 
the throat. From this time occasional cases occurred, until 


daring the latter part of last autumn it may be said to have 
become epidemic in the city of Trenton and its suburbs. A 
large number of cases occurred daring the winter, and the 
disease has not yet taken its departure from our midst. For- 
tunately, it has not been a severe epidemic, there having been 
but a few malignant cases. I have nothing special to note in 
the way of treatment. Early use was generally made of 
stimulants and tonics, and good nourishment was exhibited. 
Purgatives were avoided, and only mild laxatives were used 
when there was any indication for procuring action on the 
bowels. Tour Reporter met with one fatal case, which he 
believes exhibited clearly the unfortunate effect of the use of 
remedies which have a tendency to produce gastro-intestinal 
irritation. A child, twelve years of age, was taken with the 
initial symptoms of Scarlet Fever, whereupon a physician 
was consulted, who gave some doses of calomel which decid- 
edly and seriously aggravated the gastro-intestinal irritation, 
and upon the following day the patient was found in a sad 
condition ; the eruption appearing in livid patches. No treat- 
ment that could be instituted proved of any avail ; the pa- 
tient was constantly delirious, and died comatose on the 
third day. 

Diphtheria^ which prevailed in Trenton and vicinity during 
the autumn and early winter, made its first appearance in the 
latter part of August, so far as can be ascertained. From 
that time onward for a few weeks there were occasional cases 
occurring, until finally it assumed the proportions of an 
epidemic. I note nothing peculiar in the cases or their treat- 
ment. In the month of September the disease appeared in 
a serious form, at Dutch IJeck in West Windsor township, and 
was exceedingly fatal. Its appearance had been almost imme- 
diately preceded by a disease among the poultry, which had 
been wonderfully fatal. Dr. Deshler of Hightstown, who 


saw somo of the cases, says : " The visitation continued about 
three weeks. The country is level, comparatively free from 
marshes and undrained land ; the soil under constant cultiva- 
tion, and the community one of the richest in the State, 
possessing all the characteristics of a healthy rural district. 
The epidemic was limited in extent to an area of one mile by 
three." Some forty cases occurred. They were nearly all 
fatal, as many as five deaths occurring in one family. " Death 
from asphyxia taking place in from three days to two weeks 
after the beginning of the attack. The prominent constitu- 
tional symptoms were fever at first, followed by great depres- 
sion of vital force, rapid disintegration of the blood corpuscles, 
and albumen in the urine. The exudation in the throat 
was dark ash-colored, putrid, tumefied, and bleeding on the 
slightest touch. The treatment indicated as most efficacious 
was quinia, iron, chlorine, with nutritious diet and stimu- 
lants. Locally to the throat, ferru. alum, tine, ferri chloridi, 
or liq. hydrarg. nitrat." I have no report of the prevalence 
of the disease in other portions of the district. 

There is a locality in Trenton, situated near the junction 
of the Canal and Feeder, familiarly known as the Swamp, 
which is inhabited principally by negroes. The ground is 
some six feet below the level of the canal, is naturally 
swampy, and is illy drained. During the months of July 
and August last there prevailed among the denizens of this 
locality a fatal disease, which gave rise at the time to con- 
siderable alarm and discussion. Some twenty negroes were 
attacked and died. The cases were nearly all fatal, some 
dying as early as the second day. The disease was undoubt- 
edly a malignant malarial fever — a few cases assumed the 
hemorrhagic type, bleeding profusely from the mucous mem- 
branes. One case, known to have recovered, died recently of 
consumption* The white people living in the vicinity were 


not attacked by the disease. After proper drainage and 
" policing " of the malarious district, the disease abated. 

The cases of Pneumonia observed by your Reporter and 
others during the winter were of a decidedly adynamic char- 
acter, requiring early stimulation and support. Venesection 
was not practised ; in fact, I think the lancet is but seldom 
used amongst us. Dr. C. Shepherd informs me that he 
recently had occasion to use it in two cases of convulsions 
occurring in cases of dropsy following Scarlet Fever, and with 
excellent results. The convulsions were not only relieved, but 
the congestion of the kidneys likewise, and the effusion then 
responded promptly to. the remedies exhibited. 

By Dr. J. L. Bodine I have been furnished with some 
information concerning the health of the New Jersey State 
Prison during the past year. In an average population of 
six hundred, there has been no epidemic nor any large amount 
of sickness. In the spring of 1870 several cases of Acute 
Tonsilitis were under treatment, and a few cases of Diph- 
theria sore throat. Rheumatism prevails throughout the 
year, but usually in a mild form. In a general way, a person 
who has an attack of sickness in the Prison is very slow in 
recovering. Restorative treatment is usually demanded. 
Four negroes died during the year from consumption. Two 
of these were cases of chronic consumption ; two of acute 
typhoid consumption, running their course in leas than two 
weeks. One negro died of congestion of the brain. Three 
white men died during the year of disease of the throat. One 
man who had chronic laryngitis, with fatty liver and kidneys, 
died of rupture of the heart, evidently caused by a severe fit 
of coughing. There was advanced fatty degeneration of the 
muscular tissue of the heart. The left auricle was the seat 
of rupture. Another man died of chronic Pericarditis with 
effusion. There was a pint of fluid in the pericardial cavity. 


The fluid was etraw-colored, with flakes of lymph floating 
through it. Both layers of the pericardium were much thick- 
ened. The pericarditis was owing to the venereal poison. 
He had been treated for Syphilitic Rupia three or four years 
before his death, and cardiac symptoms had supervened — ^they 
were never urgent. His death was sudden. A third case 
had a history of rheumatic fever in early life for several suc- 
cessive winters. The heart was involved in several of these 
attacks. He had complete obliteration of the pericardial 
cavity, hypertrophy with dilatation and insufficiency of both 
mitral and aortic valves. Both sets of valves were thickened, 
and two of the semilunar folds constituting the aortic valve, 
were adherent to and fused with one segment of the mitral 
valve. For several months past there has been considerable 
neuralgia among the convicts. Facial neuralgia with erup- 
tions of herpes have been observed in several cases. 

W. W. L. PHILLIPS, Bepart&r. 
Trenton, May, 1871. 

Chairman of Standing Committee .• 

The Reporter of Middlesex County Medical Society re- 
spectfully reports as follows : The professional status and 
esprit de corps has been well maintained ; the members of 
the Society have all shown a commendable zeal in the 
prosecution of professional labor. No serious breaches of 
professional courtesy have been brought before our official 
gatherings. In the county of Middlesex we boast of a Micro- 
scopical Society, made up mostly of members of the medical 
profession, and numbering among its active operators many 
of our County Society. 


The past year has been marked by no invasion of alarming 
epidemics. Certain localities have furnished cases of Typhoid 
Pever, which have evidently arisen from local causes, but 
betrayed no particular malignancy. During the winter 
months Scarlatina prevailed, but not in an epidemic form. 
The cases very generally presented that phase of the disease 
in which the poison attacked the kidney, as shown by the 
presence of blood corpuscles, renal epithelium, granules, and 
casts under the microscope, and, when chemically tested, 

In some cases secondary lesions of the nervous system 
appeared with varying results, the majority proving fatal. In 
two families, under the care' of the Reporter, this form of 
the affection was most marked. One family of four presented 
three cases of Albuminous Nephritis, with the microscopic 
appearances above named — all recovered. In the second 
fiamily four children were attacked. The cases were of the 
milder variety, save one in which the throat suffered much, 
the disease assuming a malignant form. Each case presented 
albumen in the urine, and in one the brain became so much 
involved from Uraemia that semi-coma and convulsive seizures 
were present for twenty-four hours. All the cases recovered. 

The treatment was largely directed to the elimination of 
nroea and the detection and relief of local lesions. Tour 
Reporter has also to record three cases of fracture of the 
neck of the thigh bone, one of them of the impacted variety, 
in a patient about 55 years old, and the other two in patients 
aged respectively 48 and 65 years. The patient (male) with 
impacted fracture moved about for some days, with support, 
before the impaction gave way, when increased shortening 
(about an inch and a quarter) was apparent. The case was 
under the care of Dr. Wyckoff of Princeton. 

The two other cases were females, the amount of shortening 


being half an incli. Eversion of the foot was present in each 
case. Crepitus was distinct in two cases, and not detected 
in the third. The amount of shortening in each case is at 
present less than one half inch. Osseous union has occurred 
with all. Two now walk without cane or othei; support, and 
limp but little. The last under treatment walks about with 
the assistance of a crutch, which will no doubt be soon laid 
aside. The Physostigma has been used in a case of Trismus 
Nascentium with marked amelioration of the spasms and 
improvement of the patient. The patient died just one 
month from its seizure. This untoward event may be per- 
haps explained by the fact of the patient having been without 
the remedy for forty-eight hours before death, it being impos- 
sible to obtain a re-supply. 

Drs. Treganowan, Pearce and Clark all report the occur- 
rence of Intermittent Fever in the vicinity of salt marshes. 

The general testimony from the physicians of the county 
indicates the necessity of increased care in the use of Chloro- 
form, and approves highly of the use of Bromide of Potas- 

Chloral has scarcely retained the high rank which it at first 

Mention may be made of three cases of pregnancy, accom- 
panied bj albuminuria. The first to demand attention was 
that of a young woman (22 years old) who was confined 
about two and one half years since, at which time she had 
twenty convulsions. Albumen was abundant and has existed 
ever since. She passed through her second confinement 
without convulsion. 

The second is that of a primapara who was largely oode- 
matous, albumen very abundant, confined about two weeks 
before full term, but no convulsion occurred ; had pain in 
the head, and great disturbance of the nervous system. 


The third— a primapara — albumen abundant, great gen- 
eral anasarca, confiped at term with twins — no convulsion. 
The treatment was directed to assist the elimination of urea, 
and relieve Hyperaemia of the Kidneys. Dry Cups, Gallic 
Acid, Citrate of Potash, and, especially Tartar Emetic and 
Liquor Ammonise Acetatis in combination were useful. 

HENRY R. BALDWIN, Itep<yrter, 
New Brunswick, May, 1871. 


Chairman, of Standing Commiitee, ^c, ; 

Throughout our County, so far as I can ascertain, the early 
months of the past year were remarkable for the slight amount 
of sickness which prevailed ; and in our immediate vicinity 
there seemed to be a peculiar immunity from the usual dis- 
eases incident to the Summer season, until about the first of 
August, when Diarrhoea, Dysentery, Cholera Infantum and 
Cholera Morbus suddenly appeared with unusual intensity. 

A number of cases of Cholera Infantum and simple irritat- 
ing Diarrhoea, in young children, were treated with the bro- 
mide of potassium; but in our hands it did ^lot seem to be of 
so much service as in similar cases of the preceding Summer. 
Several obstinate cases of Cholera Infantum were greatly 
benefited by pepsine, carbolic acid and bismuth, according 
to the formula recommended by Dr. Lehlbach, in the Trans, 
of the N. J. Medical Society for 1869. 

Cases of Cholera Morbus among adults were numerous, and 
the attacks severe, several deaths occurring in our community. 
All the cases which came under our observation were promptly 
relieved by the hypodermic injection of morphia, and the 
internal administration of chloroform, together with sina- 
pisms or turpentine stupes to the abdomen. 


During the Autumn, a few cases of Typhoid Fever made 
their appearance in our town. Of these, eight came under 
our charge, and two died, one on the ninth, (9th) the other on 
the twelfth (12th) day, death in both instances seeming to be 
due to the intensity of the disease. The treatment in all the 
cases was essentially the same, viz : the mineral acids, with 
quinine, turpentine stupes or hot fomentations to the abdo- 
men, and occasionally turpentine internally whenever there 
was much tympanites, and sponging the body with tepid 
water whenever there was much elevation of the tempera- 
ture. Diet confined to milk and beef essence. Stimulants 
were given when indicated by a feeble pulse. 

The first two months of Winter were marked by the usual 
diseases incident to the season, while in February, in our 
vicinity Rubeola made its appearance, and prevailed as an 
epidemic until the latter part of March ; all of the cases, so 
far as I can learn, being of an exceedingly mild type. A few 
cases of Scarlatina prevailed at the same time, but I heard 
of no deaths from it. 

Doctors A. B. Dayton (a Fellow of the State Society since 
1854), and John R. Conover, both members of our County 
Society, have died during the last year. 

I append some cases of interest which have come under my 
notice, with one by Dr. Vought. 

D. McLEAN FORMAN, Eeporter, 
Freehold, April, 1871. 

De. Forman's Cases. 

No. I. — Poisoning hy Strychnine, Treatment "by Opium, Chloroform and 

Hydrate of Chloral, 

Mrs. J., aged fifty years, had been suffering for several months from general 
debility, the result of a functional derangement of the organs of digestion, 
and had been taking as a tonic, iron, quinine and strychnine, (the latter in 



doses of gr. 1-82) for seyeral weeks. The quantity of sulphate of strychnine 
was gradually increased to gr. 1-16 at a dose, three tijnes a day, without pro- 
ducing any of its unpleasant eflFects, until the evening of September 24th, 
1870, the fourth day after the increase of the dose, when I was sunynoned in 
haste to her bedside, where I arrived in a few minutes, and found her pre- 
senting the following symptoms, which the nurse informed me made their 
appearance immediately after taking her evening dose of the medicine : 

There were violent tetanic spasms, affecting to a greater or less degree the 
whole body, but more especially the limbs and respiratory muscles,*the latter 
to such an extent that asphyxia was imminent. During the tetanic convul- 
sions, which occurred in rapid succession, the patient complained of intense 
pain in the legs, neck and lower portion of the spine ; during the intermis- 
sion, of stiffness of her muscles,* formication, and an inability to move her 
lower extremities. The surface of the body was cool, and covered with per- 
spiration; pulse eighty (80) and feeble. Intellect unimpaired; she dreads 
the recurrence of the convulsions, and worries on account of the paralysis 
in legs. 

At 7 P. M. ten minims of Magendie's solution of morphine were injected 
into her arm, and thirty drops of chloroform in an ounce of whiskey given 
by the mouth. 

7.80 P. M, Convulsive action is now confined mostly to the limbs, recurs 
at intervals of about three minutes, is not quite so violent as at first, and not 
so painful. Administered Mag. sol. morphia mx., and of whiskey ^ss. 

9.45 P. M, Surface warm ; pulse eighty and stronger ; pupils contracted 
to the size of a pin's head ; respiration normal, except when respiratory mus- 
cles are convulsed. There is constant twitching of the muscles of the limbs, 
and frequently of those of the body ; patient continually tossing her hands 
above her head ; has slept none, has no pain, is unable to move her legs, 
complains of a '^ distress'' over the sacrum and about the external organs of 
generation ; also, of stiffness and formication in various parts of her body, 
but more especially in her legs. About every three minutes the twitching of 
the muscles is exaggerated into a spasm of momentary duration. 

10 P. M. There is no change in her condition. Administered chloral 
hydratis gr. xx in syrup of tolu and water. 

10.15 P. M, There is less twitching of the muscles, and the intervals 
between the convulsions increased to about five minutes. Patient is a little 
more quiet, but does not sleep. 

10.45 P. M, Convulsions not quite so frequent; patient sleeps two or three 



minutes at a time between them, and is now able to move her legs a little. 
Administered chloral hydratis gr, xx. 

12 P. M, Patient went to sleep immediately after taking the second dose 
of chloral ; has awakened but twice during the past hour and a quarter, and 
then retching a little without vomiting, went directly to sleep again. There 
have been no more spasms, and the muscular twitching has almost ceased. 
During the remainder of the night the patient slept as quietly as in a natural 
sleep, and on the following day complained of nothing except a dizziness 
when she^ttempts to sit up, and a general " soreness " of nearly all her mus- 
cles, with a " great weakness " of her legs. The muscular soreness passed oflF 
in a few days, while it took two or three weeks for her to regain her usual 
strength in her lower extremities. 

During the past five years, while engaged both in hospital and private 
practice, the sulphate of strychnia has been a favorite remedy of mine where 
tonics of that nature are indicated, and I have repeatedly used it in doses 
ranging from gr. 1-32 to gr. 1-12 without having witnessed the physiological 
•effects of an over-dose ; but the experience in this case will lead me in the 
future to use it in smaller doses than has been my custom. 

The history of this case would lead us to infer that strychnia, (though 
given in solution), like digitatis and some other potent remedies, accumu- 
lates in the system, as it was not until the twelfth dose had been taken that 
it showed its marked physiological effects. Opium, chloroform and alcohol 
seemed in this case to exert some influence in counteracting these effects, but 
the rapid subsidence of the convulsive action and amelioration of the symp- 
toms of poisoning after the administration of the chloral hydrate, shows that 
the latter produces the same effect on man when suffering from the physio- 
logical effects of strychnia, as upon animals under the same influence ; thus 
confirming the results of experiments by physiologists, and proving it to be 
one of the best antidotes to strychnia that we possess. 

No. n. — Fracture ^ of ' Humerus^ at junction of lower and middle thirds. 
Delayed Union successfully treated hy " Hamilton's Method,'*'* 

H. 8., aged thirty-two years ; healthy. On the 14th of January, 1870, the 
patient's right arm was run over by a wagon, and the humerus fractured at 
the junction of the lower and middle third. The fracture was dressed on 
the same day by his attending surgeon, with a shoulder-cap extending as 
low as the elbow, but not supporting the forearm, and short coaptation splints 




on the inside, embracing the arm at the point of fracture. The forearm was 
supported in a sling. About a month after the injury, the splints were 
removed and not re-applied, the patient being told that '* the arm was all 
right." On the 8th of April, (nearly three months after the receipt of the 
fracture), being unable to use his arm, he applied to me for advice. 

Upon examining it, there was found a good deal of enlargement of the 
bone at the point of fracture, with a free motion of the fragments upon the 
application of a very little force. The arm was shortened a little by the 
over-lapping of the fragments, and surrounded by a sole-leather splint, which 
the patient himself had applied ; the forearm was carried in a sling. 

Believing with Dr. Hamilton (vide Hamilton on Fractures and Disloca- 
tions, third edition, page 238,) that delayed union, and in some cases non-union 
of these fractures, is due in many instances to the fact that the elbow joint, 
after the arm is carried in a sling for a few days, often becomes the seat of a 
temporary false anchylosis, and that where the forearm is not supported by 
an angular splint so as to prevent the movements of extension and flexion, 
these movements, instead of taking place in the joint which is temporarily 
falsely anchylosed, will produce a motion of the lower fragment at the point 
of fracture,! adopted the plan recommended by Dr. Hamilton, viz : extended 
the forearm upon the arm, and applied a long straight splint on the inner 
side of the arm, extending from near the axilla to the wrist, and in this man- 
ner made all motion in the arm take place at the shoulder joint instead of at 
the point of fracture. 

May 20«A, 1870. Patient returned to me to-day ; now nearly six weeks 
since I saw him. The treatment I advised has been carried out, and union 
has now taken place, though it is not yet firm. As the straight portion of 
the arm is inconvenient, I directed him to re-apply his leather splint, and 
carry his forearm in a sling. 

Jidy 1th, 1870. The patient again returned to-day. The union is now 
firm. Removed all dre^ng, and ordered gentle exercise. 

Case by Dr. John Vought. 

Ckympound Comminuted Fracture of the Femur communicating with the Knee 

Joint; successfully treated with Carbolic Acid. 

J. N , aged thirty years, by occupation a laborer on the railroad, a man 

in perfect health and of fine physique, on the night of October 4th, 1870, 
while engaged in coupling cars had his left thigh crushed between the 


" bumpers," producing a compound comminuted fracture of the lower end 
of the femur. The fracture was compound by two openings ; one on the 
inner aspect of the thigh, about four inches above the knee, and the other on 
outer aspect, about two inches above the joint. A finger introduced into 
lower opening could be pressed into the joint, and a very extensive commin- 
nution of the lower end of the femur detected ; the bone appearing to be 
literally crushed, a fragment the size of a quarter of a dollar being entirely 
detached, so that it was removed at the time of examination. The shock 
attending the injury was very slight. 

On the morning following the injury, Drs. Goodenough, Qall and Forman 
having seen the case in consultation, it was determined to try to save the limb 
by Mr. Lister's treatment by carbolic acid. Accordingly the wounds were 
washed out by a solution of the acid, and dressed with the " carbolic putty," 
the limb being placed in a fracture box, and its position maintained by pack- 
ing it in bran. 

For the first ten days there was slight febrile action, but the pulse did 
not rise above one hundred to the minute, and the discharge from the 
wounds was mostly of a serous character and small in quantity. After the 
first week, the dressing of putty was changed to a dressing of picked lint, 
saturated several times a day with a solution of the carbolic acid in linseed 
oil (gr. V. ad 3i.) After the first two weeks all constitutional symptoms sub- 
sided, the local treatment remaining the same, and the progress of the case 
was unmarked by any untoward event. 

At the end of two months, union was sufficiently firm to remove the limb 
from the fracture box, and a few weeks afterwards the patient commenced 
to walk with crutches. 

At the present time, (six months after the injury), the patient walks with 
the aid of a cane only, and has good motion in the knee joint. The original 
wounds which rendered the fracture compound still remain open, as small 
sinuses, through which a number of small pieces of necrosed bone have been 
extruded, while others can still be felt in their track. For valuable assist- 
ance in the treatment of the case, I am indebted to Drs. Goodenough and 



Chairnum of Standing Committee : 

The past year has been- marked by a prevalence of several 
epidemics throughout our county. Pertussis was everywhere 
rife ; one case is reported in which capillary bronchitis super- 
vened, and terminated fatally. Various methods of treatment 
were adopted by different practitioners ; belladonna was 
highly extolled ; vaccination (where the subject had not been 
vaccinated previously) was regarded as a specific — " if it 
took;" and in several cases where the opportunity was 
afforded, your Reporter tested its efficacy, with the result in 
one case of complete success ; the kinks diminishing in fre- 
quency and violence as the pustules developed, and ceased 
entirely with the completion of the vaccine disease. Two 
others were temporarily relieved. 

The bromides appear, by the mass of testimony in their 
favor, to afford the best results in the treatment of Pertussis. 
Parotitis prevailed extensively. In one case, an adult, metas- 
tatis to the testicle occurred. The affection yielded to appro- 
priate treatment. Very few of the others required any active 
medical interference. 

One case of Small-pox, resulting fatally, occurred at Mill- 
stone ; the patient, aged three years, had never been vaccin- 
ated ; was supposed to have contracted the disease while on a 
visit at the city. Subsequently, several others in the family, 
or among the attendants, who had been vaccinated, were 
attacked with varioloid. The appearance of the disease 
created no little alarm throughout the county. Rubeola and 
Scarlatina have not extensively prevailed ; not a single case 
of either having occurred in my practice during the past 
year. Although the weather this Spring has been decidedly 
humidy the season was remarkably healthy. 


Our Society is in a prosperous condition ; good feeling pre- 
vails among the members, and the meetings are well attended, 
with evident pleasure and profit. 

I enclose a detailed report of cases by Dr. Jas. S. Knox, of 

J. F. BERG, Beporter. 
North Branch, Sth May, 1871. 

Dr. Knox's Cases. 

Having frequently observed the intractability of Dyspepsia, so-called, under 
approved methods of treatment, its sudden appearance and disappearance 
without known cause, and the entire absence of gastric organic lesion in two 
or three post-mortem examinations, I was led to sex^arate certain cases, as 
bemg simple gastric nervous irritability. Seven cases were so treated, with 
the following results : 

Case I. — Mr. K., aged 35 ; married ; pale and delicate-looking from close 
confinement in a store ; not subject to neuralgia ; has suffered for six weeks 
with severe irregular pains and sense of heaviness in epigastrium, aggravated 
by mental anxiety, fatigue, and hot and cold drinks ; digestion not impaired, 
and bowels regular ; has taken cathartics, and been treated for dyspepsia 
without benefit. 

Prescribed Fowler's solution, m. 3, in water, after each meal. Completely 
relieved in twenty-fours, with no return six months afterward. 

Case II. — Mr. S., aged 50; farmer; looks haggard, emaciated, and irri- 
table; not subject to neuralgia; for fifteen years has suffered irregularly 
from dyspepsia ; lately pain in epigastrium has become persistent ; any intro- 
duction of food or liquid provoking vomiting. 

Saw patient in consultation. Prescribed Fowler's solution, m. 6, after 
each meal, with sub-nitrate of Bismuth before eating. Relieved in forty- 
eight hours. Subsequently became entirely well under citrate of Iron, 
Quinia, and Strychnia. 

Case ni. — Miss W., aged 16; well nourished, but nervous and excitable ; 
has for past six weeks been under treatment for double strabismus, and was 
operated upon without any anaesthetic ; now suffers from anorexia, uneasy 


and painful sensations in epigastriun), and frequent headache ; has been 
treated for dyspepsia. 

Prescribed Fowler's solution, 3 m., after meals. Relief in forty -eight 
hours. Subsequently entirely cured by Citrate of Iron, Quiniae, and 

Case IV. — Miss A.., aged 13 ; is pale, anaimic, and nervous ; suffers from 
menorrhagia and dysraenorrhagia ; for the past six months has complained 
of anorexia, with pain and weight in epigastrium, irregular, and not in- 
fluenced by injestion of food. 

Prescribed Fowler's solution, m. 3, every four hours. Relief experienced 
promptly, with no return. 

Case V.— Miss B., aged 3U; seamstress; healthy-looking; for one year 
has suffered irregularly from loss of appetite, pain in epigastrium, indiges- 
tion and irregularity of bowels. 

Prescribed out-door exercise, and a pill containing calomel, nux-vomic a 
and aloes, to be taken each night at bed-time. Bowels regulated and appe- 
tite better, but dyspepsia not relieved. Prescribed Fowler's solution, 3 m., 
a^r meals. In a day or two all pain had disappeared, and six weeks after- 
ward was still well. 

Case VI. — Mrs. C, aged 24: pale and anasmic; suffers from neuralgia, 
dysmenorrhoea and menorrhagia ; for six days has suffered intense pain in 
epigastrium, and hyperrosthesis of whole abdomen. Bowels obstinately 
constipated, pulse irritable, with hectic fever ; has been treated for inflam- 
mation of the bowels. The neuralgia was promptly relieved by Fowler's 
solution, 5 m., every four hours. Subsequent treatment, tonics and generous 

Case VII. — Mr. A., aged about 49 ; spare, active man, in fair health ; has 
been troubled for years with dyspepsia, irregularly ; has tried many reputed 
remedies without avail. 

Prescribed Fowler's solution as above, alternating with Bismuth, as in 
case 2. Was at first relieved, but at the end of a week relapsed. Have not 
since heard from him. 




Chairman of Standing Committee^ ^c, ; 

To aid me in preparing the medical history of this district 
for the past year, I have sent to each member of our Society 
a circular letter, making general inquiries in regard to the 
amount, class, and type of disease, as it had prevailed in 
their practice. Most of these have been filled up and re- 
turned, but I am unable to glean from them anything of 
special interest to the profession. The ordinary diseases of 
the diflferent seasons have prevailed and been treated with 
the usual remedies. Throughout the district the amount of 
sickness has not only been less than usual, but in every section 
the existing diseases have been mild. 

There has been much less Typhoid Fever than usual^ while 
Intermittents and Remittents have been everywhere more 
common. The two latter have been noticed more particularly 
in the practice of those living along the route of the Midland 
Railroad, which is being built through the county, and is 
probably due to the turning up of the soil in low and wet 

Scarlet Fever, of a very mild character, has prevailed dur- 
ing the entire year in some portions of the district. During 
the spring months I have heard of an epidemic in our own 
town, characterized by the usual symptoms of Scarlet Fever, 
but not accompanied with an eruption. I have not met these 
cases in my own practice, and have not obtained an accurate 
description of them. Measles has existed to a limited extent 
in two isolated districts. 

Diphtheria, of a mild character, has been met with at Deck- 
ertown. One case in my own practice was treated with the 
permanganate of potash, the effect of which is very satisfac- 


I have met with a few cases of Whooping-cough, none of 
which have required anything more active than the ordinary 
cochineal mixture to render their course mild and the result 
favorable. This has been my favorite remedy, notwithstand- 
ing I was favorably impressed, while connected with the 
Nursery Hospital of New York, with the use of belladonna, 
in large doses, combined with the sulphate of zinc. In severe 
cases I should resort to this combination with full confidence 
of alleviating a majority of them, and of entirely arresting a 

Contrary to my expectations, disorders of the bowels were 
not more frequent than usual after the long-continued high 
temperature of the summer. In my own practice, derange- 
ments of the stomach and liver, followed by intermittent 
hemicrania, seemed to be the only result of the prostrating 

Dysentery has been less frequent, and very mild, and has 
occurred principally in those sections where intermittents and 
remittents have existed in an endemic form. 

As far as I can learn, Entero-Colitis or Inflammatory Diar- 
rhoea, among children, has not prevailed to its usual extent. 
This is one of the most important diseases of young children 
in this section, and constitutes a large majority of the cases 
generally called cholera infantum. In my own experience, 
many of these cases, in a chronic form, terminate unfavora- 
bly, from our inability to impress upon those having the care 
of these little patients, the importance of proper hygienic and 
dietary regulations. As physicians, we do not exert the 
influence we might wield, if we would act in concert in 
condemning the too common custom of over-feeding or of 
burdening the stomachs of infants with an unsuitable diet. 
Children that are fed on a diet composed principally of 
farinaceous articles, and are allowed to taste of every article 


prepared for adults, seldom escape bowel complaints during 
the summer heat, and a proportiou of them end in this serious 
disease. This custom, to a great extent, is followed through 
ignorance of its bad eftects, and it becomes our duty to explain 
the danger of such a course. Other matters, equally import- 
ant, are worthy of our attention in this direction. I refer to 
these matters in the belief that we are apt to rely too much 
on therapeutic measures, to the neglect of prophylaxis, and 
do not sufficiently impress parents with its importance, to 
prevent a return of the disease after it is once abated. In 
regard to medicinal treatment, it is safe to say, that very many 
cases yield to a very simple course, if exciting causes be re- 
moved. At the beginning of the attack, if I have any reason 
to think the bowels are offended by any undigested food, I 
remove it with a small dose of castor-oil or spiced syrup of rhu- 
barb, with a drop or part of a drop of laudanum. In those cases 
which begin with great irritability of the stomach, I find it 
most easily allayed with very minute does of calomel and 
opium, in connection with teaspoonful doses of the neutral 
mixture, at the same time withholding, for twelve hours if 
necessary, all diet and drink. K further treatment be re- 
quired, I use powders of prepared chalk with minute doses 
of calomel, opium and ipecac, with occasional resort to the 
well-known oleaginous mixture of Dr. West. Notwithstand- 
ing the opposition to mercurials made by many city practi- 
tioners, I am convinced by my own observation in this section 
that no other course will answer the purpose as well in this 
stage. Should the case become chronic, I generally resort to 
astringents, and occasionally to stimulants, to ward off the 
supervention of cephalic symptoms. 

On the last day of March, 1870, 1 was called to an interest- 
ing case of ophthalmic disease, the history of which, in brief, is 
as follows : In the month of August, 1869, while in the woods 

■^ r-S^ir. CM 




hunting, the patient observed a dimness of sight in the left ^ 

eye, which rapidly increased, until at the end of two weeks ' 

vision was entirely gone. His physician was unable to detect ^ 

any cause for the loss of sight, and supposed it was due to ] 

paralysis of the optic nerve. The patient complained of no '■ 

pain until the early part of December, at which time he was 
treated for sclerotitis, but obtained only partial relief from the 
severe pain. After many weeks he became dissatisfied, and 
abandoned treatment. Continuing to suffer, he sought relief 
from another physician, who attended for three weeks with- 
out benefit. I saw him March 31, and found him suffering 
the severest pain in the diseased eye, with the pupil closed, as 
the result of internal inflammation, and a staphyloma of the 
sclera. The right eye was affected with sympathetic inflam- 
mation, and very intolerant to light. I was enabled to arrest 
the sympathetic disease, and with large doses of opium 
to moderate the pain, so that the patient was able to attend 
to his business affairs for some time afterward, and only com- 
plained of a dull pain in the left eye. I had advised removal 
of that eye as the only means of saving the right one, and in 
June, after an increase of the pain, I urged the necessity of 
enucleation, and for this purpose accompanied him to New 
York to consult Dr. C. R. Agnew. He advised the operation, 
and it was performed the following day (June 21st), by Dr. 
E. G. Loring. The globe was removed with great diflSculty, 
on account of adhesions to the tissues of the orbit, and, upon 
examination, it presented an internal sarcomatous tumor. 
The sympathetic affection of the right eye was at once relieved, 
and the patient continues well. 





Chmrman of Standing Committee .• 

We have had a visitation of Small Pox of a mild character, 
which, having been promptly taken in hand by our municipal 
authorities, caused but one death in this city. 

In regard to the correctness of the statements of Dr. Price, 
of Burlington county, I do not hesitate to say that I coincide 
with him in the opinions he expressed concerning the influ- 
ence of salt marshes. More than thirty years since, my atten- 
tion was specially attracted to the causes of Intermittents, &c., 
then quite prevalent in this vicinity, and I am quite sure that 
the removal of forest trees, and the upturning of soil pre- 
viously uncultivated, was the most prolific source of the mias- 
matic troubles which then afflicted this portion of the State. 
Our immigration was then almost entirely from Ireland, and 
those who settled among us seemed to be peculiarly suscepti- 
ble of miasmatic influences. They would erect their humble 
dwellings in the localities niost convenient for their avocations, 
often, perhaps generally, upon lands either wholly or partially 
cleared, frequently covered with growing underbrush, which 
they removed only as they needed the ground for tillage. 
The result, was, as I have stated ; but so far as the immediate 
vicinity of our true salt marshes, known as the " Newark and 
Elizabeth great meadows," is concerned, I have always 
doubted their production of the deleterious effects so often 
charged against them. 

W. N. WHITEHEAD, Beparter. 
Elizabeth, May 10th, 1871. 

Chairman of Standing Committee .- 

The chief epidemic of last summer in this County was one 
of mixed Intermittent, Remittent and Bilious Fevers, which 


prevailed at the village of Hope and vicinity, from July to 
November, 1870. Dr. Hulshizer informs me that every fam- 
ily had cases, and that 270 persons of a population of 800 
were subjects of some form of fever. The village itself has 
an elevated site, with good drainage in every direction, but 
this position is surrounded on nearly every side by extensive 
meadows, some cultivated, but others of native swamp, their 
perfect drainage being hindered by a mill-dam. This being 
a fixed condition, and there having been almost total exemp- 
tion from these fevers for many years, speculation was rife as 
to the additional cause. This, in the popular idea, consisted in 
the raising of the mill-dam to the extent of six inches, thus 
flooding a more extensive surface. The profuse warm rains 
of the early season made an exuberant vegetation, which de- 
cayed rapidly. The opportunity to observe the presence of 
microscopic vegetable growth was not used, but a time to test 
the new theory as to cause of intermittents could not well 
have been more favorable. The .epidemic was successfully 
treated by those in charge, the only grave cases being those 
in which the type was gastric, with thinning of mucus mem- 
brane of stomach. Tour Reporter, from personal observation, 
records a confirmation of an opinion formed fifteen years 
since, that after an extensive prevalence of Intermittent in 
autumn. Pneumonia, or Intermittent fever with pneumonic 
complication, will be unusually frequent from February to 
May of the ensuing year. Another, that an epidemic gastric 
fever, by the manifest disabling of digestive power, is followed 
by an increased number of cases of Phthisis, proving itself 
an agent to be dreaded where tubercular diathesis exists. 

Scarlet Fever has been the epidemic of the Valley of the 
Paulins Kiln from January until May of this year. The type 
has been severe. Many adults were affected. The throat 
affection was common, but not often fatal. The greatest 


danger has been either from the acute suppression of the 
urinary secretion in the first stage, producing death by coma, 
or from the poisoning from acute albuminuria, occurring with 
secondary symptoms. 

My purpose to dilate on points of treatment cannot now be 
ca.ried out. I append notes of cases by Dr. Jno. S. Cooke. 

J. C. JOHNSON, Beporter. 

Cases by Jno. S. Cook, M. D. 

I. — Traumatic Tetanus. 

1870. Feb. 5th.— Was called to see G. S., son of Hon. P. Smith, of Water- 
loo, Sussex County, about seven miles distant. I found a young man, about 
nineteen years of age, of a nervo-sanguine temperament, who had developed 
young and had been remarkably strong and healthy. lie was suffering little 
inconvenience from a lacerated wound of the middle third of deltoid mus- 
cle, about one inch wide and two and a half in length, confined to the cel- 
lular tissue, and not penetrating the muscular fibre. I ordered a solution 
of carbolic acid to the wound. Saw him again on the 7th ; continued the 
acid solution, and left him, not expecting to see him again. 

Feb. 11th. — Received a summons to visit him again — "that there was 
proud flesh in the wound," and he was not doing well. Found him com- 
fortable, suffering no pain — no fever— wound healthy in appearance. 
Changed the dressing to bread poultice, and gave a cathartic, as the bowels 
were torpid. The appetite was natural. 

Feb. 14th. — Wound healthy in appearance; granulations springing up. 
Cauterized slightly with nitrate silver ; no fever, etc. ; continued poultice. 

Feb. 17th. — Removed slough from wound ; found a slight febrile excite- 
ment ; gave a cathartic, and left a solution of morphia to quiet restlessness 
which had shown itself the night before. » He had been walking around, and 
supposed he had taken cold. Saw no symptoms to excite a suspicion of any 
extraordinary complication. Dressed the wound by supporting edges with 
strips of adhesive plaster, and with resin cerate. 

Feb. 19th. — Found him suffering with pain in back and increased rest- 
lessness ; wound healthy in appearance. Gave him Dover's Powders (grs. x) 
every three hours, and left the morphia to be given according to symptomB. 




Feb. 20th. — Intense pain in back ; spasmodic character so great as to be . j 

impossible to sit in his chair ; was walking around ; had not been able to 1 


sleep ; presented an appearance of general distress. Began to apprehend I- 

the nature of the case. Gave a cathartic, and increased the quantity of :i 

morphia. ^ 

Feb. 21st. — Found him in bed. Pain confined to muscles of the back, ?! 

more particularly those of the lumbar region ; some rigidity of the abdomi- j 

nal muscles ; increased quantity of morphin, to be given in grain doses *y» 

according to indications. Also gave a pill containing Quin : Sulph : grs. i j f 

— Opii. Pulv. i gr., every two hours. ; } 

Feb. 22d. — Was summoned in the night. Found him suflfering from gen- * 

eral tetanic spasms. Rigidity of muscles of back, abdomen and limbs ; j 

stiffness of muscles of jaw. Remained with him twelve hours ; gave him -■ 

morphia 1 gr., endemically, every hour for three hours, repeating afterward 
as symptoms required - on average every two hours; used Magendie's solu- 
tion ; gave him Morphin 1 gr., with Pil. Quin : and Opii, as above, alter- 
nately, every two hours. Left him comparatively comfortable, but suflfering 
from the peculiar tonic spasms of back, limbs and abdomen. The injured 
arm was fixed at elbow, and rigid. ' 

Feb. 23d. — Visited him on evening of 22d ; remained with him until after- 
noon of 23d ; spasms increased, and at times complete opisthotonos ; breath- \ 
ing obstructed, from implication of muscles of diaphragm. Had been using 
Essence of Beef as nourishment, with whiskey as stimulant. Increased the 
quantity, repeating injections to meet emergencies, and applied epispastic to 
back, over the region of the diaphragm. Met Dr. Jno. Miller, of Andover, 
Sussex county, in consultation, about noon of 23d ; treatment acquiesced in, 
and continued.' 

Feb. 24th. — Visit on evening of 23d ; attendance continued during 24th, 
2oth, 26th, 27th and 28th ; same line of treatment followed ; spasms during 
this time almost continuous, when the eff'ccts of anodynes was in the least 
relaxed. The injections, containing 1 gr. of morphia would be repeated 
sometimes as often as every hour, averaging at least every three hours dur- 
ing the time from 24th to 28th. The mental faculties remained perfectly 
clear when aroused, which was done very easily. A slight noise or jostling 
was sufficient to cause a spasmodic action of almost every muscle, particularly 
those of the back. Wlien suflfering from the most severe spasm I could not 
but notice the effect of the anodyne. He would almost invariably exclaim 
within three minutes after its administration, " Oh, doctor, how good I feel ! " 



The wound at no period of the disease presented other than a healthy ap- 
pearance, although the process of healing did not progress until after the 
disease had passed its crisis, when it healed rapidly. Saw no relaxation of 
symptoms until morning of 27th. Spasms became less frequent, and a gen- 
eral improvement in condition of patient then commenced ; there was very 
little, if any, relaxation of the spasms, however, for some time afterward. 
The limbs became gradually more manageable ; the muscles of back slowly 
relaxed, but the muscles of abdomen remained as hard as stone until after 
April 20th — they being the last to yield. The muscles of the jaw were 
rigid during the spasms, when, under the effects of the anodyne, they would 
become relaxed sufficiently, by considerable effort, to protrude the tongue, 
which, at no time presented an unhealthy appearance. The digestive orga&s 
being at times in a torpid, but otherwise not in an unhealthy condition. 
The muscles of deglutition were involved during this period of the disease, 
but with effort Essence of Beef could be swallowed. The pulse ranged 
from 60 to 80, and at no time did it rise above that standard ; neither was 
there any increase in the temperature of the skin. The interval included in 
those seven days embraced the increase and culmination of the disease. The 
constant attendance of the physician, or of an intelligent nurse, was abso- 
lutely necessary to take advantage of circumstances or the varying condition 
of the patient. The amount of nourishment taken in the form of beef 
essence was immense ; it was literally by the quart. So also with the stimu- 
lus — all that could be given, ad libitum. The bowels were kept open, and 
when the amount of animal food was so great, the evacuations were corres- 
pondingly large and feculent. The cathartics used wore for the most part 
Pil : Cath : Comp : followed by enema of Castor Oil and Turpentine. 

March 1st. — Course of treatment continued to 9th, when morphin lost its 
control of symptoms — ^its quieting effect. Gave Blue Mass (grs. x.), followed 
by cathartic and enema. Had the bowels thoroughly evacuated ; changed 
stimulus to wine. Gave him constant attention from evening of 8th to 
morning of 11th, with symptoms again improved. Resorted to morphin 
again, with Bromide Pot as. (grs. xx.) every four hours. 

March 12th. — Gave attention every night, with no unfavorable symptoms 
until evening of 18th, when I found another exacerbation — convulsions 
again more frequent — ^increase of mentarexcitement. Evacuated bowels 
more freely with Blue Mass, followed by Castor Oil, with enema of Castor 
Oil and Turpentine. Continued Bromide Potas., with endemic anodynes, 
and remained with him until morning of 20th. Had Dr. Miller in consulta- 
tion on 19th ; treatment approved and continued. 


March 2l8t. — Visit eyening of 26th, and attention given every night until 
April Ist. During this time symptoms gradually improved. Diminished 
frequency of anodynes and amount of stimulant ; changed the diet to a 
lighter form. As soon as he was able to open his mouth sufficiently wide 
to masticate solid food, put him upon tonics, such as Infus. Quassia, Peruv. 
Bark, etc. 

April 1st. — Was able to relax my attention to a single visit a day ; during 
the greater portion of April to an occasional visit of once or twice a week, 
through May and June to about the 1st of July, when he passed from my 
care and attention. During this interval he took an Elix. of P. Bark and 
Prot. Carb. Iron, followed by a solution of Pyro. Phos : Per : gr. x. three 
times a day. I found it difficult to wean him from the use of his anodynes, 
which he continued to use against my urgent protest. I left him in a debil- 
itated condition, but all he needed was time and a proper restraint to regain 
his health. 

In the report of this case I have endeavored to give a general outline of 
treatment. I know it is an imperfect one, but as you have solicited from me 
a report, I furnish it to you in its present shape, hoping it may prove of 
some value ; and if there is one point above all others I think I can impress 
upon those who may have to deal with a similar case, even if another course 
of treatment may be adopted, it is this — See that your patient is properly 

But, however great the satisfaction I may have experienced in the favora- 
ble termination of this case, I must say, the reward for my labors was such 
as many in our profession receive in return for faithful and valuable ser- 
vices bestowed — at the sacrifice of comfort, and oftentimes of health— and 
it has been such as almost to make me resolve to give no more such attention 
hereafter in any case. Although the parties are in affiuent circumstances, 
their reception of my claim for services rendered, reminded me very forcibly 
of the old rhyme — 

" God and the Doctor men alike adore. 
Just in the hour of danger — ^not before ; 
The danger past, both ore alike requited : 
God forgotten and the Doctor slighted." 

n. — Ulcebation op thb Stomach. 

I may state a case of Ulceration of the Stomach which came into my hands 
in its advanced stage. The patient was a lady, about thirty years of age, 


and was unable to retain the smallest quantity of any kind of food ; attacks 

of vomiting of a disorganized fostid matter were frequent, and the breath / ?- 

very offensive, even to herself. The bowels were costive, and there was great :t-. 

emaciation and prostration, with the accustomed nervous complications. I r. 

used carbolic acid, and, in the absence of an efficient solution, I employed a • i: 
concentrated solution, with glycerine — one part of acid solution to six of 

glycerine — a teaspoonful three times a day. Controlled the nervous symp- _ j^ 

toms with Bromide of Potash, and for costiveness, a pill — > 

•" i~" 
B Ext. Colocynth Comp., grs. i j. 

Ext. Belladonna, gr. i. 
Septandrin, gr. 1. 
Strychnia, 1-32 gr. 

One or two to be taken at night. -. 

I saw an immediate improvement in symptoms, and the patient is now well. 

ni. — Foreign Body in the (Esophagus. 

A young man was brought into my office, suffering from symptoms with 
which he had been taken while eating '^a plate of raw oysters," in a saloon 
on the opposite side of the street. The pain wsis intense, coming on in par- 
oxysms with only two or three minutes of comparative ease between them. 
His countenance presented an appearance of extreme sutYering; pale and 
collapsed— a spasm of muscles of respiration, causing a sense of suffocation. 
In short, the symptoms present were such as to require immediate treatment. 
I found he had swallowed a i)iece of shell which had adhered to an oyster, 
and as the piece was from the inside lining of the oyster, its edges were 
sharp, and were causing all the trouble by their cutting into the coats of the 
oesophagus. How to remove the shell without injuring the parts in contact 
with it was a question. I immediately gave him 30 grs. Sulph. Zinc, fol- 
lowed by drafts of warm water, all that he could drink, sufficient to fill the 
stomach, and I had the satisfaction of seeing the piece of shell fly across the 
room, as soon as the emetic effect was produced, which occurred in the 
the course of fifteen minutes. The large quantity of water distended the 
oesophagus, and lifted the piece of shell from its position. It proved to be 
a piece one half an inch wide and three quarters of an inch in length. 

. 'T 

1^ f; 


rv. — Belladokna Poisoning. 

Was called to see a child about five years of age. As soon as I entered, 
the mother showed me a vial of drops, of which she had given the child a 
teaq>oonful about an hour and a half previous. The drops had been given 
in mistake for Arom. Syr. Rhei. I found the vial contained F. Ext. Bella- 
donna, and the child presented the appearance of one suftVring from the 
effects of the drug. The skin was hot and dry, and presented the peculiar 
efflorescence. Pupils largely dilated ; pulse rapid ; dryness of mouth and 
fkaces, with extreme restlessness and starting of tlie muscles, threatening 
convulsions. Immediately gave Ipecac largely ; did not stop to measure it, 
and had the satisfaction of seeing the stomach evacuated of its contents in 
the course of half an hour— and then ordered Tinct. Opii. 20 drops every 
half hour, and aqua calcis as a drink. Gave, in the mean time, a cathartic 
of Cal. and Podophyllin, but did not wait for it to operate. Gave llist di>ao 
of tincture about 4 o'clock P. M., and repeated it at the intervals mentioned 
until 7 P. M., and then every hour until 1 o'clock A. M. Tlie symptoms tiid 
not increase any after 7 P. M. The bowels were evacuated freely about 1 
o'clock, with evident improvement in symptoms. Patient became more 
quiet, so that she took 15 drops only about 4 o'clock A. M. I found her 
sleeping quietly at 7 — and a gradual improvement through the day ; and, of 
course, no further trouble. She took in all about a fluid ounce of the tinc- 
ture, and without it must have succumbed to the effects of the poison. 

A case — the opposite of this — in which a child a few months old was 
given a large dose of Tine. Opii. by mistake, was treated successfully with 
free doses of Belladonna by my brother, Dr. L. C. Cook. But, as I am not 
acquainted with the particulars, I only mention the fact to prove that there 
is a true antagonism between the two drugs, of which we have only to take 
advantage to save the lives of our patients, who have been bo unfortunate at 
to be poisoned by either of them. 

Hackettstoww, May, 1871. 










CmCULATORT PHYSIOLOGY, AMD the Sphyomoorath : E 

by Edgar Holden, M, D 


aaon, M. D 


bronck, M. D 




Chaslbs C. Clabsbon, M. D 

Ed. Imoleton Grant, M. D 


A, B. Dattob, M. D 



BERGEN COUNTY, by Dr. Burdett 

CoioiuniCATioK, by Dr. Neei 

do. I. and IL by Dr. Haabrouck 

BURLINGTON COUNTY, by Dr. Thornton. 



CAMDEN COUNTY, by Dr. Cooper 257 

Case of Extra Uterine Gestation at Full Term, by 

Dr. CuUen 264 

CAPE MAY COUNTY, by Dr. Marcy 267 

Case, by Dr. S. S. Marcy 271 

CUMBERLAND COUNTY, by Dr. Cattell 271 

ESSEX COUNTY, by Dr. Smith 274 

Salt Marshes, by Dr. Southard. . . . 278 

Cases, by Dr. W. Pierson, Jr. : 

L Portal Phlebitis 279 

11. Diabetes IissiriDUs and Craniotabes. 282 


HUDSON COUNTY, by Dr. J. R. Forman 286 

Cases by Dr. Forman : 

I. Fracture op Astragalus, with Dislocation 

Forward 288 

XL Cholera Morbus 288 

Communication, bv Dr. Culver 290 

Jersey City Charity Uospital, by Dr. Hunt 292 

•HUNTERDON COUNTY, by Dr. C. AV. Larison 294 

MERCER COUNTY', by Dr. Phillips 306 

MIDDLESEX COUNTY, by Dr. Baldwin 310 

MONMOUTH COUNTY, by Dr. D. McLean Fonnan 313 

Cases, by Dr. Forman : 

L Poisoning by Strychnine 314 

n. Fracture, treated by Hamilton's method 316 

Case of Comminuted Fracture, treated by Carbolic 

Acid, by Dr. J. Vought 317 

SOMERSET COUNTY, by Dr. Berg 319 

Cases, by Dr. Knox : 

Dyspepsia, treated by Fowler's Solution 320 

SUSSEX COUNT Y, by Dr. Havens 322 

UNION COUNTY, by Dr. Whitehead. 826 

WARREN COUNTY, by Dr. Johnson 327 

Cases, by Dr. Jno. S. Cook : ^ 

I. Traumatic Tetanus 328 

n. Ulceration of the Stomach 381 

nL Foreign Body in the OEsophagub 332 

IV. Belladonna Poisoning 333 


OF THl . 

Medical Socii 


jEmnBOB ft HiBDHAM, Steam PHnrrBBS and Bookbh 

IS3 ud IJ5 Marliet Smo. 

OFFICERS, 1872. 




isT. T. J. THOMASON, Perrineville. 

2D. G. H. LARISON, ..... Lambbrtvillb. 
3D. WM. O'GORMAN, Newark. 

Wl^. ELMER, Jr., Trenton. 


H. R. BALDWIN, New Brunswick. 


STEPHEN WICKES, Permanent Chairman, . , Orange. 

J. E. CULVER, Bergen. 

S. C. THORNTON, Moorestown. 





All persons who shall hayo besn, or may hereafter be. Presidents of the Society, shall rank 

as Fellows, and be entitled to aU the privileges of delegated members. 

Act (^ InoorporaUon^ 3te, 1. 
Those marked thus [*] are deceased. 

^RoBBBT McKban 1766 ^Chablbs Sicith 1811 

♦William Bubnbtt 1767 ♦Matt. H. Williamson 1812 

♦John CocKBAN 1768 ♦Samuel Pobman 1814 

♦Nathaniel Scuddbb .1770 ♦John Van Clbvb 1816 

♦Isaac Smith 1771 ♦Lewis Dttnham 1816 

♦Jambs Nbwbll 1772 ♦Pbteb J. Stbtkbb 1817 

♦Absalom Bainbbidqb 1773 ♦John Van Clevb 1818 

♦Thomas Wiooins 1774 ♦Lewis Condict 1819 

♦Hbzekiah Stites 1775 ♦Jambs Lee 1820 

♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦WiLLLA.M G. Reynolds 1821 

♦John Bbattt 1782 ♦Augustus R. Tatlob 1822 

♦ Babbbb 1783 ♦William B. Ewing 1828 

♦Law Van Debybeb 1784 ♦Pbteb L Stbykeb 1824 

♦Moses Bloomfield 1785 ♦Gilbebt S. Woodhull 1825 

♦William Bubnbtt 1786 ♦Wm. D. McKissack, 1826 

♦Jonathan Elmeb 1787 ♦Isaac Piekson 1827 

♦Jambs Stbatton 1788 ♦Jbphtha B. Munn 1828 

♦Moses Scott 1789 ♦John W. Cbaio 1829 

♦John Gbiffith 1790 ♦Augustus R. Tatlob 1830 

♦Lewis Dunham 1791 ♦Thomas Yabbow 1881 

♦Isaac Habbis 1792 ♦Fitz Randolph Smith 1832 

♦James Newell 1795 ♦William Fobman 1838 

♦Jonathan F. Mobbis 1807 ♦Samuel Hayes 1834 

♦Pbtbb L Stbykeb. 1808 ♦Abm. P. Hagebman 1835 

♦Lewis Mobgan 1809 ♦Henby Van Debybeb 1836 

♦Lewis Condict 1810 ♦Lyndon A. Smith 1837 


Bbkj. H. Strattok 1888 J. B. Coleman 1855 

*Jabez G. Goblb 1839 Richabd M. Coofeb ..1856 

*Thoma8 p. Stbwabt 1840 Thoiias Ryerson 1857 

*f£rdinain> 8. schenck 1841 ♦isaac p. oolbman 1858 

Zachabiah Reed ; 1842 Jno. R. Bickleb 1859 

^Abraham Skillman 1843 Wm. Elmbb 1860 

Geobge R. Chetwood 1844 Jko. Blane 1861 

RoBEBT S. Shith 1845 Jno. Woolvebton 1863 

*Chable8 Hannah 1846 Theo. R. Vabick 1863 

♦Jacob T. B. Skillman 1847 Ezba M. Hunt 1864 

Samuel H. Pennington 1848 Abbam Coles 1865 

Joseph Fithian 1849 Benj. R. Bateman 1866 

*!Blia8 J. Mabsh 1850 Jno. C. Johnson 1867 

John H. Phillips 1851 Thos. J. Cobson 1868 

♦Othn'l H. Tatlob 1852 Wm. Piebson 1869 

Samuei^ Lilly 1853 Thos. F. Cullen 1870 

*A. B. DAYT(»r 1854 Chab. Hasbbouck 1871 


♦David Hosaco^ New York 1827 

♦J. W. Pbahcib 1827 

♦John Condict, Orange 1830 

♦Noah Pabsons, Rhode Island 1839 

♦Rbubbn D. Mukpht, Cincinnati 1889 

Albak Q. Smith, New York 1839 

WiLLABD Pabkbb, New York 1842 

♦VALBwriNE MoTT, New York 1845 

♦Jonathan Knight, New Haven 1848 

♦Nath'l Chapman, Philadelphia 1848 

♦Alkx. H. Stephens, New York 1848 

♦Lewis C. Beck, New York 1860 

♦John C. Torbbt, New York 1850 

Geobos B. Wood, Philadelphia 1863 

H. A. BuTTOLPH, Trenton, N.J 1854 

AsHBEL WooDWABD, Franklin, Conn 1861 

♦Thos. W. Blatchpobd, Troy, N. Y 1861 

Jebemiah S. English, Manalapan, New Jersey 1867 

Stephen, Wigkes, Orange, N. J 1868 

C. O. Vandebpool, Albany, N. Y 1872 

Jos. Pabbish, Philadelphia 1872 

Febbib Jacobs 1872 

C. A. LiNDSLEY, New Haven, Conn 1872 






(District Society organized February 38, 1854.) 

John J. Haring, Pre9\ Temfly. Wm. H. Hall, 

Robt. Stewart, V-Pres.^ButherJ^d Park. John T. DeMund, 
Chas. Hasbrouck, See% Hackensack. Wm. Francis, 
T. M. Wright, jTroM., Englewood. J. M. Simpson, 
D. A. Currie, 
H. A. Hopper, 
A. S. Biirdett, 
H. C. Neer, 


S. J. Zabriskie, 
EcuikenMuik, H. A. Crary, 

" A. P. Williams, 

Park mdge. 






Ihaherfurd Park, 


Abm. Hopper, RaekeMock. 

No. Members, 15. 

Be^jaMin H. Stratton, 
A. E. Budd, 
Richard E. Brown, 
Franklin Gauntt, 
J. Howard Pugh, 
D. B. Vanslyke, 
H. H. Longstreet, 
Irene D. Young, 


(District Society orgaaized May 19, 1899.) 

Mount HdO/y, A. W. Taylor, 

" Aaron Reid, 

*• Alex. Elwell, 

BurUnfftan, R. H. Page, 

" S. C. Thornton, 

" George Goodell, 

BordefUown. Theo. T. Price, 

" Lewis Sharp, 










Lewis P, Jemison, 
Alfred C. Stokes, 
Ellis P. Townsend, 


No. Members, 22. 



Enoch Hollingshead, 
Joseph H. Horner, 
Phineas Hilliard, 




E. P. TowKSBND, Secretary. 

Richard M. Cooper, 
John y. Schenck, 
Thos. P. Cullen, 
H. Genet Taylor, 
JohnR. Steyenson, 
Alexander Marcy, 
James M. Ridge, 
Alexander M. Mecray, 
J. Orlando White, 
Randall W. Morgan, 
Richardson B. Okie, 
Isaac B. Molfordj Jr., 


(Organixed Angtist 14, 1846.) 


D. Parrish Pancoast, 




John R Haney, 



Wm. H. Ireland, 


i " 

Thomas Westcott, 



John W. Snowden, 



N. B. Jennings, 



J. W. Hewlings, Jr., 



H. E. Branin, Blackwoodtown, 


J. W. McCullough, 



H. A. M. Smith, Glouceeter OUy, 


George W. Boughman, 



Edwin Tomlinson, 



Isaac S. Mulford, 
Joseph F. Garrison, 

No. Members, 24. 

Camden, Rich. C. Dean, U,8,K, Woihinfftan, 
" A. I>,WoodniS,Prinees$ Anne Co,,Md, 

H. Genet Taylor, Secretary. 


(Organixed Dec. 8, z8x8.) 

B. R. Bateman, 


R. W. Elmer, 


E. £. Bateman, 


H W. Ehner, 


Ephraim Bateman, 


Geo. Tomlinson, 


R M. Bateman, 


W. L. Newell, 


William Elmer, 


A. S. Tittsworth, 


J. Barron Potter, 


Thos. E. Stathems, 


Jos. Sheppard, 


S. G. Cattell, 




Chas. H. Dare, 
Thofi. J. Smith, 

BridgeUm, Samnel Batcher, 



Enoch FitMan, Oremmoh. 

No. Members, 17. H. W. Elheb, Secretary. 



(Society organized June 4, x8z6.) 

A. E. Baldwin, 


Stephen Personett, 


Milton Baldwin, 


Wm. Pierson, 


Robert G. Brain, 


Wm. Pierson, Jr., 


Job. a. Corwin, 


J. W. Pinkham, 


L. M. Crane, 



A. A. Ransom, 

Sovih Orange, 

Christopher Eyrich, 


D. M. Skinner, 


Gabriel Grant, 

New York, 

Edward D. G. Smith, 


Treyonion Haight, 


D. W. Smith, 


Peter V. P. Hewlett, 


Lott Southard, 


Edgar Holden, 


C. W. Stickney, 


Wm. H. Holmes, 


Wm. Taylor, 


H. Campbell Hendry, 


E. B. Thompson, 


Jos. B. Jackson, 


M. H. Cash Vail, 


Eagene Jobs, 


Arthur Ward, 


J. B. Joyce, 


Ed. T. Whittingham, 


Geo. R. Kent, 


Stephen Wickes, 


Chas. J. Kipp, 


Frank Wilmarth, 

East Orange, 

C. F. J. Lehlbach, 


Addison W. WoodhuU, Newark. 

Jno. J. H. Love, 


Chas. Young, 


Andrew M. Mills, 


Chas. M. Zeh, 


Ed. J. Nichols, 


Jeremiah A. Cross, 


Isaac A. Nichols. • 


Philippe Ricord, 


Wm. Q'Gomnan, 


J. W. Read, 


Jos. D. Osborne, 


Henry A. Eornemann, 


Samuel H. Pennington, 


No. Members, 49. 

Chab. Young, Secretary. 

J. R. Sickler, 


(Society organized Dec., 1818.) 

Mantfua. Wm. H. Turner, 




8. P. Fifller, 


J. D. Heritage, 


Job. Weatherby, 


L. A. D. Allen, 


8. T. Miller, 


C. F. Kichenor, 


L. F. Halsey, 


A. G. MacPherson, 


J. Fisler, 


G. C. Laws, 


J. H. Ashcraft, 

MuUica ma. 


Jos. Fithian, WoodJbury, Chas. Garrison, aw&de^boro. 

No. Members, 14. Wm. H. Tubkeb, Secretary. 


(Society organiied Oct i, 1851.) 

Hugh H. Abemethy, 

Jersey City, 

Jas. F. Morgan, 

Jersey CUy, 

B. A. Andrew, 


T. F. Morris, 

a . 

A. G. Avery, 


F. E. Noble, 


J. Q. Bird, 


T. C. O'Callaghan, 


E. P. Buffett, 


F. W. Pettigrew, 


J. B. Burdett, 


J. J. Pendergast, 


E. W. Buck, 


D. L. Reeve, 


W. Burrows, 


F. C. Selnon, 


C. H. Case, 


8. V. W. Stont, 


J. H. Comfort, 


J. W. Van Houten, 


J. M. Comelison, 


T. R. Varick, 


Jas. Craig, 


C. 0. Viers, 


J. E. Culver, 


J. H. Vondy, 


8. R. Forman, 


B. A. Watson, 


A. Freeman, 


J. Wilkinson, 


H. S. Gardiner, 


T. F. Wolfe, 


B. Gilman, 


David Benson, 


D. 8. Hardenberg, 


R. F. Ohabert, 


T. J. Hayes, 

L. W. Elder, 


J. W. Hunt, 

Jersey City, 

Jos. F. Finn, 


A. A. Lutkins, 


J. F. Field, 


J. D. McGlU, 


F. G. Payn, 

Bergen Pointy 

T. J. McTjanghlin, 


G. W. TalBon, 

West EoboJcen. 



M. A. Miller, 
Henry Mitchell, 

Jwwy City, J. A. Blake, 

Taumof Vhion, 



Ferris Jacobs, Delhi^ JIT. T, 

No. Members, 49. Jno. D. McGill, Secretary. 


(Society orj^anized June xs, zSax.) 

Samuel Lilly, 


N. B. Boileau, 


G. H. Laiison, 


John Blane, 

T. H. Studdiford, 


Wm. Knight, 


M. Abel, 


J. S. Cramer, 


C. W. Lariflon, 


A. 8. Pittenger, 

Clover ma. 

C. H. Thompson, 


A. W. Armitage, 


0. H. Sproul, 


C. M. Lee, 


Wm. S. Creveling, 




J. R. Ludlow, 

John McKelway, 

John F. Schenck, 

Henry 8. Harris. 

John Blane, 

No. Members, 


0. H. Spboul, 




(Society organized 



J. B. Coleman, 


W. H. Coleman, 


J. L. Taylor, 


W. Green, 


J. Woolverton, 


E. H. Reed, 


W. W. L. PhilUps, 


C. F. Deshler, 


T. J. Corson, 


J. L B. Ribble, 


C. Skelton, 


W. Elmer, 


C. Hodge, 


H. Schaefer, 


0. H. Bartine, 


G. 8. Meeser, 



R. R. Rogers, 


L. Leavitt, 


C. Shepherd, 


T. H. McKenzie, 


D. Warman, 


J. W. Ward, 

Aif/htmy Mercer Oo. 

J. L. Bodine, 


W. S. Lalor, 




J. B. James, 
J. H. Wykoff, 

No. Members, 37. 

TrmUm, J. Quick, 


J. B. Jambs, Secretary. 


(Society organized June 13, 1817.) 

D. C. English, 

New Brunawick. 

D. Stephens, 


Rush Van Dyke, 


E. B. Freeman, 


John Helm, 


A. Treganowan, 

South Aniboy, 

Chas. Dnnham, 


S. V. D. Clark, 

Perth Amboy, 

C. H. Vorhees, 


C. McE. Smith, 


H. R Baldwin, 


Geo. E. Blackham, 


N. Williamson, 


C. M. Slack, 


J. W. Meeker, 


Geo. J. Janeway, 

New Bruneioick. 

C. Morragh, 


W. E. Mattison, 


N. Eaemmerer, 


Ezra M. Hunt, 


No. Members, 20. 

D. Stbphskb, S6( 


Wm. A. Newell, 
A. A. Howell, 
John Vought, 
S. M. Disbrow, 
Henry G. Cooke, 
John Cooke, 
James S. Conoyer, 
D. McLean Forman, 
Robert Laird, 
Robert R Conoyer, 


(Society organized July 34, x8x6.) 







8quan VUlage. 

J. E. Arrowsmith, 
T. J. Thomaaon, 
Jos. B. Goodenough, 
Isaac S. Long, 
Asher T. Applegate, 
A. K. Trayers, 
P. B. Pumyea, 
S. H. Hunt, 
C, C. Yanderbeck, 
A. A. Higgins, 



Blue Baa. 







Sqtian VtUage. 


S. S. English, Ifanalopan. Edward Taylor, 
A. y. Conoyer, Long Branch. 

No. Members, 20. John Yought, Secretary. 






(Society organized Jan. z6, 1844.) 

A. W. Rodgera, 


G. H. Balleray, 


R. Kent, 


L. Burr, 


R. J. Whitely, 


H, W. Reisberg, 


B. R Merrill, 


0. V. Gamett, 


Wm. Blundeil, 


R. D. Bogert, 


M. Moss, 


Patrick Cahill, 


C. 8. Van Riper, 


John Quinn, 


0. Barnes, 


G. Terhune, 


0. Warner, 


R. A. Terhune, 


E. J. Marsh, 


C. Van Riper, 


J. R. Leal, 


A.R. Randall, 


H. C. Van Gieson, 


J. C. Herrick, 


G. W. Terryberry, 


No. Members, 



(Society organized 

G. H. Bat.lkkay, 





Rol>ert S. Sniith, 

John C. Sutphen, 


A. P. Hunt, 

J. Suydam Knox, 

H. P. Vanderveer, 

W. H. Merrell, 

William B. Ribble, 

D. C. Van Dearsen, 

H. G. Wagoner, 

Chas. H. Horton. 

J. F. Berg, 

No. Members, 


H. F. VAimsRYBEB, Secretaiy. 



(Society organised Aug. aa, 1829.) 


T. H. Andrew, 


L. D. Miller, 


J. Tiinn Allen, 


E. W. Maines, 


Carlos Allen, 


C. R Nelden, 


J. B. Boss, 


Thomas Roe, 

Walpack Centre. 

F. M. Cannon, 


Thomas Ryerson, 



J. P. Couse, Franklin Furnace. 

J. R Stuart, 



C. E. Davison, 


D. M. Sayre, 





Joseph Hedges, 


Franklin Smith, 


'■'i ' 

■ :•» ■* 

1 * * 

Jonathan Havens, 


Eugene Schumo, 

T/i^Um'i P. 0. 

■ • 1 

P. N. Jacobus, 


E. J. Westfall, 


.. 4 

W. H. Linn, 


Jacob Whitaker, 


C. V. Moore, 


H. N. Crane, 


John Moore, 


D, L. Duncan, 


John Miller, 



John Titsworth, Deekertawn,^ 

No. Members, 27. . Jonathaic Hatens, Secretary. 


(Society organized June 7, 1869.) 

J. S. Crane, Pres% 


J. Ackerman Coles, 

Seoteh Plaiiu. 

L. W. Oakley, 


Sherman Cooper, 


Jas. S. Green, 


Samuel Abemethy, 


J. Otis Pinneo, 


D. W. C. Hough, 


Ph. H. Grier, 


H. H. James, 


3. E. Arms, 


E. B. Silvers, 


Joseph H. Grier, 


W. U. Selover, 


Alonzo Pettit, 


H. C. Pierson, 


Thos. Terrill, Jr., 


J. K. McConnell, 


Robt. Westcott, 


P. A. Kinch, 


Wm. M Whitehead, 


Wm. Gale, 


Joseph S. Martin, 


C. H. Stillman, 


John 8. Brosnan, 


J. B. Probasco, 


Louis Braun, 


T. H. Tomlinson, 


Thos. L. Hough, 


Wm. K. Gray, 


T. N. McTiean, 


A. M. Cory, 

New Promdmce. 

H. P. Geib, 


No. Members, 


R P. Gbtb, Secretary. 

P. P. Brakeley, 
S. S. Clark, 
John C. Johnson, 


(Society organized Feb. 15, z8s6.) 

Bekidtre. George S. Dearborn, 
" E. T. Blackwell, 

Blavrstown, Wm. M. Hartpence, 






P. F. HulBhizer, 


J. Marshal Paul, Jr., 


8. C. Osmun, Jr., 


D. D. Dildine, 


Theodore Crane, 


John A. Raub, 


Samuel S. Kennedy, 



James 0. Fitch, Rape, Roderick Byington, Bdoidere, 

No. Members, 18. P. F. Bkakslet, Secretary. 


Bergen .15 

Burlington 22 

Camden 24 

Cumberland 17 

Essex 49 

Gloucester 14 

Hunterdon 15 

Hudson 49 

Mercer 27 

Middlesex ..20 

Monmouth 20 

Passaic 25 

Somerset 11 

Sussex 27 

Union 88 

Warren 18 

Total 881 





Thb Medical Society of New Jersey assembled at Paterson 
on Tuesday, May 28, 1872, in the Court-house, at seven and 
a half o'clock, P. M. The President, Dr. Charles Hasbrouck, 
in the chair. All the other officers of the Society were 

The Committee on Organization reported the following as 
duly accredited delegates (Dr. C. S. Van Riper acting on the 
Committee by appointment of the President) : 

Bergen — John J. Haring, Robert Stewart, John L. DeMund, Wm. H« Hall. 
Members, 15. 

Burlinfftan—E, P. Townsend, H. H, Longstreet,* George Goodell, Richard 
E. Brown, Lewis Sharp, lifembers, 22. 

Camden — James M. Ridge, John V. Schenck, H. Gtenet Taylor, Isaac B. 
Mnlford, Alex. Marcey. Members, 24. 

Oumberlcmd—n. W. Elmer, Eph. Bateman, S. G. Cattell,* J. B. Potter.* 
Members, 17. 

iEM«j— A. D. Woodhull, I. A. Nichols, E. P. Nichols, J. A. Cross, C. M. 
Zeh, J. J. H. Love, E. T. Whittingham,* P. V. P. Hewlett. Members, 49. 

Ghueeiter'-Wm, H. Turner, L. P. Halsey,* J, D. Heritage,* J. P. Pisler.* 
Members, 18. 


J3wi«wi— B. A. Watson, Henry Mitchell, J. D. McGill, P. G. Payn, J. H. 
Comfort, T. F. Morris, H. H. Abemethy. Members, 49. 

Hunterdon— T. H. Studdiford, Isaac S. Cramer, O. H. Sproul,* A. S. Pit- 
tenger. Members, 15. 

Mercer—JQ%. L. Bodine, O. H. Bartine,* Charles Hodge, C. F. Deshler, 
W. H. Coleman. Members, 27. 

Middleae3ih-I>, C. English, Rush Van Dyke,* C. H. Vorhees, J. W. Meeker, 
Charles Dunham * Members, 19. 

Monmouth — 8. M. Disbrow,* A. A. Higgins,* 8. H. Hunt,* J E. Arrow- 
smith. Members, 20. 

PoMoic— A. W. Rogers, R J. WMtely, C. 8. Van Riper, Wm. Blundell, 
John Quinn. Members, 25. 

Somerset — H. G. Wagoner,* D. C. Van Dearsen,* John C. Sutphen,* A. P. 
Hunt. Members, 11. 

Sussex— John Miller, T. H. Andruss, J. Linn Allen, Eugene Schumo,* E. J. 
Westfali. Members, 27. 

Union — Lewis W. Oakley, P. H. Grier,* 8hemian Cooper,* J. A. Coles, 
Charles 8tillman. Members, 83. 

Warren, — ^L. C. Osmun, George 8. Dearborn,* P. F. Brakeley, 8. 8. Clark.* 
Members, 18. 

The Reporters and Fellows, present were : 

Beporters—B, C. Thornton, E. J. Marsh, F. Wilmarth, George W. Larison. 

FeUmos—B, H. 8tratton, Samuel H. Pennington, Samuel Lilly, Thomas 
Ryerson, Wm. Elmer, John Blane, John Woolverton, T. R. Varick, B. M. 
Hunt, Abram Coles, T. J. Corson, William Pierson, Sr., T. F. Cullen. 

Drs, Wickes and English, honorary members, were also 

Drs. Gnrdon Back, Robert Newman and J. Blanch Smith, 
delegates from the Medical Society of New York, and Prof. 
Charles A. Lindsley, from the Medical Society of Connect- 
icat, were present, and were, on motion, invited to seats as 
corresponding members of the Society. 

'*' Absent 



The Minutes of the last annual meeting were read and 

Prayer was offered by the Rev. Mr. Dunn, of the Methodist 
Church, Paterson. 

On motion of Dr. Lilly, an invitation was extended to all 
regular physicians who may be in town, to be present during 
the session of the Society. 

The following persons availed themselves of the invitation : 
R, Kent, Q-. H. Balleray, H. 0. Van Gieson, M. Moss, G. W. 
Terriberry, O. "Warner, 0. Barnes, 0. V. Gktrnett, S. R. 
Merrill, J. R. Leal, P. Cahill, 0. Van Riper, J. C. Herrick, 
R. A. Terhune, G. Terhune, A. R. Randall. 

The President read the annual address, the subject of which 
was, '^The Popularizing of Medical Knowledge as a Means 
of Correcting the popular tendency to quackery in Medicine." 

On motion of Dr. Blane, it was voted, that the thanks of 
this Society be tendered to the President, for his able, eloquent 
and interesting address — ^with a request that he furnish the 
Standing Committee with a copy for publication. 

The President announced the following committees : 

GomnMieb on Trwuurer's Account— Dtb, WatsoB, Schenck and Wickes. 

CoTnmitUe on Unfinished Business — ^Drs. Ryerson, Terriberry and Woolver- 

Committee on JSfominating Officers — B. A. Watson, R. Stewart, E. P. Town- 
send, A. Marcy, E. Bateman, J. A. Cross, W. H. Tomer, T. H. Studdiford, 
J. L. Bodine, 0. H. Voorhees, J. Arrowsmith, C. 8. Van Riper, A. P. Hunt, 
T. H. Andruss, L. W. Oakley, L. C. Asmnn. 

The Committee of Arrangements, by their Chairman , Dr. 
Sogers, rejported that they had been requested by the mem- 
bers of the Medical Society of the County of Passaic, to ex- 
tend an invitation to this Society, to meet the Society at a 
social re-union at the Franklin House this evening. 

The invitation was accepted* 





The Society, on motion, adjonmed, to meet to-morrow 
morning at nine o'clock. 


Nine o'clock, A. M. The Society convened, President 
Hasbrouck in the Chair. 

The report of the Standing Committee being the order of 
business, Dr. Wickes, the Chairman of the Committee, re- 
ported, that there were six hundred copies of the Transac- 
tions issued last year ; that they have been distributed in ac- 
cordance with the by-laws ; that the delay in the publishing 
of the same — which was three months later than usual — was 
attributable to the delay of authors of papers in returning 
their proofs. They also reported that the Gloucester Medical 
Society had failed to send a delegation to this Society for 
three successive years, which is a violation of the by-laws, 
but as they have a delegation present this year, they recom- 
mend that it be received, and that the following preamble and 
resolution be adopted : 

Whereas, The District Medical Society of Gloucester County has for three 
successive years been unrepresented in the meetings of the State Society ; 

WTiereaSf The total arrearages cannot be collected, owing to the removal, 
superannuation and non-attendance of members; 

Besohed, That on the payment of thirty dollars the said District Society 
be restored to its connection with the State Society. 

The report was received, and the recommendations adopted. 

The regular Qiunual report was then read, which, on motion, 
was referred to Committee on Publication. 

On motion, the resident clergy were invited to be present 
during the session of the Society. 

The Committee on Unfinished business reported : 

The Committee on Unfinished Business beg leave to report the foUowing 


items : Inquiry into the position of this Society in regard to compliance 
with the request of the American Medical Association, relatiye to an annual 
register of regular practitioners. Also, relative to the proposed appointment 
of Boards of Examiners for the several States. 

Reports are due from the following Committees : Committee to revise the 
fee-bill ; Committee to consider the appeal of Dr. Bird ; Committee to me- 
morialize the Legislature upon the subject of the great prevalence of crim- 
inal abortion. Also, amendments to by-laws. 

JOHN WOOLVERTON, \ ^^^^*««- 

The report was received, and the business reported as unfin- 
ished, ^as referred to the regular order of business. 

The Committee on appeal of Dr. J. Q, Bird, by Dr. Oakley, 
Chairman, reported as follows : . 

The Committee, to whom was referred the " Appeal of Di;. Jno. Q. Bird 
to the State Medical Society, from the decision of the District Medical So- 
ciety of the county of Hudson,'' would respectfully beg leave to make the 
foUowing report : 

It will be well to state that Dr. Bird is now a member of the Hudson 
Cotmty Medical Society, in good standing, entitled to all its privileges, and 
to those of the State Society. 

The evidence, upon the admission of Dr. Bird to the Society, seems to 
prove, conclusively, that he obtained his admission thereto upon the given 
assurance that he would not consult with a rejected applicant, and admits 
that without this promise he would not have been elected to membership. 

Charges were preferred against Dr. Bird for serving upon the staff of the 
Hudson County Hospital, which was under the control of medical officers 
not members of the Hudson County Medical Society, and consulting with 
an irregular practitioner. These charges were preferred by a committee of 
the Society appointed for that purpose, and read October 4, 1870. These 
charges were sustained by a migority vote, but not by a vote even requisite 
to censure, three-fourths being required. We are, therefore, of the opinion 
that Dr. Bird was not proved guilty. Your Committee find that these 
charges were not preferred in a legal way, in that they were not signed by 
the individual members of the Committee appointed to prepare them. To 
sustain this point, we would quote Article YL of their Constitution ; ^ Any 


member of this Society who shall be accused of immoral or miprofessional 
behayior, specified in a written conmiunication, signed with the name of the 
accuser in his own hand- writing, shall forthwith be summoned to appear 
before the next regular meeting to answer the charges so preferred. If^ after 
ample opportunity for defence, he be found guilty, he may be censured, sus- 
pended or expelled, by a concurrent vote of three-fourths of all the mem- 
bers present*' Dr. Bird requests the State Society to dismiss these charges 
on the ground of their unconstitutionality. 

On this point your 'Committee would make no recommendation. Owing 
to the uncertainty which now exists as' to the rights belonging to regular 
practitioners pf medicine, not members of the District Societies, and aa to 
our duties to them, we would submit the following propositions : 

Ist. Is the rejection of a candidate by a District Medical Society, satisfac- 
tory evidence that the rejected candidate is an irregular or dishonorable 
practitioner ? 

2d. Hasa Dij^ct Medical Society the right to censure its members for 
consulting with a rejected candidate ? 

8d. When the members of the District Medical Society in the district in 
which a practitioner resides are not agreed as to the regular or irregular 
standing of such practitioner, will the decision of the majority, against the 
yiews of a respectable minority, settle the question that said practitioner ia 

4. Will such decision make it unlawful or unprofessional to associate with 
such practitioner ? 





The report was received and referred to eleventh order of 


The Committee on Criminal Abortion, reported by Dr, 
Warman, Chairman : 

Your Committee on Criminal Abortion, beg Icaye to respectfully report, 
that they had a conference during the session of the late legislature, and 
drafted the following bill, which passed the legislature without amendment, 
and is now the law of the State : 






1. Be U enacted ly the Senate and Qenerorl AsterMy of the State of New 
Jersey^ That if any person or persons maliciously, or withont lawful justifi- 
cation, with intent to cause and procure the miscarriage of a woman then 
pregnant with child, shall administer to her, prescribe for her, or advise or 
direct her to take or swallow any poison, drug, medicine, or noxious thing, 
and if any person or persons maliciously, and without lawful justification, 
shall use any instrument or means whatever with the like intent, shall, on 
conviction thereof, be adjudged guilty of a high misdemeanor; and if the 
woman or child die in consequence thereof, shall be punished by fine not 
exceeding one thousand dollars, and imprisonment at hard labor for a term 
not less than ten years ; and in case the womauipr child do not die in conse- 
quence thereof, such offender, on conviction thereof, shall be adjudged guilty 
of a misdemeanor, and be punished by fine not exceeding five hundred dol- 
lars and imprisonment at hard labor for a term not less than two years. 

2. And ie it enacted. That any person offending against either of the 
provisions of this act shall be competent witness against any other person so 
offending, and may be compelled to appear and give evidence before any 
magistrate, grand jury, or in any court, in the same manner as other per- 
sons ; but the testimony so given shall not be used in prosecution or pro- 
ceeding, civil and criminal, against the person so testifying. 

8. And J>e it enacted, That section one hundred and three of the supple- 
ment of the act to which this is a further supplement, be and the same is 
hereby repealed. 

4. And he it enacted, That this act ^all take effect immediately. 

Approved March 26, 1872. 


C. HODGB, > Oemmittee, 

B. A. WATSON, ) 

The report was accepted, and the Committee discharged. 
Dr. Hodge, Chairman of the Committee to revise the Fee- 
bill, made a written report, which was received. 

The Treasurer reported as follows : 

New Bbxjnswick, Mat 20th, 1872. 

CfeatUmen of the New Jersey State Medical Society: 

The Treasurer, in presenting his annual report, would call attention to 
two facts. Ist. That during the past year we have reduced the annual 
assessment on members of District Societies, the practical working of which 
will appear in this report ; 2d. That a failure in the case of certain Societies 
to send delegates to our annual meeting, is generally attended with a failure 


to respond to the demands of the treasury. The ^ point is presented for 
such action as your wisdom may dictate. 

The Treasurer has the pleasure to report that at the last meeting, 
held at Flemington, a cash balance of the previous year remained 

in his hands, amounting to $190 88 

Also, that he received at Flemington, dues from District Societies, 
as follows : 

Hudson County |114 00 

Middlesex " 40 00 

Passaic " 42 00 

Bergen , " ; 22 00 

Hunterdon " 80 00 

Camden " 42 00 

Mercer " 60 00 

Union " 58 00 

Burlington " 40 00 

Cumberland " 82 00 

Essex " 90 00 

Monmouth " 88 00 

Somerset '* 20 00 

$618 00 

Total .$808 83 

Disbursements have been as follows : 

Bill of Chairman Standing Committee $11 98 

J. M. Reuck 8 00 

W. Pierson, Jr 4 10 

W. Elmer 4 78 

Printing Transactions .' 699 57 

G. F. Cartet, for invited guests 8 00 

Newark Daily Advertiser 2 00 

Balance on hand. 179 95 

Total $808 88 

Assets (Newark Savings Institution) $1000 00 

Cashonhand 179 95 

$1179 95 




From the above report it will be seen that the assessment of one dollar 
per member upon District Societies, has failed to meet the current expenses 
and cost of printing Transactions by ten dollars and thirty-eight cents. 
The investment in the funds of the Newark Savings Institution has necessa- 
rily been delayed, as the full expense of printing Transactions was not ascer- 
tained until the 19th of April, 1872. The Treasurer, in estimating for the 
coming year, suggests that unless some plan be adopted to secure the annual 
dues from all the District Medical Societies, it wiU be necessary to make the 
annual assessment one dollar and fifty cents per year, instead of one dollar 
per member, as was ordered last year. 

All which is respectfully submitted. 

HENRY R. BALDWIN, Treamrer. 

The report was received and referred to Committee on 
Treasurer's accounts, which Committee subsequently reported 
as follows : 

The Committee appointed to examine the Treasurer's account, report that 
they have examined the same and find it correct. The Committee recom- 
mend the assessment upon the District Societies for the coming year at $1.50. 

B. A. Watson, 

Stephen Wickbb, V CommUtee, 

Jno. F. Schenck, 


The report was accepted, and the recommendation adopted. 
The Corresponding Secretary reported as follows : 

The Corresponding Secretary of the New Jersey State Medical Society 
would respectfully offer the following report : 

Copies of the Transactions for 1871 were received from the Chairman of 
the Standing Committee, and forwarded to the Honorary Members and to 
several of the prominent Medical journals of the country ; a few remaining 
still in his hands for diBtribution. 

Since the last annual meeting a list of the regular practicing physicians of 
Union County has been received from the Secretary, Dr. Terrill, Jr. Three 
counties — ^Hudson, Mercer and Union — ^have sent in their returns, in compli- 
ance with the request made last year, for the preparation of an " Annual 
Register.'' No others have thus far been heard from. 

A communication has been received from Dr. John Curwen, Secretary of 




the Association of Medical Superintendents of American Institutions for the 
Insane, embodying a series of resolutions passed by that body at their late 
meeting, and adopted by the Medical Society of Pennsylvania in June, 1871. 
These resolutions are herewith submitted, and recommended to the fieiYora- 
ble consideration of this Society : 

Heaoked, That in view of the frequency of mental disorders among all 
classes and descriptions of people, and in recognition of the fact that the first 
care of nearly all these cases necessarily devolves upon physicians engaged 
^' in general practice, and this at a period when sound views of the disease 

v and judicious modes of treatment are specially important,— it is the unani- 

mous opinion of this Association that in every school conferring medical 
degrees, there should be delivered, by competent professors, a complete 
course of lectures on insanity and on medical jurisprudence, as connected 
with disorders of the mind. 

Besolved^ That these courses of- lectures should be delivered before all the 
students attending these schools ; and that no one should be allowed to 
graduate without as thorough an examination on these subjects as on the 
other branches taught in the schools. 

Besdved, That in connection with these lectures, whenever practicable, 
there should be clinical instruction, so arranged that, while giving the student 
practical illustrations of the different forms of insanity and the effects of 
treatment, should in no way be detrimental to the patients. 

Bewl/oed^ That a copy of these resolutions be sent by the Secretary to the 
American Medical Association, the Dominion Association and Ontario Asso- 
ciation of Canada, to each State Medical Society, and each Medical College 
in the United States and British Provinces. 

Extract from the minutes. 


Secretary of Asiodation of Medical SuperintendenU 
of American ImtitutwMfor the Ituane, 
Received Nov. 23d, 1871. 

W. ELMER, Jr. 

Corretponding Secretary^ 

The report was accepted. 

Dr. Lilly, in behalf of the delegation to the American 
Medical Association, read the following report : 

To the Medical Society of New Jertey : 

The undersigned, your delegates to the American Medical Association, 
respectfully report — 
That we attended the last meeting of that body, the sessions of which 


were held in the city of Philadelphia, on the 7th, 8th, 0th and 10th of the 
present month. 

The meeting was the most numerons ever held by the Association, oyer 
seyen hundred and twenty delegates and permanent members were present, 
and registered their names. 

So far as numbers, and social and professional standing and worth were 
concerned, the meeting was a grand success; so far as the progress and 
adyancement of the cause of science and the eleyation of the profession are 
concerned, yarious opinions are entertained, which we do not propose to 
discuss here. We belieye that more care should be exercised by the Asso- 
ciation as to conditions of membership, and that delegates from local medical 
bodies should at least be endorsed by the State Societies of the respectiye 

The Association was welcomed to the city of Philadelphia by Prof. H. E. 
Rogers, of the Uniyersity of Pennsylyania, in an earnest and eloquent address, 
followed by Dr. E. Hartshome, Chairman of the Committee of Arrangements, 
setting forth the programme adopted for the accommodation of the Associa- 
tion during its business hours, and the entertainment and amusement of the 
delegates and members during their hours of leisure. 

To say that these arrangements were ample, well considered, and admira- 
bly carried out, would conyey but a feeble description of their reality. 

The address of the President, Dr. D. W. Yandell, of Kentucky, was a 
most able and finished production. In the language of the editor of the 
NenD York Medical Beeord^ published in that periodical of the 15tb Inst., it 
was "an address whose eyery sentence proclaims the elegant scholar;^' to 
which may be justly added — the eloquent orator, and the accomplished 
physician and surgeon. 

As any analysis or abstract would fail to do justice to this splendid effort, 
and it haying been placed within the reach of all through the columns of 
the medical and newspaper press of the day, we refer to them for further 

The most exciting question, perhaps, which engaged the attention of the 
Association, was that of the admission of delegates from seyeral organizations 
located in the District of Columbia. 

Delegates from these bodies had been refused admission to the Association 
in 1870 and 1871, but nil desperandum, they applied again. It was eyident 
to most of those present, that these applicants were playing the role of 
"injured innocence,'' and endeayoring to excite sympathy by alleging that 


their rejection was owing to their admitting into their organizations, and 
sending as representatives, colored physicians, but the Committee on Ethics, 
selected from all parts of the United States, to whom the matter was referred, 
reported unanimously that the question of color was not involved, and did 
not enter into the discussion, but that these would-be delegates, and the 
bodies they desired to represent, were in open violation of the laws of the 
land, and of the Code of Ethics established by the American Medical Asso- 
ciation. This report, which recommended their exclusion, was adopted by 
an overwhelming vote. 

At the meeting of the Association in New Orleans, in 1869, the following 
was adopted : 

" Whereas, the contract system is contrary to Medical Ethics, 

'^ BMokedy That all contract physicians, as well as those guilty of bidding 
for practice, at less rates than those established by a majority of regular 
graduates of the same locality, are irregular practitioners.'* 

In view of this resolution. Dr. Findley, of Pennsylvania, presented a reso- 
lution which recited that this action was misunderstood, and asked that the 
Committee on Ethics be instructed to define the true signification of the 
term "contract phydcians." Dr. F.'s resolution was referred to that oom- 
mittee, who reported the following resolution : 

" Beaohed, That members of the profession hired by the month or year for 
definite wages, by families, railroads, manufacturing incorporations, or any 
money-making institution whatever, for ordinary surgical or medical prac- 
tice, always excepting eleemosynary and charitable institutions and hospi- 
tals, are to be classed as irregular practitioners, and therefore disqualified 
for membership in this Association, or in State or County Societies.*' 

After an animated debate, the question was referred back to the State 
Societies. Subsequently a motion that everything relating to this subject be 
rescinded, or stricken from the ordinances of the Association, was promptly 
tabled by an almost imanimous vote, thus retaining in force the resolution 
of 1869. We have been thus minute, as this subject is of much importance 
to many of the members of this Society and of the County District Societies. 

A correspondence between two or three of the physicians residing at 
Hightstown, Mercer County, found its way into the public papers, a short 
time since, which reflected great honor on the physicians concerned. This 
correspondence showed that the public authorities in some localities are in 
the practice of advertising for and receiving competitive bids for medical 
attendance upon paupers and others ; but the gentlemen alluded to indig- 


nantly spumed the offer, and some homoepath, or other irregular, was 
employed We trust the subject will challenge the attention it deserves at 
the hands of this Society. 

A resolution was adopted, which originated in the College of Physicians, 
of Philadelphia, recommending all druggists to place all external remedies 
in rough, colored bottles, labelled *^ Poison," in order to prevent accidents 
by appealing to the sight and touch, in addition to the usual precautions. 
Would it not be well for this Society to endorse and reiterate the resolution ? 
(See 13i and 18}.) 

A number of interesting subjects were brought to the attention of the 
Association, which do not call for a notice. The employment of medical 
experts in criminal cases before Courts, was brought before the Association 
in a series of resolutions offered by Dr. Henry Hartshorne, of Philadelphia. 
After a discussion in the section on Chemistry and Materia Medica, they 
were reported to and adopted by the Association. First reciting that the 
appointment of such experts by the Court to act as their advisers, and thus 
prevent the antagonism which experience shows is caused by the summoning 
of them by the opposing parties, whereby the cause of justice is wronged, 
the resolution advises *^ the State Societies to bring the matter to the notice 
of the State Legislatures." This having been the subject of the address of 
our late President, Dr. Cullen, and forcibly brought to the notice of the 
profession and the public by a recent exciting trial for murder at Annapolis, 
Md«, would seem to call for your earnest attention in a report like the pres- 
ent, but will be printed in detail in the transactions of the Association, 
shortly to be published. 

The meetings of the sections, before whom the various scientific and other 
interesting papers were read and discussed, were well attended, and the re- 
sults reported to the Association for publication. These reports will be pub- 
lished with the transactions, and thus placed within the reach of all who 
desire to see them. A further analysis is therefore deemed unnecessary. 

As stated at the beginning of this report, the arrangements for the enter- 
tertainment and amusement of the delegates and members, were carried out 
in the most liberal manner. The exhibition of instruments, apparatus, chem- 
icals, drugs, &c., at the hall of the College of Physicians, was a grand one. 
The reception by the Microscopical smd Biological sections of the Academy 
of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, where, in addition to a promenade 
concert in the main hall, where the Association met, a magnificent display 
of microscopes and spectroscopes was e^diibited in the upper hall, and 


attracted universal attention by the beauty of the instruments and the speci- 
mens of life forms, as well as the delicate analysis of the latter. The skill 
and attentions of the committee under whose management the entertainment 
was gotten up, elicited the encomiums of all present. The several lectures 
and demonstrations by Profe. Rogers, Noyes and Cohen, were highly enter- 
taining and instructive, and warmly appreciated by the large audience of 
both sexes assembled to witness them. The receptions and entertainments 
given by Drs. Hodge and Pancoast, and Col. Thos. A. Scott, were magnifi- 
cent Kone of those who partook of the hospitality of those distinguished 
Philadelphians, will soon forget the pleasure enjoyed. 

The whole ended with a grand excursion to Fairmount Park, coupled 
with a banquet at Belmont Cottage, to which it is needless to say the numerous 
guests did ample justice. Taken altogether, the meeting of the American 
Medical Association in 1872 was a grand success ; and if not all was done 
that could be wished, certainly enough was accomplished for us to say in 
all sincerity, " May many such occur in the future, and we be there to see." 

Respectfully submitted, 

May 28, 1872. B. A. WATSON, M. D. 


Dr. PenningtoDy delegate to the Connecticut Medical So- 
ciety, made a verbal report. He had attended the meeting, 
and had received a cordial welcome. He was pleased with 
one feature of their transactions, viz., that all the routine 
business of the society is disposed of on the first day of the 
session, and the second day is entirely devoted to matters of 
exclusively professional interest 

Dr. Hunt, delegate to the Medical Society of New York, 
reports . 

Mr. PreMerU and Gentlemen of the New Jeney State MecUetd Society : 

As one of your representatives in the delegation appointed to attend the 
meeting of the New York State Medical Society in 1872, 1 beg leave to 
report, that I was present on the second day and evening of their meeting 
(February 7) the sixty-sixth anniversary of that Society. 


As your delegate I was most kindly receiyed and cordially welcomed. All 
parts of the great State of New York were represented, and also Pennsylvania 
and Kassachnsetts, each by a delegation. 

Several papers, interesting and instructiye, were read and discussed. The 
proposed law, entitled ** An act to protect the people against quackery and 
crime," prepared by the Medico-legal Society of New York City — then in 
the hands of the Legislature — ^was brought before the Society for approval, 
or otherwise. It was explained by Dr. Rogers of New York, and after some 
discussion as to the propriety of encouraging legislative action in behalf of 
the medical profession, a resolution was adopted diM^pprawng of such legis- 
lation, and the proposed law ;~the same conclusion to which this Society 
arrived, some years ago. 

The report of the committee on Medical Education, and resolutions 
submitted and adopted relating to that subject, seem to me a step in the 
right direction, and I would suggest that we follow the example of our 
fflster Society in that particular. 

On the subject of Discipline, the following preamble and resolution was 
adopted : 

*' WhereaSy The Code of Ethics to which this Society and the various 
county societies acknowledge allegiance, provides appropriate and sufficient 
means for obtaining redress in all matters of difference between phyucians; 

^^Besolved, That any physician preferring charges, or against whom 
charges may have been preferred, who shall resort to courts of law or any 
legal process, shall be considered unworthy of membership in medical socie- 
ties, and if a member, he shall be declared expelled by the President at a 
stated meeting of the Society to which the Offender may belong." 

Knowing as I *do a District Medical Society (Hudson) that has been 
subjected to annoyance by members who have appealed to the courts, when 
charges have been preferred against them, I deem it important that similar 
action should be taken by this Society. 

In the evening the address by the President, Dr. Wm. C. Wey, of Elmira, 
delivered in the Assembly Chamber, on ^^ Medical Responsibility and Mal- 
practice," was listened to with profound attention, and appreciated, as it 
deserved to be, by a crowded audience. 

After the address, a splendid, entertainment at the Delavan House was 
enjoyed by the Society, delegates and invited guests. 

The entertainment was informal, and given by Drs. Hun, Quackenbush, 
Swinburne, Bailey, and a few other gentlemen of Albany, whom I, in com- 


mon with many others, have to thank for an evening of social profesaional 
enjoyment rarely equalled. 

Respectfully submitted. J. W. HUNT. 

The delegates to the Medical Society of Pennsylvania had 

been unable to attend the meeting. 


They were, on motion, excused. 

The Corresponding Secretary formally presented Drs. G. 
Buck, B. Kewman, and J. B. Smith, delegates from the Med- 
ical Society of New York. Each duly responded. 

The Secretary also announced that Prof. Lindsley, of the 
Medical Society of Connecticut, had been obliged to return 

The President arose and said : 

It is with great pleasure, gentlemen, that I would welcome you here to-day 
as representatives of our sister Society of New York. 

New Jersey is* a small State, sandwiched between two great ones, and has 
been so long compressed and hid away between her overgrown sisters, that 
it has been denied that she had a separate place as a State in the Union. 
Being wedged in between the two greatest cities of the Union — ^New York 
and Philadelphia — she has been likened to a cider-barrel^ tapped at both 
ends. But, fortunately, her powers of nutrition have always proved equal 
to the emergencies of her position. She has already gained by absorption 
more than she has lost by leakage. Indeed, within the last decade she has 
added to her population sufficient to increase her congressional delegation 
from five to seven members. And in view of these evidences of her growth 
and prosperity, we indulge the hope that her place as sister in the Union 
will ultimately be recognized. But whether our hopes in this respect be 
realized or not, of one thing we are sure, your presence here to-day indicates 
with entire certainty that in this great union and brotherhood of the pro- 
fession, the physicians of New Jersey have a place, and are recognized as 
having a place by their brethren of other States. Permit me again to wel- 
come you to our State, and also to participate in our transactions. 

Dr. G. Buck, by invitation of the Society, made an address 
upon [Reparative Surgery, which was well received, and, on 


motion of Dr. Byerson, the thanks of the Society were voted 
to him for the same. 

Drs. 0. C. Vanderpool, Joseph Parrish, Ferris Jacobs, and 
C. A. Lindsley, having been previously proposed, were duly 
elected honorary members of this Society. 

The honorary degree of M. D. was. conferred upon Dr. 
Wm. Pierson, Sr., by the unanimous vote of the Society. At 
the suggestion of Dr. Lilly, the vote was taken by the mem- 
bers standing, as a mark of respect to Dr. Pierson. 

Dr. Larison, third Vice-President, read his essay, the sub- 
ject of which was " Diseases Prevalent in the Valley of the 

On motion of Dr. Hunt, the thanks of the Society were 
voted to Dr. Larison for his essay, and a copy requested for 
publication with the Transactions. 

Dr. W. W. L. Phillips read a report of an interesting case 
of malignant tumor within the pelvis, in lieu of an essay. 

The miscellaneous order of business having been reached, 
the report of the Committee on Appeal of Dr. Bird was taken ' 
from the table, and after much discussion, which was partici- 
pated in by Drs. E. M. Hunt, Oakley, Watson, Cross, Culver 
and Varick, the following resolutions in reference to the same 
were adopted : 

Meiolpedf That the State Society decides that, by reason of irregularity of 
presentation, no charges are or have been legally before the Hudson County 
Medical Society against Dr. J. Q. Bird. 

Sesolved^ That the rejection of a physician by a District Medical Society is 
evidence of disqualification from consultation "with regular practitioners ; 
t. e., that the decision of a District Society is final, provided that the Society, in 
its action towards the physician, has conformed to its constitution. 

JRe9ohed, That where the- members of the Medical Society are not agreed 
as to the regularity of any practitioner who is not a member of the District 
Society, and have made no formal expression as to him on their minutes, it 




Bhall not be considered ground of action against a member for consultation 
with him, if he has a diploma from a collie recognized by the State Medi- 
cal Society of New Jersey. 

Dr. E. M. Hunt offered the following, which was adopted : 

;^ Be9oU>ed, That the Standing Committee shall be a Committee on Medical 

Ethics and Judicial Business, to whom the State Society may refer all appeals 


from County Medical Societies requiring adjudication, and their report, after 
{ examination in any case, shall be considered final, unless at its regular 

meeting, two-thirds of the Society resolve to take up the case for general 
discussion, and for the action of the Society as a whole. 
r Dr. Lilly introduced the following, which was adopted : 

$;" Beiohed^ That any member of a District Medical Society, against whom 

t* any charge is made in such Society, who shall arrest the action of said 

i^ Society by an appeal to the courts, shall be considered in contempt of the 

^ ; laws goyeming the profession, and, ifm facto^ is to be deemed expelled from 

f'l such Society. 

On motion of Dr. E. M. Hunt, the following was adopted : 

^ BesdUoed^ That a Committee of Three be appointed to inquire into the 

'^ , form and method of membership in the American Medical Association, and 

f- ' to confer with similar committees of any other State Medical Society, and 

^ report at the next regular meeting of this Society. 


The President appointed Drs. E. M. Hunt, S. Lilly and C. 
Hodge on the Committee. 

On motion of the Secretary, the following persons were 
appointed a Committee to revise the By-laws : Wm. Pierson, 
Jr., S. Wickes and S. H. Pennington. 

Dr. Hodge's report on the proposed fee-bill was, after some 
discussion, referred to the Committee on revision of the 

The amendment of By-laws, proposed at the last annual 
meeting, was referred to the above Committee. 

- MINUTES. 88 

Dr. E. P. Townsend offered the following proposed amend- 
ment to the By-laws : 

8bc. 8, Chapter 1. Any physician who has been a member of any District 
Medical Society of this State for a period of not less than five years, and 
during said period acted as a delegate to this Society, may, upon a recom- 
mendation in writing, signed by the President and Secretary of the Society 
to which he belongs, be elected a permanent member of this Association, 
and entitled to all the privileges therefrom accruing, by the consent of a ma- 
jority of the members present at any annual meeting. 

Also proposed to change the numbering of the succeeding 
articles of the By-laws. 

Dr. McGill offered the following : 

Whereas, In order to increase the usefulness and secure a greater interest 
among the professional men of the State, in the Medical Society of New 
Jersey, be it 

Seiolvedy That the representation in the State Medical Society hereafter be 
as follows : Three delegates at large for each District Society, whose mem- 
bership numbers oyer thirty ; two delegates at large for each of said Dis- 
trict Socitfties whose membership numbers over twenty ; and one delegate at 
large for each of the said District Societies whose membership numbers over 
ten. Also two delegates from each of the said Societies. Any delegate who 
shall attend two consecutive meetings, shall be eligible to election as perma- 
nent members. 

This communication and Dr. Townsend's were referred to 
the Special Committee to revise the By-laws. 

The following was received : 

To the PresiderU, Officers and Members of the Medical Society of New Jersey, at 
the anntuU meeting as now assembled in the city of Paterson, this 2Sth of 
May, 1872: 

We, the undersigned, being a Committee for that purpose, appointed by 

the I^Etrict Medical Society of the county of Hunterdon, herewith present 

your honorable body with the ** History of the District Medical Society for 

the County of Hunterdon, from its organization in 1821 to 1871, together 



with the Medical History of the county (as its boundaries now exist) firom its 
first settlement to the present time," for such' action as your honorable body 
shall see fit to adopt in the case. The Committee reserving the right to have 
returned to their historian all papers herewith laid before you, either when 
the same shall be published or otherwise disposed of their use by your hon- 
orable body. 


SAMUEL LILLY, > Gommittee. 


The history was, on motion, accepted, and referred to 
Standing Committee for publication with the Transactions of 
this Society. 

Dr. Quinn, in behalf of the medical staff of St. Joseph's 
Hospital, invited the Society to visit the institution. 

The invitation was accepted. 

The Nominating Committee reported as follows : 

Mr. President and Members of ths New Jersey Medical Society : 

Gentlemen— Your Committee on Nominations would respectfully report 
that they have unanimously agreed upon the following : 

Place of next meeting, Mount Holly. 

President— ¥. Gauntt. 

First Vice-President — T. J. Thomason. 

Second " — George H. Larison. 

Third " —William O^Gorman. 

Corresponding Secretary — William Elmer, Jr. 

Recording Secretary — William Pierson, Jr. 

Treaewrer — H. R. Baldwin. 

Standing (7(w»mitt6«— Stephen Wickes, J. E. Culver, S. C. Thornton. 
Delegates to American Medical Association — Samuel Lilly,' L. W. Oakley, 
J. P. Schenck of Camden, J. A. Cross, Thomas Ryerson, Jos. P. Pinn, A. 
W. Woodhull, L A. Nichols, George Goodell, R. 8. Smith, A, P. Hunt, Chas. 
Hasbrouck, Wm. Elmer, P. G. Paine, O. Barnes, B. A. Watson, Thos. P. 
Cullen, P. P. Brakeley. * 

Delegates to Medical Society of Connecticut ^B. A. Watson, J. E. Culver, C. 
8. Van Riper. 


Ddegatei to Medical Society of New Yorh—IR, M. Hunt, J. A. Cross, J. J. 
H. Loye. » 

Delegates to Medical Society of Massdehusettg—A, W. WoodhuU, Stephen 
Wickes, J. S. Crane. 

Delegates to Medical Society of Pennsylvania — L. C. Osmond, E. P. Town- 
send, Thomas F. Cullen. 

Delegates to Medical Society of Maine^W. H. Hall, S. H. Pennington, Dr. 


T. H. STUDDIFORD, Secretary. 

The report waa accepted, and the place for the next annual 
meeting of this Society, as recommended by the Committee, 
was agreed to by the Society. 

The delegates for the respective Societies, as named by the 
Committee, were duly appointed by the Society. 

An opportunity having been given for the members to 
make other nominations, a ballot was taken, when the gen- 
tlemen named by the Committee for the respective offices 
were declared duly elected ; Drs. Elmer and Hodge acting as 

The President announced Dr. T. H. Studdiford as Essayist 
for the next annual meeting. 

It was voted, that the hour for the next meeting be 7.80 
o'clock, P. M. 

It was voted, that 550 or 600 copies of the Transactions be 
published, as may be deemed expedient by the Committee. 

It was voted, that the Secretary be instructed to procure a 
programme for the next annual meeting of the Society. 

The following bills were presented and ordered to be paid : 

Newark Daily, $1 90 

Wm. Pierson, Jr., . . . . 4 00 

Wm. Elmer, 4 50 

Committee of Arrangements, . . 5 00 


Drs. Stratton, Budd, Thornton and Hodge were appointed 
a Committee of Arrangements for the next meeting. 
On motion of Dr. Woodhull, it was 

Besahed^ That the thanks of the Medical Society of New Jersey be ten- 
dered to the Committee of Arrangements, and to the Medical Society of 
Passaic County for their generous entertainment, and for the ample provision 
made for the transaction of the business of the Society ; also to the Board 
of Freeholders for the use of the court-room. 

Dr. Rogers, in behalf of the members of the Passaic County 
Medical Society, expressed their appreciation of the honor 
and pleasure conferred upon them by the assembling of this 
Society in their county. . 

On motion, the Society adjournecL 

WM. PIER80N, Jr., 

Recording Seeretary. 




Gektlembn : It is my great privilege to meet with you this 
evening to exchange gratulations and fraternal greetings upon 
this auspicious return of our anniversary season. 

To those of us who are accustomed to participate in these 
annual reunions, this is a season hallowed by its associations 
and sacred memories, and pregnant with most hopeful antici- 
pations, — a holy day set apart to commemorate the catholic 
and enlightened action of our fathers in medicine, in estab- 
lishing this Medical Society of New Jersey; — a professional 
sabbath-day, upon which we are permitted to retire, for a 
time, from the ordinary labors of professional life ; to rest 
our tired energies in the enjoyments of social intercourse ; 
to take counsel together for the advancement of our loved 
science, and for the promotion of the interests and the honor 
of the whole profession to which we have pledged our affec- 
tions and dedicated our lives. 

To a participation in these high privileges, gentlemen, I am 
happy in being permitted to bid you welcome. 

On entering upon the duties which you have assigned to 
me, as your presiding officer on this occasion, while I am 
profoundly grateful for this renewed expression of your con- 
fidence and regard, I confess that I am at the same time 
almost painfully conscious of my very limited acquaintance 
with parliamentary proceedings, and my entire ine:!qperience 


in parliamentary practice. But ias we are all of ns equally 
interested in sustaining the dignity and promoting the objects 
of our organization, I shall rely with entire confidence upon 
your co-operation and generous forbearance while I shall 
direct your proceedings, as far as I am able, in accordance 
with the rules of order which the Society itself has adopted 
for the transaction of its business. From our reiterated ex- 
perience at some of the former meetings of the Society, it 
must, I think, be obvious to all of us, that it is only by a 
strict observance of our regular order of proceeding, and by 
the rigid and impartial enforcement of the rules that govern 
all deliberative assemblies, that the business of the Society 
can be transacted with credit to ourselves, or with advantage 
to the cause of medical progress. 

In addressing you this evening, in accordance with the 
uniform practice of my predecessors, the discussion of some 
medical topic of popular as well as professional interest, would 
seem to be peculiarly appropriate to the occasion. 

Our duties as physicians are not confined to the simple 
routine of attendance upon the sick. The protection of the 
health of our clients, from whatever cause it may be threat- 
ened, is really a more important part of our legitimate func- 
tions than the cure of their diseases. JSov are our professional 
responsibilities limited to the narrow circle of private practice. 
The relations which we sustain to the communities in which 
we live, and to the State of which we form a part, impose 
upon us a wider range of obligations in connection with the 
public welfare. As we have met this evening in public 
convention, as the representatives of the profession of the 
State, it is proper, I think, that these public responsibilities 
— the duties growing out of our relations to the community 
— should receive at least a portion of our attention. I beg 
leave, therefore^ to offer for your consideration a topic that is 



intimately connected with both our public and our profes- 
sional relations, viz : 

Popular ignorance of medicine .- Us relations to quackery ; and 
our responsibiMes and duties in connection mth it. 

I know that there are those in the profession who regard 
the discussion of quackery, or anything in relation to it, as 
simply a waste of time ; as entirely barren of all practical 
good results. I am also aware that there are others who 
deprecate such discussion as being beneath the dignity of the 
profession, and actually mischievous in its tendencies. It is 
possible, therefore, that the announcement of my subject may 
be met by some with an impatient " cui bono ? " or a peevish 
and dissatisfied ^^ pooh^ pooh / '' 

But if my faith in scientific medicine be not altogether a 
delusion ; if, indeed, medicine be a science, incompletely de- 
veloped, perhaps, and imperfectly understood, but yet so far 
as it is developed and understood, a science — a system of posi- 
tive facts and their ascertained relations — and not a mere 
jumble of crude dogmas and vague theories and conjectures ; 
and if, as I believe, it is a, science which deals with the ele- 
ments of man^s highest spiritual as well as material interests ; 
and which lies at the foundation of his intellectual and moral 
and religious, as well as his physical well-being, then surely, 
nothing which tends so much as quackery to impair its use- 
fulness, and to hinder its success, can at any time be beneath 
our notice, or unworthy of our careful consideration and dis- 

In presenting this subject, however, it is not my intention 
to read to you an essay upon quackery ; nor shall I enter into 
any discussion of its evils ; nor of the various forms in which 
it shows itself in medicine. Before an audience of educated 
and practicing physicians, such discussion must surely be 



Buperflnons. It is my purpose flimply to direct your attention 
to our own personal relations to quackery — to inquire how far 
through our traditional prejudices against the popularizing of med- 
ical knowledge J we may ourselves be responsible for its presence and 
perpetuation in medicine ; and what are the duties, growing out of 
that responsibility y which are required of uSy individually , and as a 

In the first place, gentlemen, I would observe, that quackery 
is by no means an evil of modern origin ; nor can it right- 
fully claim a medical parentage. On the contrary, it had its 
birth in Eden, when the serpent whispered into the ears of 
Eve, " Ye shall not surely die ; " and the sad story . 

" Of man's first disobedience, and the fruit 
Of that forbidden tree whose mortal taste 
Brought death into the world and aU our woes," 

is the earliest authentic record of its terribly pernicious 
results. It is one of the many forms in which, since that 
eventful day, human depravity crops out into human 'action — 
one of the manifestations of unbelief in the hearts of men — 
one of the outgrowths of the same spirit of infidelity that 
questions the authenticity of the sacred records. 

We see it not only in medicine, but also at the Bar, or even 
on the Bench, " selling judgments for a price," and poison- 
ing the stream of justice at its source. We see it in the 
Teacher's chair, casting its baleful influence over the school- 
room, dwarfing the intellects, corrupting the consciences, 
blighting the afiections, and degrading all the generous emo- 
tions and aspirations of the young. We see it in the Pulpit, 
blatant with affected zeal for God's glory and man's redemp- 
tion, and prostituting the functions of the sacred ofi3lce to the 
basest purposes of selfishness and rascality. We see it in 
politics, in business, in religion, in the benevolent enterprises 



and philanthropic schemes of the day. In short, everywhere 
around ns, wherever cunning and duplicity find a field for 
their profitable exercise, there we find it preying upon 
society, in the assumed garb of patriotism, or philanthropy, 
or religion, a^ may best suit its selfish and sinister designs. 

Now .such being the origin and character of quackery, it 
cannot of course be expected that our profession should 
escape its pollutions. Indeed, it must perhaps be admitted, 
that it prevails to a greater extent in medicine, than in any 
other professional or business pursuit. 

The reason of this, I take it, is sufficiently obvious, and is 
found in the fact that there is no other branch of human 
inquiry, in which mankind have so much and such direct 
personal interest, of which they are, at the same time, so 
generally and so profoundly ignorant ; — no other department 
of human industry, in which popular ignorance and credulity 
ofier so rich a field for the practice of fraud and deception. 

Deception, imposition, fraud, is an important element of 
quackery, — ^its very essence, indeed, — ^and for the successful 
practice of deception, ignorance on the part of the dupe is 
absolutely necessary. One cannot be deceived in matters of which 
one has positive knowledge. If o one, for example, can be quacked 
into the belief that two and two are six. On the other hand, 
mankind are naturally credulous, prone to believe that which 
they wish to be true, and very easily deceived in matters of 
which they are ignorant. 

We see this constantly illustrated in the history of popular 
-humbugs. Take modem spiritualism as an example— a sub- 
ject upon which we all are necessarily ignorant, because it is 
one upon which it is impossible, in the very nature of things,' 
to acquire any positive knowledge. 

All. knowledge is acquired by the exercise of the senses : 
but the very idea of a spirit implies its immateriality, or the 


absence of those very qualities of which alone the senses 
take cognizance. Whether there be spirits or not, therefore, 
and if so, what are their qualities, relations to mankind, 
modes of manifestation, etc., are questions of which we know 
absolutely nothing, and of which, in the very nature of things 
nothing can be known. And yet we daily see men of robust 
intellect^ whose minds have been cultivated to the highest 
point of development and efficiency ; who are competent and 
accustomed to investigate, analyze, compare and classify evi- 
dence — practical experts in " the balancing of probabilities, 
the science of judges ; " and upon whose opinion in matters 
pertaining to their own professions we are accustomed to rely 
with implicit confidence ; who nevertheless become the help- 
less and hopeless dupes of spiritualistic charlatans. 

Now, if the existence of spirits, their qualities, relations, 
manifestations, etc., were matters upon which it were possible 
to acquire positive knowledge ; or were susceptible of being 
known and demonstrated by the ordinary methods of know- 
ing and demonstrating scientific facts, do you suppose it to be 
possible that such men could thus be deceived by the misera- 
ble mummeries of pretended spiritual media ? 

Now what is true of spiritualism, is also true of every other 
form of quackery, and notably so of quackery in medicine ; — 
its successful practice is dependent in a great measure, upon 
the popular credulity that is begotten or fostered by popular 

But it is sometimes said, and perhaps truly, that quackery 
in medicine derives its principal support, not from the igno- 
rant and illiterate, but from the educated and more intelligent 
portions of the community, and therefore, it is argued, educa- 
tion, in point of fact, afiords no protection against fraud and 
deception in medical practice. 

This inference, however, is not strictly warranted by the 



premise. In every community, educated intellect, other cir- 
cumstances being the same, will always exert a controlling 
influence in shaping and directing public opinion. That this 
influence is sometimes exerted in favor of quackery in medi- 
cine, is unfortunately true. But this result, I take it, is due, 
not to the superior intelligence of the educated classes, but to 
their total lack of medical education — their entire want of 
correct or reliable information upon professional topics. For 
it must be remembered that this popular ignorance of medi- 
cine is not confined to the uneducated, but is as general as it 
is profound. There are, it is true, a few members of the 
legal profession who have made medical jurisprudence a spe- 
cialty, and who have taken pains to inform themselves, from 
regular professional sources, as to the exact status of the 
medical sciences; — and these, by the way, are not apt to 
patronize quackery. But with this exception, even our best 
educated citizens are just as ignorant of medicine and the 
science of life, and therefore just as liable to errors of medical 
opinion, and just as likely to be misled by the deceptions of 
quackery in medicine, as the most illiterate boor in the coun- 
try. The only difference between them is in the kinds of 
error to which their ignorance tends, and the forms of quack- 
ery by which they are respectively most readily deceived. 

Persons of ordinary intelligence and refinement, of course, 
are not apt to place confidence in the medical potency of filth 
in such revolting compounds as ^^ swallow's nest pouUiceSj' 
" angling-worm syrwpy' and the like ; nor are men of scientific 
culture at all likely to be misled by the vulgar absurdities of 
" Thompsonianism/' or the pretended mysteries of " Glairvoy- 
anceJ' These, and such as these, are the errors of vulgar and 
uncultivated minds ; of those who are naturally inclined to 
the marvellous in belief, and who instinctively seek in myste- 
rious and supernatural agencies an explanation of the simplest 



natural phenomena. Hence, we always find them to be firm 
believers in the monstrous pretensions of" natural bone-setters/* 
^^ Indian herb docUyrSy^ and the like ; and the fortunate accident 
of being born a " seventh son^^' — particularly if the miraculous 
powers thus conferred be still farther intensified by transmis- 
sion through the blood of a " seventh daughter," — is regarded 
by them as more satisfactory presumptive evidence of medi- 
cal competency and skill, than the hard-earned diplomas of 
our best medical schools, or than years of patient study and 
careful clinical observation. 

Persons of general culture, particularly those who have 
received a scientific education, are not apt to fall into these 
vulgar forms of error, nor to be misled by such gross exhibi- 
tions of ignorance. With them the tendency is to the oppo- 
site extreme of regarding medicine as an eoi:axit science; and 
to an equally irrational confidence in the value of positive 
medication in the treatment of diseases. Being familiar with 
what may be called the philosophy of science, and accustomed 
to trace all physical phenomena, however complicated or ob- 
scure, to the operation of natural causes acting in harmony 
with definite laws, they naturally infer that medicine, if it be 
a science, must be equally definite in its facts and principles ; 
and that the phenomena of life, both in health and disease, 
must be equally susceptible of rational explanation. The 
very prejudices of their education, therefore, in connection 
with their ignorance of medicine itself, incline them to regard 
with confidence any system of quackery in medicine, which 
professes to be built upon a scientific basis. 

This, no doubt, is one of the reasons why- so many of our 
better informed citizens are misled by the pretensions of 
Homeopathy — ^the most irrational, but at the same time, the 
most fashionable form of quackery at present prevalent in the 
community. Being cut off from all reliable sources of med- 



ical knowledge and entirely dependent npon irregular and 
irresponsible pretenders for their information upon medical 
topics, they are necessarily ignorant of eveiything pertaining 
to regular or scientific medicine, and incapable of discrimin- 
ating between truth and error, facts and falsehoods, in medi- 
cal teaching. Moreover, being ignorant of the fact that the 
claims of Homeopathy, and of every other exclusive system 
of practice, have been repeatedly subjected by us to the test 
of thorough investigation and careful clinical experiment; 
and assuming as they do the honesty of homeopathic practice, 
the truthfulness of homeopathic statements, and the genuine- 
ness of pretended . homeopathic facts ; it is by no means sin- 
gular that they should imbibe the most monstrous and exag- 
gerated ideas as to the vagueness and uncertainty of our 
therapeutics ; or that they should learn to regard ^^ simiUa 
simUibus ciiranlur " as the expression of a genuine, therapeutic 
law, based upon actual and universal observation. And with 
all the prejudices of their education prompting them to seek 
in medicine for the same positiveness and certainty which 
they are accustomed to find in the exact sciences, it is not at 
all strange that they should look with favor upon any dogma 
that professes to obviate all uncertainty in medical practice, 
and to reduce the treatment of diseases to the definiteness 
and simplicity of fixed, invariable law. 

But admitting the influence of this popular ignorance in 
the promotion and perpetuation of quackery in medicine, the 
evil, it is sometimes argued, is practically without remedy; 
that from the comprehensiveness and elnt of the medical 
sciences, and the difficulty attending the investigation of vital 
facts and phenomena ; the thorough medical education of the 
public is impossible ; and that in medicine, more than in any 
other department of science, it is especially true, that 

''A little learning Ib a dangerous thing," 



tending to the development of inordinate self-confidence, and 
to the misapplication, or abuse, of imperfect knowledge. 

Medicine is a term that embraces several allied, but dis- 
tinct, sciences, neither of which can be inferred or deduced 
from the others, but all of which must be learnecf by separate 
or distinct processes of observation or study.. For example, 
a knowledge of anatomy does not imply a corresponding 
knowledge of physiology. The physiological functions of 
the organism cannot be inferred a priori from its anatomical 
structure. These are two distinct sciences, and must be 
learned by distinct processes of investigation. So, also, 
although a knowledge of anatomy and physiology is essential 
to a comprehension of the pathological changes to which the 
organism it liable, yet these changes cannot be deduced from 
such knowledge by any process of inductive reasoning. 
Pathology is a distinct science, and must also, be learned by 
direct observation at the bed-side and in the dead-house. 
The same is, if possible, still more strikingly true of thera- 
peutics, or the science of practical medicine. The best anat- 
omist and physiologist, the most accomplished pathologist 
and diagnostician, may yet be entirely ignorant of the thera- 
peutic action and effects of medicinal agents, or the relations 
of medicines to diseased conditions. This is still another 
distinct system of facts and their relations, and can only be 
learned by patient clinical observation and experiment. 

And besides the vast extent and comprehensiveness of the 
medical sciences, the difiiculties attending the investigation 
of vital facts and phenomena in health and disease, and the 
obstacles to their comparison and correct classification are so 
great as necessarily to impart to our generalizations an ele- 
ment of uncertainty that does not pertain to our knowledge 
of the exact sciences. And in view of these facts, it must be 
admitted that the thorough medical education of the public 

■v'Z ;.'■*■. -■'Sfi 


is simply impracticable. But I am not willing to admit that 
sacb thoroughness of education is at all essential as a protec- 
tion against quackery in medicine. Indeed, upon careful 
analysis, we will find that the objection possesses no real 

All human learning is partial, imperfect. There is no 
subject of human inquiry of which it can be said that our 
knowledge is complete. The utmost capacity of the human 
mind is not sufficient to embrace all that is to be known. Every 
forward step in our educational progress reveals more distinct- 
ly the interminable length of the journey before us. The 
highest attainments of the human intellect serve but as stand- 
points, from which we may discover still higher peaks beyond, 
yet unreached and unexplored. As expressed in Byron's 
" Manfred," science itself is 

" Bat an exchange of ignorance for that 
Which is another kind of ignorance ;^' 

And even Sir Isaac Newton, in contemplating the results of 
a life-time spent in the successful investigation of natural 
facts and phenomena, is said to have expressed himself as 
feeling like a little child on the sea-shore, who had only suc- 
ceeded in gathering together a few shells from the exhaustless 
treasures before him. 

The argument, then, however specious it may be, has no 
real value. If applicable to medicine, it applies with equal 
force to every other department of science ; and if followed 
to its legitimate conclusion, it must inevitably lead to the 
abandonment of all educational efforts, and reduce the world 
to the darkness and hopelessness of helpless ignorance forever. 

In point of fact, however, all genuine knowledge is valu- 
able, and to some extent, " a defence." However limited it 
may be, it is conservative in its influence and tendencies, 

• ♦ 





protecting its possessor, in proportion to its extent, against 
^ both his own ignorance and self-conceit and the ignorance 

and pretensions of others. In medicine, as in every other 
department of learning, it is false information — the coun- 
terfeit of real knowledge — ^that misleads the mind, and tends 
to arrogant self-reliance. Bat as even the insignificant light 
of a taper intensifies and renders more apparent the circle of 
darkness by which it is surrounded, so all genuine knowledge, 
even if it be limited to the rudiments of the science, serves to 
reveal the exceeding vastness of the unknown, teaches us 
humility and self-distrust, and exposes the utter worthless- 
ness of all claims to superior skill, that are not based upon 
thorough medical education and large clinical experience. 

Compared with a thorough medical education, I have no 
doubt that 

**A little learning is a dangerous thing/^ 

The danger, however, lies not in the learning^ but in the 
Utile. But the question before us is, not as to the relative 
value of much and little learning, but of a UMe learning and 
none at all, " Drinking deeply " of the " Pierian spring " 
will na doubt sober a brain already intoxicated with ignorance 
and self-conceit. But I have yet to learn that this sort of in- 
toxication is more likely to result from " shallow draughts,*' 
than from total abstinence from the sobering fountain of 

Admitting, then, the impracticability of the thorough med- 
ical education of the people, I deny that such thoroughness 
of education is at all necessary as a protection against quack- 
ery in medicine, any more than in other professional or scien- 
tific or. business pursuits. 

A thorough acquaintance with the mechanic arts is not neces- 
sary to distinguish the skilled workman from the bungling 
cobbler. One need not be thoroughly learned in belles-leUrea to 


detect the pretensions of the literary mountebank. A thorough 
knowledge of the principles and details of the law, is not 
required to protect odrself from the practices of the ** shyster ^^^ 
or legal quack. No more is a thorough or complete medical 
education necessary to discriminate between the conscientious 
and accomplished physician and the irregular and pretentious 

The popular ignorance of which we complain as tending to 
the promotion of quackery in medicine, is not the want of a 
thorough acquaintance with the principles of medicine as a 
science and its details as an art; this can no more be expected 
than the thorough education of the masses in astronomy or 
engineering. But it is the absolute and profound popular 
ignorance of everything relating to medicine and the science 
of life; ignorance not only of what, is positively known, but 
also ignorance of the fact that there is much in medicine that 
is not known ; much that is doubtful, or upon which our in- 
formation but approximates to the truth ; much that is beyond 
the reach of our present means and methods of investigation ; 
much that in our present ignorance of the vita] forces, is 
beyond the scope of our comprehension. And for this condi- 
tion of general and profound popular ignorance, I do insist, 
that we^ as a profession^ are to a very great extent responsible. 

There is in the human mind a strong instinctive desire to 
acquire knowledge ; but in nothing, perhaps, is this disposi- 
tion so strikingly manifested, as in the eagerness with which 
the people read, and even file away for future reference, every- 
thing relating to medicine that comes within their reach — 
even to the filthy advertisements with which our newspapers 
are crowded, and the miserable trash that finds its way into 
our houses, in the shape of advertising circulars, announcing 
some pretended discovery in pathology or therapeutics, or 
extolling the wonderful virtues of some worthless nostrum. 


Now this quality of the human mind is certainly as favor- 
able to the reception of truth as of error in medical teaching. 
And if it were met by us as a profession, in an enlightened 
and truly conservative spirit, it offers the rnost favorable oppor- 
tunities for inculcating correct views of medicine, and for so 
educating the people as to secure their intelligent appreciation 
of the character and claims of the profession, instead of that 
blind and unreasoning confidence which is begotten of igno- 
rance, and which is now bestowed alike, and without discrim- 


ination, upon both merit and pretension — upon the unscrupu- 
lous and illiterate charlatan, as well as the educated and con- 
scientious physician. 

But, unfortunately, in medicine as in matters pertaining to 
our spiritual interests, " the children of this world are in their 
generation wiser than the children of light." A^d while 
those who are devoted to other professions, and to other scien- 
tific and business pursuits, embrace every opportunity, and 
employ every means within their reach to spread abroad 
among the people a knowledge of their respective specialties, 
medicine alone, of all the professions, has . sedulously kept 
itself aloof from the popular mind, enveloped itself in an 
atmosphere of mystery, atid permitted the popular estimate 
of its merits to be based exclusively upon the false teachings 
of traveling mountebanks, and the lying circulars of adver- 
tising quacks. 

In the language of Dr. Shrady, of the New York Medical 
JRecordj " Like unto a thoroughly ancient and respectable order, 
we have become so accustomed to treasure up our own legends, 
to hand down our watchwords, to nurse our old prejudices, to 
wrap ourselves so much within ourselves, that we seem utterly 
oblivious to the changes that have been wrought around us. 
4e 4t ♦ 4t « ♦ Jq every other department of science, the 
public have been educated to discriminate between true and 


aunual asdbesb. 61 

bat in respect of such knowledge of medicine, 
itand to them in the same relation as we did a 

these circumstances, gentlemen, we snrely have 
mplain of the errors and abeardities of popu- 
ef ; and more than this, we have only ourselves 
le facility with which even our best informed 
ped by the various forms of quackery which 

hen, the influence of this popular ignorance in 
)f quackery in medicine, and the necessity of 
1 diffaBion of medical knowledge among the 
ans of correcting the evil, the question arises: 
I may this result be most judiciously accom- 
piisnea i 

It is not my present purpose to enter into the discussion of 
this part of my subject, except so far as the duties required of 
us as physicians may be especially involved in its considera- 
tion. And in view of oor own responsibility for the existing 
state of popular ignorance upon matters pertaining to our 
profesBion, I would, in the first place, remark, that it is our 
first and most important dnty to rid ourselves of those intense 
professional prejudices, and that exaggerated spirit of pro- 
fessional exelusiveness which have so long controlled our 
policy, crippled our energies, and restricted our sphere of 
professional usefulness. 

We live in times of tremendous mental as well as physical 
activity. In the achievements of intellect, and in scientific 
progress, with all their supplemental influences upon the 
social relations and the habits of popular thought and feeling, 
the changes of centuries are now compressed within decades. 
The cheapening of intelligence, and its rapid and general dif- 
fusion among the people, by the steam-press and electric tele- 



Fit .. 




rt •>. 



graph^ have opelied up new channels of popular thought, and 
developed a spirit of inquiry among the masses which is no 
longer satisfied with naked assertion, or the dogmatic state- 
ment of results, but which, with the pertinacity that was so 
offensive to the fat knight, obstinately demands to know the 
|f reasons why. 

Now the relations which the profession sustains to the pub- 
lic, have necessarily been very materially modified by these 
I . changes in the public mind and character. The traditional 

snuff-box and gold-headed cane, the conspicuous equipage, the 
stilted pomposity of language and deportment, and the affect- 
ation of profound mystery, which a century ago constituted 
so large a portion of the physician's stock in trade, no longer 
p- pass current as evidences of learning and skill, except with 

^ the very ignorant. However mortifying it may be to our 

^\ vanity, or however much it may conflict with our prejudices, 

S or shock our notions of professional dignity, it nevertheless 

^^ remains a fact, that with the more intelligent masses of the 

f^ community, medicine to-day stands upon precisely the same 

^' footing as any other legitimate business pursuit, and is just as 

dependent upon the popular appreciation and favor, both for 
its means of support, and also for the opportunities for fulfill- 
ing its benevolent and humanitarian mission. As with every 
other business calling, mankind will exercise their undoubted 
right of discussing its merits, and canvassiog its claims to 
their confidence and patronage. And whether their judgment 
shall be intelligent or otherwise, depends upon whether their 
opinions shall be based upon authentic medical facts, and 
reliable information derived from the profession itself, or upon 
the false statements and reckless assumptions of unprincipled 
and irresponsible pretenders. 

In view of these facts, gentlemen, the question arises — 
shall we continue to nurse our old prejudices that were begot- 





ago, when medicine was held in exaggerated and 
reverence by an ignorant populace as one of the 
ea pertuning to the functions of the priesthood ? 
bsnrd notion that an increase of knowledge 
ople will lead to its abuse, shall we continue to 
y avenae to correct information upon medical 
ihall we place ourselves fally in harmony with 
<ur own times; become oarselves the teachers 
kmong the people, and by appealing to the in- 
mscience of the Nineteenth Century, enlist its 
mergies in behalf of the truths that we have 
BO sednlouBly guarded from popular encroacb- 

i, the proper answer to these questions is not at 
Bii uuuuiiui. I can conceive of no good reason why we should 
yield to irresponsible and medically uneducated pretenders, 
the advantages which they now possess in their assumed 
character of medical reformers. On the contrary, it seems to 
me that the dictates of sound policy, aa well as the higher 
considerations of moral obligation, impose upon UB the duty 
of asserting our just prerogatives in this respect, and of as- 
suming onr own proper place as teachers of medicine, as well 
aa students and practitioners — as the only authentic expositors 
of what is really known of the science of life. As a profes- 
sion, we Burely have no mysteries to conceal ; no fraudulent 
practices to hide from the public eye. We do not doubt the 
facta and principles upon which our doctrines and practice 
are founded. By thorough invcBtigation, and careful clinical 
experiments, we have repeatedly proved the worthlessnesB of 
opposing systems, and the falsity of the dogmas upon which 
they profess to be based. Why then should we continue to 
hoard np within ourselves our accumulated wealth of profes- 
eional knowledge, or to hide it away from the popular appre- 


apder the impenetrable garb of ponderous techoicali- 

ly part, gentlemen, I have no sympathy with that spirit 
laivenesB, or that impracticable sort of Qltra-conserra- 
at woald confine the knowledge of medicine to the 
an itself, or that would prohibit the public discuasion 
Ij professional topics. I know that there are those in 
essioD who deprecate such discasslon, as being uudig- 
id unprofeBsional ; and who object to all such attempts 
lish the claims of medicine to the public confidence, 
iding the profesBion to a position of apparent rivalry 
egular practitioners and irregular systems of practice, 
ive too much respect for the popular intelligence, and 
:h confidence In medicine itself, to believe that its hold 
ipular favor can in any way be impaired by the public 
on of its facts and principles, or by the frank and full 
tatement of its character and merits. On the contrary, 
age of general education, it is only by such public 
on that its claims can be thoroughly understood or 
J established. I believe in medicine as Milton did in 
of religions faith, that " whatever winds of doctrine 
oose to play upon the world, so truth be in (he field, 
Lnjurionsly, by licensing and prohibiting, to misdoubt 
ngth. ^ Let her and falsehood grapple, for whoever yet 
■uth put to the worse in a free and open encounter ?" 
but recently that the attention of the profession has 
rected to the popularizing of medical knowledge, as a 
)f correcting the popular tendency to qnackery; and 
eethasnotyetreceivedthe consideration its importance 
In 1868, it was first brought before the American 
I Association by Dr. Palmer, of Michigan, in his report 
irman of the Committee on Medical Education ; and 
leral feeling of the profession, at that time, may be 


inferred from the fact that no action whatever was taken upon 
it. Since then, however, the subject has been discussed to 
some extent in some of the medical journals, and the time, I 
think, is not far distant, when we shall be constrained to take 
some definite action upon it. 

In discussing this question, I apprehend that we are too apt 
to regard it exclusively from a professional stand-point, and 
without sufficient reference to the mutual relations of interest 
and dependence, which do exist between the profession and 
the public. 

That the interests and welfare of the community are indis- 
solubly bound up with those of the profession, we are all 
ready to admit. But we are not all so prompt to recognize, 
nor to accept the fact, that medicine, as a profession or a busi- 
ness, is just as dependent upon an intelligent popular appre- 
ciation of its character and claims. Without this, we are 
entirely helpless for good, and it therefore becomes our duty, 
as well as our interest, to convince the popular judgment, in 
order to secure the popular co-operation and support. 

In presenting this subject to the American Medical Asso- 
ciation, Dr. Palmer, in the report above alluded to, in refer- 
ence to this point, remarks : ^^ In monarchies, whose genius 
it is to maintain right by force, and where the privileges of 
physicians and the protection of the community are secured 
by rigid li^s, physicians may stand aloof from the people, 
addressing themselves upon professional subjects exclusively 
to their class. But in this country, and at the present time, 
no profession can do its full work except upon the principle of edu- 
cating the people, and appealing to them as umpires. They are the 
judges as to patronage and support ; why not prepare them to 
judge? Here we have no legal protection against stupidity 
and pretensions, and if these are to be overcome, it must be 
by the power of truth." 


this dependence of eveiy profeeaioii upon enlightened 
opinion, ia in entire harmony with the whole theory of 
rernment — the direct and necessary result of the prin- 
ipon which all our institotions are based. And in view 
liberal and eminently practical tendency of the medical 
it is amazing that ours ia the only profession that has 
:o recognize the fact, or to accept the necessity that it 
B — that ours is the only legitimate professional calling 
.11 continues to shrond itself in mystery, and practically 
that its own ipse dixit shall be accepted as the anques- 
rule of the popular &ith. 

extreme ezclaeiTeness of the regularly educated pro- 
, by the way, is he^nning to he regarded with amaze- 
!Ten by the general or non-professional public, the better 
ed portions of whom do not hesitate to fling it into our 
3 a sufficient if not satisfactory apology for the popular 
cy to patronize quackery. In this connection, I beg 

read to you a few pertinent suggestions that were 
y addressed to the profession by an educated and most 
;ent layman, at the graduating exercises of one of oar 
rominent medical colleges. 

rring to this intensity of the professional feeling as one 
inevitiible outgrowths of the close and constant study 

necessary to master the almost infinite details of the 
A sciences, the gentleman alluded to remarks : — " This 
ce is natural, therefore, and in part unavoidable. Bat 

to show you that it is on,e of those limitations of your 

1 which is to he struggled against, not fostered. The 
ization of knowledge for purposee of investigation, 
)e reconciled with the great canse of the difiasion of 
3dge, which Is the education of the world. 

)w this can be done, for it has been done in other 
es of sciences. Here is a layman's experience. When 


we meet an engineer, an inventor, a naturalist, we find him 
eager to tell us all he can of his art. The foremost of these 
men stand in popular lecture-rooms, giving the broad outlines 
of their knowledge to the public. Tour mystery is the only 
one on which a popular lecture is unheard of, and would be 
monstrous. It is the least communicative, and the least in 
contact with public opinion, of all the professions. It is said 
that any attempt to spread medical knowledge abroad would 
be but to multiply quackery, and would lead men rashly to 
practice on themselves and others that vague half>knowledge 
which is the worst form of ignorance. I answer that it is 
ignorance that is your obstacle now ; it is ignorance that 
makes the vulgar mind run to quacks and pretenders, and to 
distrust true science ; and is your remedy to be, more igno- 
rance? To cure darkness by excluding light; to cure folly 
by shutting out wisdom is a shining instance of homoeopathic 
practice. The state of the popular mind shows the results. 
Law is studied in schools, and freely discussed everywhere, 
and the public understand it well enough not to p^^actice it. 
Listen to the people's proverbs. They say, *A man who tries 
his own cause has a fool for his client.' If they understood 
medicine as well, they would feel and say, as they do not now, 
^ The man who doctors himself has a fool for his patient.' 
But what they do say now is to disparage your skill, 
and tell usabsurdly that ^ every man at forty is a fool or a 

^' The same atmosphere of professional exclusiveness once 
surrounded all learning, but it has now passed away from 
most branches. The astrologer dealt in signs and wonders; 
but the great truths of astronomy have become part of the 
common-stock of school-boy learning and popular literature. 
Yet the people in general know they cannot predict eclipses 
or discover asteroidsy nor do they listen to ignorant pretend- 






era with new and wild theories. The better any science is 
known to the public mind, the more that mind clings to the 
real masters of the science. ***** 

" Your profession has already made most splendid contribu- 
tions to the common stock of intelligence, and has acted power- 
fully on the general mind; but it has done so in spite of the 
professional spirit, and not by its direct influence. • * * » 
The precious store the physicians carry down the ages, leaks 
out on every side, and filters through thought and custom, 
transforming our lives. The single discovery of Jenner, 
taught and practiced by enlightened physicians until it is a 

f^ social law, has doubtless saved more lives, and contributed 

more to the wealth and happiness of mankind than all the 
direct treatment of diseases by all the physicians that ever 

** So it is with the triumphs that await medicine in the 
future. Why are these sects and schools in this commu- 
nity, which claim to rival scientific medicine in popular 
favor, and even to drive it from the field ? It is because of 
the very ignorance among the people which your professional 
exclusiveness fosters. You withhold from them the very 
means of judging your claims, and understanding your value. 
I have heard within two weeks, in a large company of intel- 
Jigent people, a serious discussion of the pretended curative 
power in the will of a quack, applied by manipulations of 
diseased ors^ans. Such a fact seems to me to be a reproach 
to the physicians of the community. If they had done their 
full duty in the education of the people, we should hear no 
more of mesmeric doctors, vegetable eclectics, dilute poten- 
cies and patented panaceas. These things would have gone 
to their own place in the limbo of amulets, horoscopes 
and witchcraft. To drive all these superstitions from the 

i{ world is a worthy task for a noble science; but it must 


be done by diffusing knowledge, not by [wrapping it up in 

Gentlemen, it is a good thing sometimes 

" To see oursels as ithers see us/' 

And the above criticisms and suggestions may safely be 
accepted by us as a truthful expression of the feelings excited 
in the minds of the non-professional public by this strange 
idiosyncrasy of our professional character — " this exaggerated 
development of the professional spirit in scientific medicine." 
Coming, as they do, from one who is a warm friend of the 
profession, as well as an active advocate of reform, they are 
certainly entitled to our respectfill attention ; and in the hope 
that they may 

" frae monie a blander free us, 

And foolish notions,^' 

I would most earnestly commend them to your thoughtful 

In view of the exclusively practical and progressive tenden- 
cies of the medical mind, it is scarcely necessary for me to 
take up your time in suggesting the methods, or specific 
means by which this evil of popular ignorance may be most 
efficiently corrected. 

Medicine is the most progressive of all the professions. Its 
instincts are more intensely democratic, and, except in mat- 
ters purely ethical, it has less reverence for authority, and is 
less bound by precedent, than any other. And if it could 
but divest itself of its prejudices of education, and its tra- 
ditional habits of feeling upon the subject of its ethical 
relations to the community, I have no doubt that it would 

* Address to the graduating class of the College of Physicians and Sur- . 
geons of New York, March 1, 1871. By Chablton T. Lewis. 




almoet intoitivelj glide into that channel of policy which is 
best adapted to secnre the results desired. Indeed, for this 
purpose, we have but to follow the example already set for us 
by the sister professions, and to impress into our own service 
the instrumentalities already within our reach. 

In this connection I would remark, in passing, that what- 
ever is worth knowing is also worth being learned early in 
life ; and there are some branches of medical science that 
may with great propriety be taught to our children at school. 
Such is especially the case with those branches which, in the 
certainty of their facts and principles, have obtained somewhat 
to the position of positive sciences. Anatomy, physiology, 
hygiene, etc., for example, although not exhaustively devel- 
oped, perhaps, have yet attained a good degree of definite- 
ness in their tacts and relations. They are also sciences, a 
knowledge of which is essential to the intelligent and satis- 
factory discharge of our duties as citizens; and they are 
branches of study which are within the comprehension even 
of childi^en, and which can scarcely fail to excite their inter- 
est and attention. As exercises for the development of mind, 
therefore, — for the cultivation of the observing and reflective 
K intellect, — they possess a value but little, if any, inferior to 

that of the exact sciences. There is, therefore, no good 
reason why they should not be introduced into our schools as 
a necessary part of common-school education. And if the 
foundations thus laid in our primary schools were still farther 
built upon and strengthened in the academies and colleges of 
the country, I believe that it would result in the erection of a 
more certain barrier of defence against the impositions of 
quackery in medicine, than all the special legislation that was 
ever devised for the protection of the community against this 
But of all the modern agencies for the correction of popu- 





lar errors and the diffasion of knowledge among the people, 
there is none, in this country at least, that can compare in 
power and efficiency with the popular periodical press. To 
this instrumentality, more than to any other, perhaps, is the 
world indebted for the extraordinary advances that have been 
made during the last generation in our knowledge of the 
sciences and the arts, and of everything which tends to the 
progress and welfare of the race. 

In common with other professions, medicine has impressed 
this tremendous power into its own service. But, unlike 
every other, it has been careful to restrict its operation and 
influence to the profession itself — to the education of its own 
members. While every other profession has made use of the 
periodical press, both popular and professional, for the en- 
lightenment of the public upon t^eir respective callings, any 
such employment of this agency on our part, is condemned 
by the general sentiment of the profession, if not by the 
exact letter of our code of ethics. 

Kow this, it seems to me, is a great mistake ; and it is one 
of which the enemies of scientific medicine have not been 
slow to take advantage. The non-professional public, of 
course, cannot appreciate the motives of our reticence ; and, 
in the absence of all eflTort on our part to correct the mis- 
statements of pretenders to the doctorate, their false teach- 
ings, as found in the 'secular press, are accepted by the 
masses as genuine expositions of medical science and reform. 

This is a mistake, however, which I think will ultimately 
be corrected by the general employment of the periodical 
press as the medium of communication between the profee- 
sion and the public. Indeed, I believe that even now the 
publication of popular medical journals, under the auspices 
and authority of the profession, and devoted to the discussion, 
in language adapted to the popular comprehension, of the 



facts and principles of medicine, its history, ethics, and every 
thing relating to professional matters, would prove to be one 
of the most efficient of all agencies for the education of the 
public, the suppression of quackery, and the elevation of the 
profession in the popular confidence and favor. 

I am aware that these suggestions are exceedingly radical ; 
and I submit them, therefore, with great hesitancy. But we 
know that these results do follow the popularising of profes- 
sional knowledge in other specialties ; — and why not in ours ? 
For example : the proceedings of the courts, the arguments 
of counsel upon intricate questions of law, and the decisions 
of judges, with the principles and precedents upon which 
they are based, are now regarded as a necessary portion of 
the contents of the daily journals ; and as the results of this 
practice, we see that the people have learned that the law is 
an intricate and profound science ; that they avoid a petti- 
fogger as they would a pestilence ; and place their confidence 
alone in those who are masters of the science ; — and for the 
life of me, I cannot comprehend why the same results should 
not follow the operation of the same causes in our own pro- 

But while very much may thus be accomplished by us in 
the way of reform ; yet after all it is not so much by the con- 
certed or associated action of the profession, as through the 
direct, personal efforts and agency of individual members 
within their respective spheres of duty, that the power and 
influence of the profession over the popular mind and char- 
acter may be most efficiently brought to bear. 

It is not necessary for me, before an audience of practical 
physicians like this, to do more than simply refer to the 
exceedingly intimate and confidential relations which physi- 
cians sustain to their patients and patrons, to indicate the 
tremendous influence they are able to exert, in shaping public 


[q moulding the habite of popular feeling and 
a matter of fact, this infiuence is wielded, either 

ar evil, by every physician in actual practice. 

:now it or not ; whether he intend it or not, his 
language, his example, his opiuioDS, whether 

elesaly expressed, like seed scattered upon the 
find their proper bed in the prolific soil 
whether they be tares or wheat, they will ulti- 

36 of their kind a most abundant harvest. And 
this subtle personal influence of the physician, 

shore of hia associations and relations, that I 

arneatly invoke in behalf of the popular enlight- 

for the correetion of the popular tendency to 

Eed, how may this personal inBuence be most 
!rted to this end ? I answer, — not by occasional 
orts, or by a few popular lectures designed for 
at of a winter's evening. Not by dogmatic self- 
the pooh-poohing of popular errors and mis- 
ly ridicule, nor sarcasm, nor wit : but by patient 
ndeavor to inform the popular understanding 
a the public conscience ; by the conscientious 
he frauds perpetrated npon the ignorance of the 
y unscrupulous charlatans ; and by the simple 
ignity of truthfulness and sincerity, in all our 
id associations with our patients and the public, 
t the main supporters of quackery and purchas- 
Qostrums are the ignorant and superstitions, and 
e can be expected from appeals to the under- 
mch. Bat the ignorant masses of the people, 
patronizers of quackery because they are bqb- 
couraged by the example of those to whom they 
id to look for counsel and direction. 




4r . 



In every community there are always a few prominent, 
^ educated and influential men — clergymen, members of the 
Bar, and leading business men of different callings — by whom 
I* public opinion is, in a great measure directed; whose influ- 

%,' ence permeates the whole community; and whose example 

C, is felt even in the minutest details of social life. These gen- 

^^ erally are energetic men, of robust common sense, whose 

r opinions are based upon what seems to them to be reliable 

^ evidence, and whose convictions cannot be shaken by ridicule 

^^' alone. 

I; In common with the rest of the non-professional public, 

*^ these men are necessarily ignorant of everything relating to 

?v scientific medicine, and therefore are occasionally misled by 

^^ the pretentious impositions of Homoeopathy, or of other sys- 

tems of quackery. Deriving all their information upon med- 
ical topics from irregular and irresponsible sources — from 
those who are the enemies of scientific medicine — ^they will 
talk to us about "the old system of practice," or "the old 
school of medicine ; " honestly believing, no doubt, that we 
do practice after some especial system based upon some 
exclusive dogma, to which they have been taught that we 
are so wedded that we refuse to examine into the merits of 
what they conceive to be " new systems," or to subject the 
claims of such to the test of actual clinical experiment. 

Now, it is to the enlightenment of this more intelligent 
portion of the community that our personal infiuence should 
be especially directed. We know that medicine is not exclu- 
sive in its doctrines nor practice. On the contrary, it is the 
• most progressive of all the professions — truly eclectic in its 
habits — trying all things — even to the vagaries of Hahneman 
— ^but holding fast only to that which is good. Of these facts 
it surely cannot be difficult to convince the better informed 
and more thoughtful portion of our citizens. But it must be 


done, not by dogmatic aelf-asaertion, nor by the hasty ridi- 
culing of their errors and mistakes, bat by the patient, faith- 
ful, and conscientious presentation of the truth. 

Another mode in which this personal influence of the pro- 
fession may be efficiently brought to bear upon the popular 
mind and conscience, is by ike force of correct teaching and 
example in the sick-room; by the perfect rectitude of our own 
lives ; and hy the careful avoidance of evei*y thing like quackery in 
our own conduct and character. 

I do not now refer to the thousand and one vulgar forms in 
which the spirit of quackery will sometimes show itself in the 
sick-room. We all know, for example, that some practitioners 
appear to be so unfortunate as always to have an excessively 
large proportion of grave cases— diphtheria, typhoid fever, 
cerebro-spinal meningitis, etc., etc., being as common in their 
practice, as diarrheas and common colds are in the practice 
of others. And yet we do not hear of more than the average 
number of funerals among their patients. The inference is 
obvious : their skill in treatment must be extraordinary. 

So also we occasionally meet with practitioners who are 
always so oppressed with business as scarcely to find time to 
eat or -sleep. And yet they seem to be very wakeful, and 
have considerable license for gossip and Mrs. Grundy, and 
certainly appear to be well nourished. I recollect an instance 
in which a country practitioner of this class failed to keep a 
consultation appointment for 12 o'clock, M., and on arriving 
one hour later, apologized by saying that he had left home in 
the morning with the intention of visiting only twelve patients, 
but when he arrived in the neighborhood in which these 
patients lived — some miles from his own home, by the way — 
he had been obliged to visit eight others whom he had not 
expected to see ; thus making a total of twenty patients in 
twenty fiamilies, that he had visited and prescribed for on a 



iming, ID a conntry district, and several miles away 
3wn residence ! Indeed, to me it has always been a 

astonishment, how easy practitioners of this class 

visit forty, sixty, or even a hnndred patients in a 
a for the life of me, in the same time, and over the 
ds, and the same district of conntry, I never coald 
igh with more than half of the smallest of these 

and do justice either to myself or my patients, 
however, and other similar modes in which the spirit 
jry sometimes shows itself, are so exceedingly petty 
ir, that I need not do more than merely refer to them 
it there are other directions in which even conscien- 
sicians are Bometimes liable to err without knowing 
Ives — other modes in which our influence, however 
onally, may yet tend to the encouragement of qnack- 
) community. To a few of these I beg leave to refer, 
■igin of most popular errors in medicine may he 

similar errors in the profession itself, at the time 
dicine consisted of little else than crude dogmas and 

theories. Even at the present time, notwithstand- 
Ktraordinary advances which have been made in the 
od the art during the last quarter of a century, the 
;rednlity that leads into quackery too often has its . 
loint in a similar credulity that still shows itself in 
ample : the constant and andue reliance that people 

place upon drugs in their sickness, is but an ont- 
f the same false estimates that physicians appear to 
Jie value of positive medication in the treatment of 

I the popular error that every disease has a distinct 
identity, or separate individual existence, requiring 
jcial antidote, or specific treatment, to eradicate it 


from the system, is the legitimate result of the ^^post hoCy ergo 
propter hoc '* mode of reasoning which, even at the present 
time, is too often adopted by ns in actual practice. 

Then, again, the popular tendency to run after new reme- 
dies, or new theories of treatment, or so-called " new systems 
of practice," is fully warranted by the same tendency in the 
profession itself. 

We need not go back a hundred years to the time of 
" Perkins' Metallic Tractors,'* nor even seventy-five years to 
the time when Hahneman made the astonishing discovery 
that all diseases arise from ^^ latent itch " in the system, and 
proposed to cure them all by infinitismal doses of the thirtieth 
dilutions duly potentiated by downward shakes, for examples 
of this tendency in the profession to run into certain fashions 
of medicine, or to accept conclusions upon very insufficient 
evidence. Any one who has made the history of medicine 
for the last fifty years his study, must have seen abundant 
proofs of this disposition, even in the best informed and most 
conscientious physicians. Who of the elder brethren among us 
does not remember when "liver complaint" was the great 
bugbear of his life, and when mercury to salivation was re- 
garded as the only agent that could cast this devil out 7 Who 
even of the middle-aged of our members does not recollect 
when " spinal irritation " offered a ready and sufficient explan- 
ation of most of the aches and pains of our invalid population, 
and when blisters and croton oil were in constant demand as 
spinal counter-irritants ? The time is within my own recol- 
lection when "prolapsus uteri" bore all the blame for nearly 
all female weaknesses, and when physicians purchased " sup- 
porters" by the dozen, to hold the uterus up by pressing the 
bowels doim by means of a pad placed over the hypogastrium. 
And how long is it, I would ask, since induration and hyper- 
trophy of the cervix uteri and ulceration of the os, usurped 

,^^„:it ■■••V 

,.{:■? ' 



MEDICAL (Sochbtt olr new jbbsey. 


the place of prolapsas, and when physicians visited their 
patients with speculum and porte caustique in hand, and 
always ready for use ? For my part, I confess that I look 
back with regret to the time, soon after the publication of 
Bennet's work on the uterus, when, notwithstanding the con- 
servatism of my disposition, I could scarcely find a healthy 
womb even among the hardy women of an extensive country 

This tendency in the profession to run into certain fashions 
in medicine, or to attach undue importance to certain meas- 
ures or methods of treatment, or to certain symptoms, or 
groups of symptoms, is one of the evils growing out of the 
present progressive or transition state of our science. Never- 
theless it is an evUj and must be corrected in ourselves, if we 
would hope to correct the same tendency in the popular mind. 

Now, for the correction of the popular errors already re- 
ferred to, and others to which it is not necessary for me to 
direct your especial attention, our personal influence as phy- 
sicians, within our respective spheres of labor, may be most 
efficiently brought to bear. In our daily intercourse with our 
patrons we should be teachers of medicine, as well as practi- 
tioners. Our patients should be our pupils. The sick-room 
should be our school -room, in which, by precept and example, 
we should labor patiently and conscientiously to enlighten 
and convince those with whom we are brought into associa- 
tion. And there is every reason to hope that our efforts in 
this direction would be followed by an encouraging degree of 

We know, for example, that diseases are not personal enti- 
ties, but simply derangements of the vital actions, resulting 
in morbid changes in the structure and functions of the 
organism. We know that these derangements and changes 
are usually self-limited, and for the most part remediable by 


the natural recuperative powers, provided we can place our 
patients in 'harmony with the natural hygienic conditions. 
We know that our measures of treatment are adopted, not 
because of any specific relations existing between our reme- 
dies and the disease itself, but simply for the correction of 
those general or local statis, which interfere with or obstruct 
the "vis medicairix natures '^ in its healthful activity. And 
knowing these facts ourselves, it cannot surely be difficult to 
teach them to our patients. 

I know that it is objected that we cannot make our patients, 
or nurses comprehend the rationale of our therapeutics — the 
philosophy of our measures of treatment — ^but I do not believe 
it. If we can arrive at a diagnosis satisfactory to ourselves^ and 
adopt a line of treatment that will meet the indications of the 
case to our own satisfaction ; I apprehend that we will have 
but little difficulty in making others comprehend the why 
and wherefore of our prescriptions. And in those cases — 
by no means rare — in which we cannot reach a satisfactory 
diagnosis, or are in doubt as to the indications of treatment, 
while we watch the developments of the case, and confine 
ourselves to the treatment of symptoms as they arise, is it not 
wiser as well as more truthful, frankly to acknowledge the 
fact, rather than to deceive our patients by the administration 
of phceboSj or to claim or accept for ourselves, the credit of 
results which are due to the natural operations of the vital 
forces, over which we have exerted no control whatever ? 

For my part I have no doubt of it. Even as a simple mat- 
ter of policy, and independently of the higher question of 
right or morality, I have entire confidence in the efficacy of 
sincerity and truthfulness in our professional as well as our 
social intercourse with our patients. For, unless properly 
informed, people always regard every change that occurs in * 
the progress of diseases, as the direct result of the specific 





action of the drugs employed, and are necessarily incompe- 
tent to form any jast conception of the learning and skill 
that are necessary to adapt our measures of treatment to the 
actual conditions of our patients— to know not only when and 
what to do^ but also what and when to abstain from doing. 
They can, therefore, only give the practitioners credit for the 
^, mere routine knowledge required to apply specific medicines 

to specific diseases. And can you be satisfied with this, gen- 
tlemen ? Are you willing to be judged by the same standard 
of merit by which the Brandredths and Moflits, and Town- 
sends and Thompsons of quackery have become famous and 
rich ? Is not this the same credulity, and the> same ^^post hoc^ 
propter hoc " mode of reasoning that we condemn in the fol- 
lowers of Hahneman ? And so long as we are content to 
accept for ourselves the credit of cures that are effected by 
the " vis medicairix naturoe/' can we consistently ridicule their 
credulous belief in dilute potencies, or in the curative powers 
of infinitessimal doses of the thirtieth dilutions of sulphur or 
oyster shells?'' 

As a mere matter of interest or credit, therefore, I believe 
that physicians lose a great deal by their arbitrary and dog- 
matic manner of prescribing for their patients. I believe 
that we would all of us be able to attain a greater degree of 
success in our practice, and secure a stronger hold upon the 
confidence of our patrons and the public, if instead of an abrupt 
and arrogant " do this," and " do thatj^ we were to be more 
patient and considerate in explaining to those who are under 
our care, as far as possible their symptoms and conditions^ 
and the rationale of our measures and means of treatment. 
Besides, in this way, and without any sacrifice of dignity or 
propriety, we would soon teach our nurses and attendants 
upon the sick to become active, intelligent, interested and 
watchful co-laborers with ourselves in the work of cure, 


instead of their being, as now, mere automatic machines for 
the regular administering of drugs. Moreover, we could 
scarcely fail, in this way, to impress upon the minds of those 
with whom we are brought into contact, the fact that medi- 
cine is of all the sciences the most difficult and obscure, re- 
quiring in its followers not only the highest order of observing 
and reasoning intellect, but also the utmost thoroughness of 
preparatory culture. 

And finally, gentlemen, it is scarcely necessary to say to 
you, that it is only by maintaining for ourselves the highest 
possible standard of education and morality, that we can any 
of us hope to exert any influence whatever upon the public 
mind for good, either in the suppression of quackery and the 
elevation of the profession in the public confidence, or even 
in retaining for it its present position in the popular regard. 

This necessity is so obvious as to need no extended remark, 
and with the constant increase of knowledge among the peo- 
ple, is daily becoming more and more positive and urgent. 
An ignorant practitioner is always, and under all circumstan- 
ces, a disgrace to his profession ; and in an intelligent com- 
munity he is sure ultimately to become an object of contempt. 
But in view of the sacred character of the relations that he 
sustains to his patients and patrons, the physician who does 
not at all times recognize the supremacy of conscience, is 
simply a moral monstrosity. 

We cannot all become eminent in our profession, perhaps, 
nor leaders in the work of medical progress and reform. 
Talent is a natural endowment ; and there is a limit to mental 
development in every person, beyond which he cannot go. 
But we may all of us at least become earnest, industrious, 
and conscientious students and co-laborers in the field. Above 
all, we may all of us be the masters of our own morals. We 


of ua make troth our aim, and the love of truth the 
principle of our liTea. And " nnder its direction," 
iw the language of one of oar eideat and most honored 
, " the humbleBt mental powers will be often led to 
tellectaal apprehensions : without it, the most brilliaat 
m\l as often, by its own inspirations, be seduced into 
iQS error."* 

pEnHinoTOH, U. D., ADonal Address befoie the Bociety, Hay 8lb, 




" Diseases Prevalent in the Valley of the Delaware " is the 
subject I have selected for this occasion. My theme belongs 
to that department of the science of Medicine that treats of 
the manner, and endeavors to investigate the conditions under 
which diseases in general are distributed, but more especially 
as they are confined to certain districts. Plants and animals 
vary in their physiological conditions according to different 
degrees of latitude, or with the difference of equal temper- 
ature and moisture north and south of the equator. So do 
the pathological characters of disease differ among the differ- 
ent races of men, as they ar^ distributed over the earth. 

The geographical limits of particular diseases are to an 
extent explained by meteorology and climatology, and their 
distribution regulated according to atmospheric temperature, 
and moisture, the electricity, and density of the air, and the 
vegetation with which they are surrounded. These causes 
aid to determine some of the laws by which diseases may be 
geographically distributed ; but the special diseases of coun- 
tries have other concurrent causes which also must be taken 
into account : such as the geological structure and elevation 
of the soil, the topographical situation, and condition of veg- 


L, or what is termed physical cUmaie, by the habite of the 
, tlieir personal hygiene and general sanitary arrange- 
— all of which aid to stamp the diseases of certiuu 
iea or localities with a special character, and facilitate 
,rd their rise and progress. 

eology, practical medicine, natural science and political 
ay, all have their basis constituted as embraced in these 
—a knowledge of which is of inestimable value to man 
nigrates to a coantry or locality in which he intends to 

field of my observation here is the Valley of the Dela- 
Tom the head of tide-water at Trenton to the great cat 
h the Blae Ridge or Delaware W^ater-Oap, a distance 
' seventy-five miles, embracing one of the finest valleys 
1 by a river on the Continent. 

coarse of the river from the Qap in the Blae Ridge to 
iter is southeast, with few slight variations. There are 

tributaries flowing into the Delaware between the 
ints above mentioned, principally into the upper half. 
rgest and most important are the Lehigh, Paalinskill, 
It, Fohatcong, Musconnetcong and Tobickon. From 
xance of the latter to the tide, a distance of thirty miles, 
lams terminating are all small, as the tributaries of the 
1 and Neshomong, on either side of the Valley, drain 
antry a distance of from four to seven miles of the 

ig the line of the river on each side, the elevations 
either immediate or at varied distances, from a few rode 
le, rising gradaally, except at hilly points, and stretch- 
ay from one to three miles to a corresponding height 
le level of the surface of the sarrounding country. At 
n, the average is about eighty feet, and uniformly in- 

in a distance of eleven miles above, to double that 

ES6AT. 76 

, on accoaot of a range of hills raniiiDg at rights 
J river, the mean elevation takes anch propor- 
:look the country to the sooth, and increasing 
n a distance of five milea farther, in the vicinity 
e, the mean average of the snironndings is 
ind fifteen feet, at a distance from one to three 
I river, and like proportions to this place, char- 
ill the apper part of the valley, 
cal formaUons found in this valley are of the 
c and Triassic ages. The two former include 
tion of the valley, from the Blue Eidge to the 
^ Creek, where the country abounds in iron 
, &c., while the lower part of the valley is of a 
1, and is nnderlaid by the red sandstone and 
lat are common to the central part of the 

■onghoQt the extent of the valley is nearly all 
few abrupt endings of hills, as they would seem 
rer at nght angles. Along the bed of the river, 
es, is deposited a recent formation of drift, 
e of the finest farming land. In the northern 
valley, the hills that range up from the river 
q^oality of limestone and much good land, and 
n portion, the red shale soils, all of which are 
e of cultivation, afford bountiful crops to the 
to the traveler it presents a constant succession 
id in many places, beautiful scenery. 
tion embraced within the limits of this field is 
) as any other possessing similar advantages, 
{ually distributed throughoat. Leaving out of 
on the cities and towns, it will average ninety 
its to the square mile, and with that of the cities 
led, woald much more than double the number, 




■ .1 






and compute over two hundred inhabitants to every square 
mile embraced. 

The cities of Trenton, Lambertville, Easton and Phillips- 
1" burg contain within their limits alone over fifty thousand 

|; inhabitants, while the towns of Morrisville, Tardleyville, New 

Hope, Stockton, Frenchtown, Milford and Belvidere will 
average each over one thousand population. The occupation 
Sy of the rural inhabitants is principally agriculture, and in the 

cities manufactures. 

Among the improvements in this valley is the Delaware 
division of the Pennsylvania Canal, from Easton down the 
Delaware to Bristol, and on the opposite side of the river, from 
Bool's Island to Trenton, a distance of twenty-five miles, is 
the feeder, and a part of the Delaware and Karitan Canal, not 
omitting that the Morris Canal, with the Lehigh, each have 
their terminations respectively at Easton and Phillipsburg. 
The Delawi^re-Belvidere Railroad, connecting Philadelphia 
with the Lakes and Canada, runs direct through this valley, 
while at other points several railroads connecting New York 
with the west, cross the river at right angles. 

In order to more fully understand diseases as they prevail 
in this important valley, I have thought best to divide or class- 
ify them as follows: zymoses, phlegmesise, cachexise, ne- 
uroses and ataxise, and to give the important prevailing dis^ 
eases of each class as they have come to notice, omitting the 
more trival, of less frequent occurrence. 

The first in order will be those classed under the head of * 

zymotic diseases, or such as are produced by morbid poison, 
a small quantity of which entering the blood produces in that 
fluid a peculiar change, which is analogous to that of fermen- 
tation. These poisons may have their origin either in a veg- 
etable or animal source, and are distinguished by their mode 
of incubation and development, having a period of fatency 

B8SAT. 77 

peculiar to each form, between the exposure to the poison, and 
accession of the disease. 

These diseases are generally endemic or epidemic, eruptive 
contagious, and contagious not eruptive; and under these 
heads will be noticed the forms of each disease as they have 

The **malarial endemic :" Intermittent and remittent fevers ; 
the generally epidemic : typhoid, typhus, cerebro-spinal and 
puerpural fevers ; erysipelas, cholera, dysentery, influenza and 
diphtheria. The eruptive contagious : variola, varioloid, 
varicella, measles, and scarlatina; and the non-eruptive con- 
tagious are parotitis and pertussis. 

Intermittent fever has appeared in one or more localities in 
this valley about every year, but as the forests are fast being 
removed, swamps and marshes drained, and the soil worked 
to a high state of cultivation, this disease has appeared, in 
proportion, less frequent, and in a milder form. For the past 
fifteen years it has seldom been found, except in particular 
localities, and then readily traced to its usual prevailing causes, 
many of which are being annually removed. The years 1858, 
1862-65-70 gave rise to more cases than usual, all of a mild 
form, yielding readily to treatment. 

The localities in which this disease has been found to pre- 
vail the most the last ten years, are Morrisville, Tardleyville, 
Greensburg, the banks of the Pequest and Paulinskill, and 
nearly all along the line of the Delaware division of the Penn- 
sylvania Canal. The first three named places have their low 
grounds and marshes; the two streams running into the Del- 
aware run through large tracts containing thousands of acres 
of slough and meadow-land, and, of course, after a heavy 
rain, which causes them to overflow their banks, by means of 
which malarial sediment is brought down from these meadows, 
and a portion deposited along the banks, where the light, heat 



and moistnre of summer and autumnal months aid in pre- 
paring this pernicious material to do the effectual work in 


supplying morbid poison for the blood. 

In this canal the current of water is so sluggish that it re- 
sembles a stagnant pool, containing not only the material 
common to the water that supplies it, but the refuse of the 
many thousands that either inhabit its boats as a floating pop- 
ulation, or of the filthy that live on its banks. The inhabit- 
ants of the cities, towns, and of the greater portion of the 
valley, save those mentioned, are almost wholly exempt from 
this disease, and the causes that give rise to it. 

^' One remedy in this disease overshadows all others, 
cinchonism." By this is meant the production of the consti- 
tutional impression of cinchonia bark, or one of its essential 
constituents, and rarely fails in producing the desired effect. 

Remittent fever, in its forms, is found in the valley in about 
the same places, and traced to like causes as intermittent, and 
seems to have been controlled in its prevalence by the con- 
tinued improvements in removing the malarial causes. Prior 
to constructing the canals which extend through the lower 
portion of the valley, on either side of the river, this disease 
raged to a fearful extent, and even at the time of the excava- 
tion, and for some tinie after, but since has almost yearly 
grown less. Dr. J. C. Johnson, of Blairstown, in his report 
to this Society for the year 1865, gives an interesting account 
of this disease as it prevailed in the upper portion of the 
valley and along the tributaries of the Delaware in that region. 
Dr. Samuel S. Clark, of Belvidere, informs me that since 1865 
this disease in this locality has scarcely appeared. The same 
year, a number of cases were treated in the vicinity of French- 
town, and a few at Lambertville and New Ilope, as had been 
two years previous. In the vicinity of Greejisburg, Tardley- 
ville and Morrisville, this fever occurs as the autumnal disease. 





though to no great extent, even in severity of form. A few 
cases are fonnd along the line of the Delaware division of the 
Pennsylvania Canal nearly every autumn. In Trenton there 
are few cases found. Dr. A. W. Armitage, of Woodsville, 
whose practice extends over a portion of the line of the Mer- 
cer and Somerset Railroad, now in course of construction, 
from the Delaware River to Millstone, gives an account of a 
number of cases that he treated near the excavations made for 
that road the year previous. He says, during the months of 
August, September and October last, remittent fever pre- 
vailed to the southeast of Woodsville, in the vicinity of Hope- 
well, and in several families from one to four persons fell 
victims to the disease. The remedies used were stimulants, 
tonics and anti-periodics, as the symptoms were of a typhoid 
type, and nearly all recovering after a course of three or four 

There have been found a few cases at times that seemed to 
be of the so-called typho-malarial form, but I am not aware 
that sufficient evidence has been brought forward to substan- 
tiate the fact, as this disease is described by. Surgeon J. J. 
Woodward, U. S. A., in some of his writings on malarial 
fevers. In the treatment of remittent fever we have found no 
certain specific, but invariably treat symptoms, which generally 
call for tonics and anti-periodics. Hydg. chlord. mit., in many 
cases at the outbreak, where the liver and other glands seem 
torpid, is well borne with good results; and quinia. sulph., 
or some of the barks, is* not by any means to be over-looked. 

Typhoid fever, or that form of disease bearing its symptoms, 
having about as many names as the number of localities in 
which it prevails, has made its casual appearance through the 
valley, and for years past has not been epidemic. Some cases 
have been treated in the malarial regions of the Paulinskill 
and Pequest, when other fevers were rife. 






In the autumn of 1865, about a dozen cases were treated in 
Lambertville, of a grave type, five of which died about the 
fifteenth day after the attack. It slightly appeared here again 
the next season, but in a milder form. Since then there have 
^ been but few cases, perhaps three or four treated in a popula- 

|: . tion of over eight thousand in this place and vicinity. At 

h' Greensburg it is an annual visitor, and, like the other fevers 

^. that have a malarial origin, promises to continue as long as 

1^: the marsh and other stagnant waters common to the cause of 

I - producing malaria, are left undrained, as these are the sources 

^f from which health is impaired, and, too often, life lost. 

Typhus fever, or a disease having all its peculiarities, ap- 
peared in the lower part of the valley in the winter and spring 
of 1865, among the negroes, and with them seemed to pro- 
b pagate itself by infection, as many of their number, who were 

acting as nurses, took the ailment, which in nearly every case 
proved fatal. I know of no cases occurring among the white 
population, and give as a reason for its not attacking them^ 
I;. that they kept away from the disease as much as possible. 

^ Seven cases came under my immediate charge, with symptoms 

'i.' which appeared to run the same course, and terminating in 

^. • death from the sixth to the ninth day. 

(^ The symptoms and course of this disease, as far as I saw it, 

%:. were lassitude, prostration, drowsiness, dry brown furred 

tongue, almost from the outset, followed by coma, pulse 120 
to 140, very feeble, with intense fever, and by the end of the 
L',j fourth day, inability to protrude the tongue, or even swallow. 

In Lambertville and vicinity, more tlian half of the. adult 
colored population were carried away by this disease, as it 
seemed disposed to attack the robust and middle aged. 

For the encouragement of the opposite sex, it is safe to say 
that in this valley puerpural fever is almost unknown ; a few 
practitioners have seldom met with it^ and the disease does 









ESSAY. 81 

not seem disposed to propagate itself by ordinary transmis- 

Cerebro-spinal fever, or meningitis, sometimes called spotted 
fever, or malignant purpuric fever, basin a few places shown 
itself in its varied forms. A few cases appeared in Lambert- 
ville in 1865, which came under my charge, with one death 
in forty hours after the attack. There have been a few scat- 
tering cases from time to time, of a sporadic character, some 
of which were fatal very early in their course ; one of which 
I will give as an illustration. I was called to see the case in con- 
sultation about four weeks since, patient male, aged 23 years, 
full habits, taken with chill, pain in the head, extending to 
the back of the neck, nausea and vomiting followed by de- 
lirium and tetanic spasms of Ute muscles of the back and 
even limbs, sight and hearing seemed to be deficient, tongue 
rather white and moist, bowels natural, pulse accelerated, 
skin dry, fixed in an opisthotonic condition with considerable 
subsultus tendinum. This being the fourth day after the at- 
tack, nearly the whole region of the spine having been blis- 
tered, tonic and anti-periodic remedies given, but all of no 
account, as he died at the end of the next twenty-four hours, 
or the fifth day after the attack. 

In examining the locality, which was in Upper Wakefield 
Township, Bucks County, Pa., I found the house situated 
near the bank of a small creek three miles from its entrance 
into the Delaware; the country all around is beautiful and 
rolling, and underlaid with red sandstone of the Triassic age, 
which time has here reduced on its surface to the finest and 
most productive red shale soil. I learned after inquiry that 
the neighborhood was generally healthy, except the families 
that lived along the creek where typhoid fever had visited 
ihem in former years. This was the only marked case of 
cerebro-spinal fever in that locality. 












Cholera in its travels has not omitted to pass us by without 
visitation, but happily its stay was not of long duration. 
Since 1832 it has appeared but twice ; the latter attack was 
&. severe, appearing first at Black's Eddy with many fatal cases. 

»^,- It took its course down the valley, and several fell victims to 

f ' it at Lambertville and Trenton, many of whom recovered 

t' after early and prompt treatment. 

Erysipelas prevails elsewhere much more than in this val- 
ley, as we learn from our neighboring practitioners, on both 
|; sides of the valley, on the head waters of the Raritan and 

I Neshaminy, who admit an average of more and severer cases 

than we are called to treat, some of which I have seen in con- 
sultation. There is no place in the valley exempt from it, 
nor any locality that has been severely attacked, and the few 
^ >- isolated cases that usually appear, if at all, are generally 

I - found in the winter and spring months. 

Dysentery, in all its forms, has been at times found in the 
more malarial portions of the valley, of which no real epi- 
^i demic occurred. The nearest approach to it was an outbreak 

[; . of several cases in Prenchtown and vicinity, in June, July 

^V and August last. Says Dr. E. K. Deemy of that place : " I 

fv had a number of cases in my practice, three of which proved 

• ' fatal from the tenth to the fifteenth day after the attack : two 

males and one female, all past middle age. In these fatal 
cases the inflammation at once invaded the small intestines 
and stomach. The treatment I found to be most beneficial 
[J was opium, sub-nit. bismuth, ipecac, stimulants, counter irri- 

tants and a nourishing diet ; and in the favorable cases con- 
valescence commenced from the fourteenth to the twenty- 
first day." 

A few cases were treated at Stockton in August and Sep- 
tember, 1866, some of which proved fatal about the tenth 





ESSAY. 83 

Strange as it may seem, epidemics have prevailed fearfully, 
each side of the valley, whilie in it scarcely a case was seen, 
even in a mild form. In the year 1865 an epidemic broke 
out in July and continued until frost in the vicinity of New 
Market, where appeared over fifty cases, of which about one- 
third were fatal. It seemed to be endemic, of the asthenic 
type. Several neighboring physicians were called in consult- 
ation, and even to take charge of new cases — ^two of which 
fell to my lot ; one recovering after the fifteenth day, and the 
other, past seventy years of age, proved fatal*. As a whole 
we seemed to exhaust the materia medica for remedies, but 
the grave cases were almost sure to result in death. This 
locality is six miles east of Lambertville, and four hundred 
feet above the level of the Delaware, and is drained by one of 
the branches of the Raritan, in which is an old mill-pond, a 
dilapidated tannery and vats, generating malaria, which in 
my opinion was a slaughter-house of sufiSlcient magnitude to 
have killed the whole settlement, had light heat and moisture 
continued until Christmas. 

Dr. Lloyd, of Yardleyville, whose practice takes in Greens- 
burg, which is quite as much given to malaria as any locality 
in the valley, says but few cases appear in his practice, while 
at Newtown, five miles west on one of the branches of the 
Neshaminy, about 270 feet above the level of the Delaware, 
it has within the last ff w years raged fearfully. 

Influenza, or epidemic catarrh, is not found here as severe 
as in some other localities, though we are not exempt from it. 
Few have suffered with it severely; and less have proved 

Diphtheria made its first noted appearance in the valley in 
1860, where it continued from August until the next March. 
No one place suffered from it more than another, except Lam- 
bertville, where about forty-five cases were treated, one-third 



of which were fatal. The type of the disease was disposed 
to he malignant ; more diseases occurring among females 
than males, whose ages averaged from five to fifteen years. 
The fatal cases terminated from the fourth to the ninth day 
of the attack. 

In 1862 it again appeared at Trenton, and more marked as 
an epidemic. At Yardleyville, when in the malignant form, 
it prevailed to a fearful extent. In some families, as in the 
case of Dr. Lloyd, all the children were lost. 

Dr. L. attributes the prevalence of the disease in that local- 
ity to malaria, generated from the sediment deposited by the 
freshet of June, 1862, as the Delaware for a few miles along 
by this place runs slow and deep, giving all possible opportu- 
nity for precipitation of the refuse that is usually carried in 
its current from above. Isolated cases have been treated 
occasionally since, with a few deaths ; but lately this disease 
seems to have disappeared. 

Of the eruptive contagious diseases we have our share, as 
facilities of travel are direct with Philadelphia and l^ew 

Small-pox appeared early in January, 1864, but was confined 
principally to Trenton, Lambertville, Easton and Phillipsburg. 
In Lambertville and vicinity there were about 170 cases, ot 
which I treated the first case January 15, and made my last 
visit to the last case April 15, 1865, a piriod of fifteen months, 
during which time I treated ninety-nine cases; and At no 
time during the fifteen months was I for two weeks without 
one or more cases under treatment. Forty-three were gen- 
uine small-pox ; twenty -two confiuent, three malignant, and 
the remaining thirty were modified or varioloid ; four of this 
whole number were fatal. This was about an average of the 
disease in the above-named places during the same time. 
From then until last August scarcely a case was seen in the 



ESSAY. 88^ 

valley ; but since it has been diftased from Trenton, and still 
continues to exist, and is also of a more malignant type than 
in 1864-65. 

Yaricella is common to all the children, but mild in its 

Measles made their appearance for the first time in seven 
years past, in December, 1863, and as there were many young 
yet unprotected, it swept over the field in its usual form — save 
a few complicated cases — with pneuiponia, of which nearly half 
died. Since then it has appeared occasionally, and even the 
past winter became quite prevalent in the lower part of the 
valley ; more particularly at Titusville, and in the neighbor- 
hood of Pennington. 

Scarlatina, the most fearful of the contagious diseases, 
spread over the lower part of this field in 1864. It seemed to 
be epidemic, confined to children from three to seven years 
old. In my practice I treated over fifty cases, in all its forms, 
with but one death, an adult. The sequel of many cases was 
dropsy, about the end of the second week, from convalescence. 
As it appeared in my practice, I reported the following year 
to this Society. 

At Prenchtown there have been three slight epidemics 
within the last six years. The disease also prevailed to a 
more or less extent at Milford. And at present several cases 
have appeared of the simpler form. Dr. C. H. Sproul, of 
Stockton, reports the same of the disease in that place. This 
ailment appeared in Lambertville in December last, and still 
goes on, but is now somewhat abated. It is principally con- 
fined to the upper portion of the city — in the upper half of 
the Second Ward — while in the First and Third Wards rarely 
a case is seen. Dr. T. H. Studdiford and myself have treated 
over three hundred cases in about four months past, out of a 
population of 1,300, and nearly all in this locality. It seems 




to be greatly infectious in its character, as nurses and those 
who are more closely in contact with the worst cases, are 
'^y ^ quite sure to take it in from four to six days, without respect 

to age. It is principally jof the anginose form, with suppu- 
rating tonsils, covered by pseudo-membranous deposit of a 
white or gray color, sometimes brown. A few cases were 

^ * malignant, and death followed the attack either on the second, 

I third or fourth day. 

I would here say, in connection with this locality, that 
other diseases have been more frequent in occurrence, graver 
in their nature, and more fatal in this place, than in any other 
part of the city or its surroundings. The situation is on a level 
with the other part of the city, except a gradual rise of from 
one to ten feet, and is generally admitted to be the preferred 
part of the place ; insomuch that about thirteen years ago it 
was laid out into lots, put into market, and since built up 

f; with good houses of wood and brick, with slate roofs and 

cisterns of brick, from which the inhabitants get principally 
their supply of drinking water. The soil, like the other part 
of the city, is a deposit of drift, about twenty feet deep, on 

^v red sandstone of the Triassic formation ; and my investiga- 

tions lead me to conclude that drinking cistern water in the 
sickly district, and well water from the red sandstone below 
in the more healthy districts, is a cause in part for the differ- 
ence. As to this disease in the upper part of the valley, Dr. 
Samuel S. Clark, of Belvidere, says he has not known ten 
cases of scarlatina to have prevailed in that place for ten years, 
and the surroundings quite as free from it. 

r ^ Contagious, not eruptive, diseases, such as parotitis and 

f pertussis, are almost annual visitors. 

^ , Having given an account of the prevalence of zymotic dis- 

j^f . eases which have prevailed here, I will next notice briefly 

^f such as have appeared under the head of Phlegmasia, and as 






ESSAl^ 87 

such, first, Laryngitis, which I am happy to say is not common 
to this field. Acute cases have been treated successfully, 
and a very few become chronic, with ulceration, ending in 

Tracheitis (croup) an acute cynanche or angina is found as 
sporadic. It may happen that a practitioner may go a year 
^thout seeing a case, and in a short time may have to treat 
half a dozen or more. It is usually found in the winter 
months, in its mild form, and no locality is really exempt 
from it. A few of the cases are membranous, nearly half of 
which recover if treated heroically at the outset. 

Bronchitis, more or less severe in its character, prevails, 
being generally distributed. It yields usually to calomel, 
antimony, ipecac, carb. ammOn., and quinin. sulph. In the 
predisposed a few cases become chronic and form phthisis. 
Pneumonia is general throughout the valley — less from Easton 
up through Belvidere to the Water Gap. In the winter of 
1862-63 it was rather epidemic in Trenton, Tardleyville, 
New Hope, Lambertville, French town, with several cases at 
Phillipsburg and Easton, in both the minor and adult popula- 
tion. It was generally single, confined to one lobe, reaching 
its height from the fifth to the seventh day ; yielding to anti- 
mony, ipecac, verat viride and blisters, with care in selecting 
stimulants and tonics, and even antiperiodics in cases requir- 
ing it. 

Yardleyville was given over to it annually in the winter 
months, for six successive years after the June freshet of 
1862, in quite an epidemic form. 

I find no more nor severer cases in the valley than on the 
hills four hundred feet above, and generally if I have a case, 
either high or low, I am very apt to have others in the same 
neighborhood. Prom the typhoid form we are quite exempt. 
The disease appears almost every year at one time or another, 



and at different places ; severe, but usually terminating &yor- 

Pleurisy, like the last-mentioned disease, visits the same 
localities, but is seen less frequent in a milder form. Altitude 
seems to have no influence upon it, as I have found it in the 
same proportion either high or low. When the practitioner 
is called in early he can often " nip it in the bud.*' Calomel, 
tartar emetic, cups, leeches, blistering and the lancet must not 
be lost sight of when the case requires. 

Endo and Peri-carditis are not so much inclined to annoy 
us as our neighbors, where the drainage of the soil is less. 

Tonsilitis is not unfrequent, but is principally confined to 
the predisposed, and yields readily to simple remedies. 

We find occasionally cases of Gastritis; but in the acute 
form is very rare. The most common form is " idiopathic " 
gastric inflammation, gastro-hepatic catarrh, or a bilious at- 
tack, in which the stomach, duodenum and liver are all some- 
what involved. 

Peritonitis is among the rare diseases of this valley, though 
a few cases have been treated of a grave form, and even 
resulting in death. 

Idiopathic-emeto-eatharsis, better known as cholera-morbus, 
goes its rounds with the careless in warm weather, and is 
often looked upon as an uncalled-for ailment, and a reminder 
to correct habits of eating and drinking. 

Cholera-infantum is more particularly confined to our cities, 
and is not a disease that finds our surroundings in its favor. It 
is usually mild, and yields readily to treatment. At Trenton, 
and even as far up as Lambertville, it is seen in its season. 
But few real cases appear further up the valley. 

Diseases under the head of Cachexia will be briefly noticed 
as they have appeared ; — the first of which is rheumatism in 
its acute and chronic form. In the acute form it is oftener 


BSSAT. 89 

Been in the spring months, and few cases appear at any other 
season, bnt my experience is, that a greater number of cases 
occur yearly with those out of the valley. 

On the east side of my practice, at the head-waters of the 
Raritan, in altitude of over 800 feet. Dr. 0. W. Larison of 
Bingoes, finds annually, in the months of February and 
March, four times as many cases of this disease, out of the 
same number on the sick list with myself, or any other prac- 
titioner in the valley ; and the same proportion will hold good 
as far as I have investigated with all my neighbors above. 

As to Gout nothing need be said. The habits and dispo- 
sition of our population are above suspicion, and the distant 
invalid sufferer often finds relief by spending his summer 
months in this refreshing locality. 

Bright's disease, Lithiasis and Diabetes, Insipidus and 
Mellitus, are not common to us, though a few cases are 

Phthisis Pulmonalis is found here as well as elsewhere. 
After passing up the valley, above the lower third, a few 
cases are seen, and many invalids find a healthful resort in this 
section ; especially on the heights up from the valley, partic- 
ularly in the upper third, from Phillipsburg and Easton to the 

Strange as it may seem, there has been over thirty cases of 
this disease in Lambertville during the past three years, but 
at this time I know of no cases as in former years. It has 
created in the minds of some a disposition to believe that 
there was a cause in the locality, but investigation proved 
that many had contracted the disease elsewhere, and others 
with its hereditary taint, is proof that it was in the individual 
and not in the place. A group of isolated cases, at a given 
time only, will not establish the fact that a place is given over 
to a malady ; — the same of which was said of Bethlehem, 







Pa., a few years since, where the disease is now seldom 

Other diseases under the head of Cachexia, snch as cancer, 
goitre, cysts and tumors, with other degenef ations, are found 
among the predisposed and careless. 

Neurosis, or nervous diseases, are found in common with 

the aged and infirm. Paralysis in the palsied forms remains 

as a reserve force to extinguish life in the aged, who have not 

fallen victims to premature death by other maladies ; and with 

I^V it few suffer here before their time. 

Under the head of Neurosis are a catalogue of names ; but 
suffice to say, we have no more than our share : and with 
precaution escape with less. 
p^> , AtaxsB (unclassified diseases), such as hemorrhages, aeites, 

jaundice, dyspepsia, colic, diarrhea and worms, are all afflic- 
tions that some fall heir to, and it would be worse than useless 
for me in this short essay to burthen your attention with a 
detailed account of minor diseases, of which others loathe to 
^;.* suffer. 


t, . 



t • 



r ■ 
* '. ■ 






Fob the County of HuNTEEiDoif, 

iii Ot^anitation lii iSai lo tht Annual Mating is 1S71; 


IS taw ixal). from its JinI sillUmeitl lo lh< fraeni timt, lSj\ 

Medieal Society /or tiu Qmnty of Biatterdon : 
;avors to comply with your wishes in the ap- 
ade two years ago, I hereby Kepobt : That I was 
itiDg yon to appoint some one younger and abler 
e duties of yoar historian, as the lateness of this 
igh made at as early an hour as my feeble health 
of, proves. Besides, having a little foretaste of 
as you know, took hold of the work very relao- 
aly upon your promise to aid and assist me indi- 
iclaiming from oblivion the memory of onr for- 
1 in the profession. About my experience in 
, many of you will recollect that when we were 
ibrate the centennial anniversary of the Medical 
ew Jersey, the standing committee issued circn- 
f " any historical facta which might prove inter- 








eating in this centennial report," — one of which was addressed 
to me,— and in endeavoring to fulfil what was asked of me, I 
wrote as my share of that report what may be found in the 
transactions of that year, from page 288 to page 246, inclu- 
sive, — much of it from my own knowledge, but in regard to 
the older members of the profession, I had to rely for some 
things on others. I sought what I then considered the best 
authority living, and embodied their information in my re- 
port, some of which proves not to be as reported — to my 
chagrin and mortification, every time I read or think of it. 
As I will never have a better opportunity of correcting the 
errors there so inadvertently committed than now, turn to 
page 241, instead of what is there said about Dr. Campbell, 
read that he lived inKingwood and died in 1818; and instead 
of Dr. McQill dying in 1818 his tomb says 1815 (and I now 
believe they are good authorities on dates) ; and as regards 
what is said about Dr. Ilarris : instead of his being dead, he 
is still living in Belvidere in good health, and is, as you all 
know, one of our honorary members. 

These facts opened my eyes to the difficulty of the under- 
taking, and I determined not to be caught so again. 

History is only valuable for the truth it tells, and I shall 
endeavor to make it reliable, although I am fully aware of 
the difficulties of the task. Had this been begun some years 
ago, many facts might have been gathered up and saved that 
are now wasted, and the remainder growing less every day. 

" We have no lease of life." 

I therefore hasten to my task without delay. 

',• » 


District Medical Society 


In reply to a letter written by me to Dr. William Pierson, 
Jr., recordiDg Secretary of the Medical Society of New Jer- 
aey, I received the following : 

JoHH Blaitb, VL D. 

Dtar Doctor : In reply to yonre, received this evening, I would say, that 
in the record of the &nDual meetiog of the Medical Society of New Jersey, 
held at New Brunswick May the 8d, 1831, 1 find the following minnte : 

" On application for authority to fonn a Medical Society in the County of 
Hunterdon : 

Sailoed, That Nicholas Belville, Jno. McKelway, James T. Clark, Joseph 
Phillips, Wm. Johnsim, Henry Poole, Wm. P. Clark, John Bowne, Wm, 
Gpary, Henry S. Harris, Jno. A. Kendry, Henry H. Bchenck and E. Porter 
be authorized to meet at Flemington on the 2d Tuesday of June neit, at 
10 o'clock A. U., anil there to organize a District Medical Society, according 
to the act of incorporation, and that the recording Secretary furnish, when 
organized, the said aociety with twenty-flve copies of the By-laws of this 
S'^'^'J-" Touts, rcBpectfully, 


Agreeably to the foregoing authority, ten of those therein 
named appeared and took their seatB in the meeting held in 
Flemington, on the 12th day of Jnne, 1821, namely : Doctors 
.John McKelway, J. T. Clark, Joseph PhillipB, Wm. Jolinson, 



♦ I 

Henry B. Poole, Wm. P. Clark, John Bowne, Henry S. Har- 
ris, Henry H. Schenck, and Edmund Porter (leaving absent 
three, namely. Doctors Nicholas Belville, William Geary, 
and John A. Kendry), who, having fulfilled the requirements 
of the commission and organized pro tempore, proceeded to 
the admission of Doctors John Sloan, John Lilly, Oliver W. 
Ogden, William Barnett, Isaac Ogden, and Henry Holcombe, 
who were then present, 

And proceeded to the election of oflGlcers, which resulted 
as follows : 




Doctors Nicholas Belville, President. 

William Johnson, Vice-President. 
Henry B. Poole, Secretary. 
John Bowne, IVeasurer. 

The following constituted the committee appointed to draft 
a constitution and by-laws for the Society, namely : 

Doctors Wm. P. Clark, 
John McKelway, 
John Bowne, 

Doctors John Lilly, 
John Hloan, 
Henry B. Poole. 

Which duty having been performed by them, this Society 
took its place as the youngest one of the sisterhood, with 
nineteen members, among the district societies, which at that 
time consisted of those of Essex, formed in 1816; Monmouth, 
in 1816 ; Middlesex, in 1817 ; Cumberland, in 1818 ; Glou- 
cester in 1818 ; Morris, ; and Somerset, in 1816. 

The new Society appears to have been cordially received 
by the parent Society, and the next year (1822) one of the 
members (Henry B. Poole) was elected their third vice-presi- 
dent, and in 1828 Wm. Johnson, of Whitehouse, was elected 
third vice-president of that Society. His name appears as 
Jacob Johnson, being a mistake. The parent Society apt. 


pointed boards of censors who acted regularly. The first was 
Drs. John McKelway, John Lilly, Wm. P. Clark, and Henry 
B. Poole, who, at the semi-annual meeting on 22d October, 
received their first application in the person of John B. Price 
(a student of Dr. Johnson^s) for examination, which was satis- 
factory, and certificate granted accordingly: he afterward 
becoming a member, May, 1823. 

The Society progressed favorably until the semi-annual 
meeting of 1828, admitting members 28d October, 1823, 
John F. Schenck ; 4th May, 1824, Israel L. Coriell, and same 
time W. A. A. Hunt, by certificate, from District Medical 
Society of Somerset County ; 3d May, 1825, G. W. Case ; 2d 
May, 1826, David P. Hunt; Ist May, 1827, John Honeyman; 
and 27th April, 1828, Merrill Whitney "Williams; — ^when 
your historian (having removed into the county in January, 
1828, and entered into business with his friend Dr. W. A. A. 
Hunt, of Clarksville), carrying with him a letter of introduc- 
tion from Dr. Hunt, and a proposition for membership, came 
before the Society 21st October, 1828, being its semi-annual 
meeting, when no quorum appeared they adjourned, and 
called an extra meeting, 29th October, 1828, when a bare 
quorum was present, namely. Doctors John Honeyman, Pres- 
ident, Morrill Whitney Williams, Vice-President, Henry 
Holcombe, Treasurer, John P. Schenck, Secretary, one other 
member present. Dr. John Bowne — who merely called the 
roll, read the minutes of the last annual meeting: Dr. Henry 
Holcombe appointed to read a dissertation at the next stated 
meeting, and on motion made and seconded, the Society ad- 
journed to meet at the house of Thomas Alexander, in Flem- 
ington, on Tuesday^ 28ih October, 1829 ; thus completely ignor- 
ing the by-laws and constitution of the Society, which required 
an annual meeting : and if no annual meeting, why a semi-an- 
nual one ? If there be no principal there can be no accessory ; 





thus, so far as their action went, completely paralyzing the So- 
ciety ; and that, too, at a time when it was in such prosperous 
condition, having in what constitutes our present county at 
the time, eigKteen practitioners of medicine, namely, Doctors 
William Johnson, John liowne, John Lilly, 0. W. Ogden, 
William Qeary, Henry Holcombe, J. P. Schenck, Israel L. 
Coriell, W. A. A. Hunt, John Honeyman, Merrill W. Wil- 
liams and Henry S. Harris, who were members of the Society, 
and Hugh Hughes, John McGHoughen, John Manners, Josiah 
Quinby, Charles B. Ferguson, and John Blane, the youngest 
one in the profession, not members of the Society, but the 
last one named knocking' at the door for admittance. Two- 
thirds of the active members of the profession belonging to 
the Society is as large or better proportion as existed in most 
of our district Societies at that time, and will compare very 
favorably with the several district societies of our State at any 
time. But notwithstanding all these favoring circumstances, 
it retired to the shade — was bushed, as harvesters used to say 
— much to the chagrin of some of its members, the writer 
particularly, and remained, so, notwithstanding many public 
printed invitations to them to resume their duties, until A.D. 
1835, when Drs. John Blane, John Honey man, William John- 
son, John F. Schenck and John Lilly applied for a commis- 
sion to renew or reorganize it, which was granted at the semi- 
annual meeting of the Medical Society of New Jersey at 
Trenton, 10th November, A. D. 1835. And the commission, 
under the hand of Dr. Abm. P. Hageman, President, and 
William Pierson, Jr., Secretary of the Medical Society of 
New Jersey, sent to that effect — notice of which was given 
in public newspapers of the county. 

On 3d May, 1836, the Society woke up organized anew, 
with Doctors William Johnson, President, John F. Schenck, 
Vice-President, L. R. Needham, Secretary, and John Lilly 


easnrer, and Jacob Hedges, Henry Field, J, A. LandiB, 
)eph Welling, John Manners, Cicero Hunt and George P. 
X were admitted. Society elected delegates to the ne%t 
eting of the Medical Society of New Jersey, Jacob Hedges, 
lin F. Scbenck, Cicero Hunt and John Blane ; and passed 
I following : " Resolved, that the Secretary write out tbe 
laws at fall length, and transmit the same, together with 
: organization of this Society and the proceedings of this 
eting to the Recording Secretary of the Medical Society of 
w Jersey," It was likewise " Resolved, that the Secre- 
Y issne and sign certificates to be above-mentioned dele- 
:eB as soon as practicable, and that they be notified to attend 
next annual meeting of the Medical Society of New Jer- 
" — all of which was scrapnlously carried out, except tbe 
endance of the delegates. There was bat one (thp writer) 

attended, armed with all the documents above-mentioned, 
ich were placed in the proper hands and referred to tbe 
ading committee, which consisted of Drs. Hays, Goble 

1 Gongar, to report on the. same. Other matters occupying 
I time of the committee and Society, report was not made 
t day, and I Relieve never has been made. 

)ur Society took tbe shady bush again, and in defiance of 
intercessions and notices to meet, remained so nntil 1846. 
Ul prescriptions failing, we again applied for a charter, 
ich was granted 12th May, 1846, at the annual meeting at 
w Brunswick, under the band of Robert T. Smith, Presi- 
it, and William Pierson, Jr., Secretary, of the Medical 
iiety of New Jersey, to Doctors John F. Schenck, John 
ly, John Blane, Henry Southard and Benjamin Davidson, 
of whom (except Dr. Davidson, and he by Dr. John 
wne) met at Flemington 14th July, 1846, and again organ- 
i by electing Dr. John Bowne, President, Dr. John Lilly, 
ie-President, John P. Schenck, Treaeurer, and Henry 


Secretary, — since which time the Society has gone 
ogreesive manner. 

11 contains ninety-four names, who hare been ad- 
members of the Society since its first institation, 

. 1 Nicholas Belvilla 

18BC May 3 

.83 Joseph A. Landis. 

. a John McKelway. 


.84 Joseph Welling. 

3 James T. Clark. 


. 85 John Manners. 

. 4 Joaepb PhilUps. 

.86 Cicero Hunt 

. S Wm. Johnaoa 


.87 George P. Rex. 

. 6 Henry B. Poole. 

1846 July 14 

.38 Henry Southard. 

. 7 Wm. P. Clark. 

.39 Benj'n DBTidson. 

. 8 John Bowne. 

1847 Hay 8 

.40 Josiah Quinby. 

. 9 Wm. Geary. ' 


.41 Bamuel Lilly. 

10 Henry S. Harris. 


.43 John H. Philips. 

11 John A. Hendry. 


.43 Thomas B. Hunt 

13 Henry H. Schenck. 

Oct. 26 

.44 Wm. R. Hand. 

13 Edmond Porter. 

1848 Oct. 24 

.45 Henry Race. 

.14 John Slean. 

1649 May 1 

.46 Albert B. Clsik. 

IS John Lilly. 


.47 James Pyatt 

.16 0. W. Ogden. 

1850 Oct 33 

.48 Justus Lessey. 

17 Wm. B&met 

1851 May 6 

.49 Jacob R. Ludlow. 

18 Isaac Ogden. 


.SH Abm. T. B. Van 

.19 Henry Holcomb. 


.20 John B. Price. 

Oct 28 

. 51 Wm. 8. Creveling. 

21 John F. Bchenck. 

1852 Hay 4 

.52 Willard F. Combs. 

23 Israel L. Coriell. 


.63 Henry Smith. 

.23 W. A. A. Hunt. 

1853 May 3 

.64 Charies Bartolette. 

.84 Q. W. Case. 

.55 A. J. McKelwaj. 

.86 David P. Hunt 

.56 Jas. Riley of Lam- 

2fl John Honeyman. 


37 Merrill W. Williams 

1854 Hay 9 

.57 A. H. Koon. 

28 John Blane. 

Oct. 35 

.58 I. 8. Creamer. 

29 Jacob Hedges. 


.59 Simeon T. DantL 

80 Wm. Duryea. 

1855 May 8 

.60 JohnLeavett 

31 LewURNeedham. 


.61 J. Alfred Gray. 

83 Henry Field. 


.63 Henry Wagoner. 



1886 May 3. 

1857 Oct. 20. 



1860 MHy 8. 





1864 Oct. 29. 

1862 May 18. 


Oct. 28. 

1864 May 10. 

Oct. 25 . 

1865 May 0. 

1865 Oct. 24. 

.68 D. W. 0. Hough. 

. 64 Matthias Abel. 

. 65 John Grandm. 

. 66 N. B. Boileau. 

.67 Geo. H. LariBon. 

. 68 Henry B. Nightin- 

. 69 Alexander Barclay 

.70 John Linaberry. 

.71 Moses D. Knight. 

.72 Thos. M.Bartolette. 

.78 Beriah A. Watson. 

. 74 Wm. Rice. 

.75 C. W, Larison. 

. 76 James Heryey Stud- 

. 77 Irenus R. Glen. 

. 78 Levi Parrow. 

1865 Oct 24.. 79 

1866 Oct 28.. 80 
" ..81 
" ..82 

1867 May 14.. 88 
1867 Oct 22.. 84 





1868 May 12.. 87 

1869 Apl.l5..88 

1869 Oct 19.. 89 

" ..92 

1870 Apl.l9..?3 
1870 Oct 18.. 94 



Geo. R Snlliyan. 
Geo. T. Ribble. 
Asher Riley. 
John R. Todd. 
B. B. Matthews. 
Theodore H. Stud- 

Obadiah Herbert 

Charles R Cowdie. 
George B. Young. 
John Q. Bird. 
Jeremiah O. Hoff. 
Charles Thompson. 
Richard Ludlow. 
Nathan Case. 
Au3^n W.Armitage 
A. S. Pitinger. 

Of these 94, the following named have acted as Presidents 
and Vice-Presidents : 


1 Nicholas Belville Wm. Johnson 1821 

2 John Bowne Wm. Johnson 1822 

8 Isaac Ogden. John Lilly 1823 

4 Wm. Johnson John McKelway 1824 

5 John Lilly John Bowne 1825 

6 John McKelway '\ .Henry B. Poole 1826 

7 Israel L. Coriell John Honeyman 1827 

8 John Honeyman Merrill W. Williams 1828 

9 William Johnson John F. Schenck 1886 

10 John Bowne John Lilly 1846 

11 John Lilly John Blane ....1847 

12 John Blane William Johnson 1848 

18 Wm. Johnson Wm. A. A. Hunt 1849 

14 W. A. A. Hunt Albert 8. Clark. 1850 

15 Albert S. Clark James Pyatt 1851 

16 Samuel Lilly Thomas Edgar Hunt 1852 

oT ELBonoir. 
June 12. 
May 7. 
May 6. 
May 4. 
May 2. 
AprU 29. 
May 8. 
July 14. 
May 8. 
May 2. 
May 7. 
May 6. 
May 4. 




17 Thomas E. Hunt Justus Lessey 1858 May 3. 

18 Justus Lessey A. J. McEelway 1854 May 9. 

19 John Blane Albert S. Clark 1855 May 8. 

20 A. S. Clark William Johnson 1856 May 18. 

21 Wm. Johnson John 5*. Schenck 1857 May 12. 

22 John F. Bchenck John Leavett 1859 May 10. 

• 28 John Leavett William S. Creveling 1860 M^y 8. 

24 Wm. S. Creveling H, B. Nightingale 1861 May 7. 

25 H. B. Nightingale . . . .Matthias Abel 1862 May 18. 

26 Matthias Abel Isaac B. Cramer 1868 May }2. 

27 Isaac S. Cramer J. Alfred Gray 1864 May 10. 

28 J. Alfred Gray .... Charles Bartolette 1866 May 9. 

29 N. B. Boileau James Hervey Studdiford. 1866 May 8. 

30 Jas. Hervey Studdiford.Irenus B. Glen 1867 May 7. 

81 Irenus R. Glen . . . .1st. Samuel Lilly 1868 May 12. 

2d. Coruelius W. Larison . 

82 Samuel Lilly Ist. Cornelius W. Larison. 1869 April 15. 

2d. Matthias Abel 

38 Cornelius W. Larison . . 1st. Matthias Abel 1870 April 19. 

2d. Wm. 8. Creveling .... 
84 Matthias Abel 1st. Wm. S. Creveling 1871 April 18. 

2d. Moses D. Ejiight. ..... 

And the following have acted as Secretaries : 

The first Secretary was' Henry B. Poole, a very efficient officer, elected 21 
June, 1821, who acted until the election of (2d) John F. Schenck, 2d May, 
1826. The next was (8d) Lewis R. Needham, elected 8d May, 1836 ; then 
(4th) Henry Southard, elected 14th July, 1846. It then fell to (6th) Samuel 
Lilly, elected 3d May, 1847. Then (6th) J. R. Ludlow, elected 6th May, 
1851, who, removing from the county, was succeeded by (7th) Willard F. 
Combs, 4th May, 1862, who dying while in office, left the choice to (8th) J. 
Alfred Gray, elected 8th May, 1855. (9th) L S. Cramer succeeded him, 
elected 10th May, 1859. (10th) H. B. Nightingale was elected 12th May, 
1868. (11th) Qeorge H. Larison was elected 10th May, 1864 ; and lastly, 
(12th) Obadiah Herbert Sproul, elected 18th April, 1871. 

Of Treasurers we have had : 

(1st) John Bowne, elected 12th June, 1821 ; (2d) Wm. P. Clark, 7th May, 
1822 ; (8d) Henry Holcombe, elected 4th May, 1824 ; (4th) John Lilly, elect- 


tfay, 1836; (5th) Jolm F, Scbenck, elected 14th July, 1846; (Stb) 
P. Rex, elected 7th May, 1850 ; (7th) Jotn P. Schencfc, elected 8th 
tS5 ; and the eighth and preaeot one, John Blane, elected 10th Hay, 

Boards of Ceoeors we have had: 

Fohn Bowne, John Lillj, H. B. Poole, H. S. Harria. 

rohn McEelway, John Lilly, William P. Clark, E. B. Poole. 

Fohn McKelway, J, Lilly, H. B. Poole, William Johnson. 

Fohn Bowne, J. McKelwaj, H. B. Poole, John Lilly. 

rohn Bowne, Henij B. Poole, John A. H^dry, H. Holcombe. 

Fohn McEelway, H. B. Poole, Wm. Johnson, John Bowne, J. Lilly. 

r. Bowne, J. Lilly, Wm. Johnson, J. F. Bchenck, Israel L. Cornell. 

r. Bowne, J. Lilly, Wm. Johnson, J. F. Schenck. 

r. Lilly, Wm. Johnson, John Blane, Henry Southard. 

r. Lilly, Wm. Johnson, J. P. Schenck, G. P. Rex. 

iamuel Lilly, G, P. Rex, J. F. Schenck, J. Blane — to whom were 
added by the Society, J. H. Phillips of Mercer, and H. Southard of 

iamuel Lilly, G. P. Rex, John Blane, A. 8. Clark. 

I7m. Johnson, J. Blane, 0. P. Rex, S. Lilly, and by invitation, J. R. 
Ludlgw, of Somerset. 

VVm. Johnson, G. P. Rex, John Blane, Samuel Lilly. 

r. Blane, G. P. Rex, A. 8. Clark, S. Lilly, to whom were added by 
the Society, Henry Smith of Somerset, and William Johnson. 

Tfjo. Johnson, Charles Bartolette, Wm. S. Creveling, John Blane. 

L B. Clark, Wm. 8. Creveling, L S. Cramer, J. Blane. 

1. A. Gray, Wm. Johnson, J. Blane, A. H. Eoon. 

r. A. Gray, Wm. Johnson, J. Blane, S. Lilly. 

^m. Johnson, J. F. Schenck, J. A. Gray, J. Blane; 

if m, Johnson, J, A. Gray, I. 8. Cramer, Wm. S. Ciereling. 

r. Blane, John Leavett,!. 8. Cramer, J. F, Schenck. 

F, Blane, Wm. Johnson, Wm. 8. Creveling, John P. Bchenok. 

i. B. Nightingale, N. B. Boileau, J. Blane, Matthias AbeL 

}. H. Larison, L 8. Cramer, Wm. S. Creveling, John 8. Linabeiry. 

4. B. Boileau, H. Abel, Wm. Johnson, J. Blane. 

J. B, Boilean, M. Abel, Wm. Johnson, J. Blane— who, in the per- 
formance of their duties, rejected sereral, their exominationa not 
proving satisfactory. 


The examinations of the following gentlemen being had, 
namely — 

1 John B. Price, pupil of Dr. Wm. Johnson 32d October, 1823 

3 George Green, M. D., University Penn. (1820) 6th May, 1828 

3 Stewart Kennedy, M. D., University of Penn. " " 

4 David P. Hunt, pupil of Dr. W. A. A. Hunt 4th May, 1824 

6 Wm. Coryell, M, D., University of Penn 2d May, 1826 

6 Lewis Springer, M.' D., University of Penn 28d October, 1827 

7 George B. Morton .29th April, 1828 

8 Francis A Ewing, M. D., University of Penn " " 

9 Joseph Welling, M. D., Jefferson Medical College, 1828 " " 

10 Samuel Lilly, M. D., University of Penn., 1837 8d May, 1947 

11 John H. PhiUips, M. D., University of Penn., 1837 ... " " 

12 Thomas Edgar Hunt, M. D., University of New York. " " 
18 Azariah P. Hunt, M. D., University of Penn 2d May, 1848 

14 John B. Petherbridge, M. D., University of Penn., 1847 " " 

15 Henry Race, M. D., University of Penn " " 

16 Wm. H. Schenck, M. D., University of New York 1st May, 1849 

17 Sylvester Van Syckel, M. D., University of New York. " " 

18 George M. Burgess, pupil of Dr. Wm. D. McKissack. .6th May, 1851 

19 Willard P. Combs, pupil of Dr. A. S. Combs " " 

20 Henry Sinith, M. D., of Yale College 4th May, 1853 

21 A. H. Koon, of LambertviUe 25th October, 1858 

And the Censors " being well satisfied with their attainments in the various 
branches of medical and surgical science, and of their moral character," did 
recommend them severally to the President of the Medical Society of New 
Jersey, as proper persons to receive a license to practice physic and surgery 
throughout the State of New Jersey. 

Of the above-named, ten joined the Society^ namely : 

John B. Price, David P. Hunt, Joseph Welling, Samuel Lilly, John H. 
Phillips, Thomas E. Hunt, Henry Race, Willard F. Combs, Henry Smith and 
A. H. Eoon. 

Doctor George Green settled in Belvidere, remaining till 1848, when he 
left for some time, and afterward returned and died there. 

Doctor Stewart Kennedy located at ^* The Straw," near two miles from 
Stewartville ; practiced there with a very growing reputation about ten 





years, when he removed to Easton, and practiced between ten and fifteen 
years, from whence he removed to Chambersburg, Pa., and practiced until 
disabled by rheumatism, which took place several years prior to his death. 
He died about 1860. 

Dr. Wm. Coryell located at Lambertville. 

Doctor Lewis Springer located at Pennington, then a part of our county, 
the same year. He was very active, prosperous and successful in business, 
and made rapid inroads upon his competitors ; but alas ! his career was«very 
short He was seized with the cholera on its first visitation to our country ; 
and while yet in possession of his mental faculties, on his dying bed, was 
married to Miss Welling, daughter of Isaac Welling, Esq., of that place. 
This was done both on account of their betrothal and to secure his property 
to the one he loved. His remains were taken to his native State (Delaware), 
and buried in the grounds of the Episcopal Church, six miles south of Wil- 
mington ; in the same yard where rest the remains of Dr. Reynolds, once of 
Ringoes. His grave is covered with a beautiful marble slab, with appro- 
priate engravings. 

Doctor George R Morton. I have not been able to learn anything of- his 

Doctor Frauds A. Ewing. Not acquainted with his history. 

Doctor Azariah P. Hunt, is now living and practicing his profession in 
Raritan, Somerset county. 

Doctor John B. Petherbridge. I have not been able to make out an ac- 
count of him. 

Doctor William Schenck practiced in Flemington from 1848 to 1850 ; then 
went to Ringoes, and thence to New York, where he staid until 1858. Went 
from thence to Australia, practicing there several years, and in 1867 returned 
to Flemington, where he is now practicing. 

I)octor Sylvester Van Syckel, located at Clinton, where he is still prac- 

Doctor George N. Burgess, was an Eastern man, came to New Jersey, and 
taught school at one time in Cranberry, Middlesex county. He read with 
Dr. W^^<^^ ^- McElssack, of Millstone, Somerset county, attended a regu- 
lar course of lectures in New York, passed a good examination before the 
Board of Censors A. D. May 6, 1851, and received the diploma of the Med- 
ical Society of New Jersey, under the haad of John H. Phillips, M D., then 






1822 May 7. 

President of the Society. He then returned to his native place where his 
career was short. He had been an active, indnstrions student, and worked 
hard to place himself in a good position in society and his profesdon, which 
haying attained to in both, he dashed the cup of success, the reward of his 
perseverance, from his lips, and applied that which soon destroyed his use- 
fulness and life. He fell regretted by many warm friends and by all who 
knew him. 

Among the papers read before the Society, and which re- 
ceived the marked approbation of the Society — several of 
which were published — the first was on the first semi-annual 
meeting — 

1821 Oct. 28. By Dr. Wm. P. Clark : " A Cursory Analysis of the Theory 

of Health, Predisposition and Disease." 
Wm. Johnson : " An Inquiry into the Nature and 

Cure of Erysipelas." 
John Sloan : " Intermittent Fever." 
J. Bowne : " Observations on Cynanche Trachealis." 
E.Porter: *' Dysentery." 

J. Bowne: "Emphysema following whooping- 
J. Lilly : " Desultory Eemarks on Vaccination." 
Israel Coriell : " Cynanche Trachealis." 
Wm. Johnson : *^ Extra Uterine Foetation." 
J. Lilly : " Fever." 
J*. Lilly : *' Hernia." 
J. Blane : " Allowing Graduates to practice without 

G. P. Rex : " Enteric Fever." 
Samuel Lilly : " Epidemic Cholera." 
Justus Lessey : Subject not named. Elicited vote of 

Wm. S. Creveling : " Phthisis Pulmonalis." 
A. J. MeKelway : ** Psoas Abscess." 
W. Johnson: " Concussion of the Brain." 
W. Johnson : " Erysipelas " — Continued since 1822. 
Samuel Lilly : " Diseases of India, and their Treat- 
ment." « 











































































1864 Oct. 25. By Dr. G. H. Laxiflon : " Small-Pox." 

1865 Oct. 24. " L R. Glen : " Surgery." Ordered printed. 

1865 Oct. 24. " John Blane : " History of Medical Men and Medi- 

cine in upper Towns of Hunterdon." 

1866 May 8. " S. Lilly : " Cholera "— Contmued from 1851. 
1869 April 15. " T. H. Studdiford :" Prolapsus Uteri" 

1869 0<jt. 19. " O. H. Sproul : " Scarlet Feyer." 

1870 Oct. 18. " N. Case :" Cholera Infantum." 

1871 April 18. " T. H. Studdiford : " Report on Surgery." 
1871 April 18. " M. Abel : " Report on Practice of Medicine." 
1871 April 18. " N. 3. Boileau : "Report on Obstetrics." Printed. 
1871 April 18. '* A. W. Armitage : " Phthisis.'^ 

And several others of less importance. And many interesting cases have 
been laid before the Society, which were examined and canvassed with much 



Beriah A. Watson, to Fourth Infantry ; the date of his commission, 25th 
November, 1864 ; of his'Mischarge, 9th July, 1865. He had been Assist- 
ant Surgeon from 26th March, 1863. 

George R. Sullivan, to Thirty-ninth Infantry ; the date of his commission, 
28th Septemberr, 1864 ; of his discharge, 17th June, 1865. He had been 
Assistant Surgeon from 11th July, 1862. 


Alexander Barclay, Jr., to Thirtieth Regiment of Infantry ; the date of his 
commission, 15th September, 1862 ; of his resignation, 5th March, 1863. 

John R. Todd, to Second Regiment Cavalry ; commission dated 15th April, 
1864 ; discharged, 1st November, 1865. 


1850, Samuel Lilly; 1851, G. P. Rex ; 1852, John Blane ; 1859, William 
Johnson; 1862, John Blane; 1864, Henry B. Nightingale ; 1867, 0. W. Lar- 
ison, now in office. 

The roll of Honorary Members contains seven names : 

Isaac Ogden,* elected 11th May, 1826. 
J. R. Ludlow, elected 28th October, 1851. 

* Deoeased. 



William Johnson * elected 8th May, 1866. 

John F. Schenck, elected 12th May, 1868. 

John Blane, elected 12th May, 1868. 

John McKelway, elected 18th of April, 1871. 

Henry S. Harris, elected 18th of April, 1871. 
These two last mentioned bein^j^ the only surviyors of those who founded 
the Society, Dr. McEelway living in Trenton, and Dr. Harris Hying in Bel- 

The meetings have always, with the exceptions of two, 
been held in Flemington ; generally alternating with the two 
hotels, although a part of the time there were four hotels in 
the place, it does not appear they «ver met in other than the 
present ones. The annual meeting, 1862, May 13, was held 
at Perryville, at the office of J. Blane, and the semi-annual 
meeting, 1864, October 25, was held at Lambertville, in the 
office of G. H. Larison. Both meetings were well attended. 

In government we bear and forbear with each other, and 
agree as well as any Society ; but we have had some trouble 
with some getting among us, to whom forbearance ceased to 
be a virtue. 

We have had four cases of disciplining members ; all found 
guilty and expelled from the Society. They knowing their 
sentence just, never gave any trouble aftei;ward : 

First. On 19th June, 1855, for onprofeesional conduct 

Second. On 28tli October, 1856, for practicing Homoeopathy. 

Third. On 20th October, 1857, for charlatanry and advertising. 

Fourth. On 29th October, 1861, for consulting with quacks. 


Elected 19th October, 1869, John Blane. 

Of the ninety-four members, as before mentioned, we have lost by death 
twenty-six members, viz. : Nicholas Belville, James T. Clark, Joseph Phil- 

* Deceased. 


lips, William Johnson, John Bowne, H. H. Schenck, Edmnnd Porter, John 
Lilly, O. W. Ogden, Wm. Bamett, Isaac Ogden, Henry Holcombe, Israel L. 
Coriell, George W. Case, Jacob E. Hedges, Lewis R Keedham, John Man- 
ners, Josiah Quinby, James Pyatt, Abm. T. B. Van Doren, Willard P. Combs 
Charles Bartolette, Simeon S. Dana, Alex. Barclay, Thomas M. Bartolette and 
James Hervey Studdiford. 
. By cutting the county, two members, John McKelway and Joseph Welling. 

By honorable discharge in the county, John Honeyman. 

Removed from county and honorable discharge, twenty-three, eight of 
whom are ascertained to be dead, viz. : Henry B. Poole, William P. Clarke, 
Wm. Geary, John A. Hendry, John Slean, John B. Price, David Hunt, Henry 
Southard ; and living, or supposed to be, Henry S. Harris, Merrill W. Wil- 
liams, Wm. Duryea, Jos. A. Landis, Benjamin Davidson, J. H. Phillips, A. S. 
Clarke, Jacob R. Ludlow, A. J. McEelway, James Riley, A. H. Koon, Henry 
Wagoner, W. A. Hough, B. A. Watson, J. R. Todd. 

Seven were dropped from the roll for delinquency, viz. : W. A. A. Hunt, 
Henry Field, Cicero Hunt, T. Edgar Hunt, John Grandin, Wm. Rice, J. Q. 

Four were expelled from the Society for reasons already stated. 

Thirty-one now belonging ta the Society, viz. : John F. Schenck, John 
Blane, Samuel Lilly, Wm. S. Creveling, Henry Smith, L S. Cramer, John 
Leavett,- J. A. Gray, Matthias Abel, N. B. Boileau, G. H. Larison, H. B. 
Nightingale, John S. Linaberry, M. D. Knight, C. W. Larison, I. R Glen, 
Levi Farrow, George Sullivan, George T. Ribble, Asher Riley, B. B. Mat- 
thews, T. H. Studdiford, O. Herbert Sproul, C. R Cowdrie, Geo. B. Young, 
J. O. Hoff^ Charles Thompson, Richard Ludlow, Nathan Case, Austin W. 
Aimitage, A. S. Pitinger. 


Here on this page, memorial of their zuune. 
We'll write their deeds, and bid them live to lame. 

'* To live in hearts we leave behind us 
Is not to die." 

NICHOLAS BELYILLE. Dr. Belville, being the first named in the com- 
mission, was the first President of our Society. 

He was bom and educated in France, and came to this country in 1781, 
and settled in Trenton, which then, and for many years afterward, const!- 


tuted a part of Hunterdon county. He had a wide^epread reputation, and 
many young men sought his instruction from all parts of the State, owing 
in part to the scarcity of medical schools in those days, and in part to his 
fame as a teacher. 

He had a very eztensiye practice, not only in Trenton, but for many miles 
around, always traveling on horseback at a high rate of speed. It took both 
good horses and good riders to keep up with him. He was quick in action, 
curt in answering, and singular in his manners. 

He was family physician to Joseph Bonaparte, ex-king of Spain, during 
his sojourn in Bordentown, it is said on a stated salary of fiye hundred dol> 
lars a year ; and was the physician for the more fashionable and aristocratic 
part of the community. In business he was direct to the point, and could 
not bear that squeamishness which is so frequently the great annoyance of 
physicians, and always checked it by both words and actions. An example 
or two, among many occurring frequently, will illustrate : 

Two ladies called just as he was about to leave his house ; the one accom- 
panying the other, who came to have a tooth extracted (there were no den- 
tists in those days — physicians extracted teeth), who, telling the doctor their 
business, were invited to take seats, he at the same time commenced to bring 
forth the instruments for extraction. The la^y said, ** You don't mean me 
to be seated down here, doctor ? not down here, I hope.'* The doctor said, 
" Yes, madam, if you wish to have your tooth extracted ; if not you are 
perfectly welcome to any other place in the house, or on the top of it if you 
wish." The tooth was immediately and very dexterously removed. 

On another occasion he was called on by a young gentleman, who had a 
very free young horse, and his father intending to mount the horse on this 
^occasion, was thrown on the broad of his back, and his breath being gone 
he was supposed to be dead. His son mounted the same horse, and rode 
very fast to the doctor. " Doctor, I wish you to come to our house as quickly 
as possible ! " " What is the matter at your house, that you want me there ?" 
" Why, doctor, my father in mounting that horse, was thrown by him. Oh 
doctor, that horse has killed my father 1 " " Well then, my dear young gen- 
tleman, do you go home and bury your father decently ; I have no time to 
attend to dead men." The young man, however, persevered until he got 
the doctor on his horse ; and on arriving at home, which was but a short 
time, they found the old gentleman very comfortable. 

A young man called to have a tooth extracted, and from some cause, 
whether accident or design, he bit the doctor's thumb and fore-finger, and 


finding himself in danger from the doctor's other hand, he was obliged to 
hold on with his teeth till he got in a situation to make good his escape ; 
during which time the doctor was talking to him pretty freely. After his 
escape, he thought it best to keep out of the doctor's way , but, on an occa- 
sion, the doctor coming suddenly into the main road, saw just in advance 
of him this same young man, mounted on horseback too, and the young man 
discovered that it was the doctor about the same moment, and started his 
horse at full speed. The doctor let his horse out, and with many gestures^ 
as if he was preparing to shoot, ran the young gent and his horse into 
Trenton, to the doctor's very great satisfaction and sufficient revenge, and to 
the horror and dismay of his competitor, as he expected to be shot every 
moment — and to the no less amusement of all who saw it, who declared they 
never saw a race better contested. 

The influenza was prevailing at the time of his death. He had it, and 
was conscious of his approaching end. In the evening, his nurse took the 
candle, and was about to leave the room for a moment on some service con- 
nected with her. duty, which he observing, said to her sternly, "Put that 
candle down ! You don't wish to let me. die in the dark, do you ? " 

She thought but little of it, at the moment ; got another candle and 
attended to her affairs. It was but a short time before it was discovered 
that he was dying. 

In the Presbyterian grave- yard in Trenton, we find a slab reading — 

This Stone, 
covers the remains of 
Dr. Nicholas Bblvillb,. 
Bom and educated in ?Vance, 
For 50 years an inhabitant of this city. 
A Patriot warmly attached to the principles of Liberty ; 
A physician eminently learned and successful ; 
A man of scrupulous and unblemished integrity. 

On the 17th day of Dec., 1831, 'at the age of 79 years, 

he closed a life of honor and usefulness. 

By all respected, esteemed and lamented. 

JOHN McKELWAY. Dr. McKelway, one of the founders of the Society 
— the second one named in our charter — ^was then and is still living in Tren- 
ton. He was a very active member during the first years of its existence. In 
1826 be was elected President, likewise senior censor and delegate to the 
Medical Society of New Jersey. Shortly after this our Society took its nap ; 
(uid when it awoke, our brother though living in the same place, was in an- 






other coanty, member of another society. On 18th April, 1871, he was made 
an honorary member by our Society, of which fact I informed him by letter, 
to which I have received no acknowledgment. He is very aged. 

" The ftged pilgrrim, as he stands 

And waits the parting wave, 
Looks over Jordan to that land 

Of bliss beyond the grave. 
Then with a longing heart he treads, 

As forth the pillar moves, 
And the oold stream no longer dreads 

To reach the God he loves." 

• JAMES T. CLARKE. Dr. Clarke, one of the founders of the Society, 
being the third named in the commission, was the son of Dr. Israel Clarke, 
of Clarkesyille, six miles northeast of Trenton. He graduated at Princeton, 
and attended lectures in the University of Pennsylvania, and settled in the 
practice of his profession in Trenton, a little before the war of 1812, where 
he continued to practice until the date of his last illness, (about 1836.) His 
remains were taken to a burying ground near his fathers, three miles east 
of Lawrenceville. I have not had time to visit the place. 

A cotemporary and pupil of his says : " He practiced medicine with ex- 
traordinary success. His popular manners, his education, his fine gentle- 
manly appearance, contributed not less to his professional prominence than 
to those social qualities that greatly endeared him to the best social position 
of the capital of the State, and won for him a popularity that was as exten- 
sive as it was enduring. As a practitioner of medicine, he well sustained 
and even surpassed the reputation of his father-in-law, (Dr. Nicholas Bel- 
ville.) He was emphatically the physician of Trenton and its vicinity. He was 
naturally fond of living well, which brought on an attack of gout, of which 
he lingered some months and died." I believe he left no children. 

JOSEPH PHILLIPS. The fourth name in order on our roll is that of 
Dr. Phillips, who was at that time, and for many years both before and after, 
practicing at Lawrenceville. He is represented as being a worthy man and 
safe practitioner. He does not appear to have taken much interest in the 
Society, &s his name does not appear on roll-call after the formation of the 

WILLIAM JOHNSON.* Dr. Johnson, the fifth name mentioned in our 

* For obituaiy, see page 218 of TransaotlonB of Medical Society of New Jersey, 1867. 


chart, was bom at Princeton, N. J., February 18th, 1789. He was the son 
of Thomas P. Johnson, a lawyer of great ability, and Mary Stockton, his 
wife. (His portrait adorns the court-room at Flemington.) He read with 
Dr. John Van Cleve, of Princeton, as his preceptor, attended lectures in the 
University of Pennsylvania, was licensed April 25th, 1811, and commenced 
the practice of his profession at Whitehouse, July 14th, 1811, and soon got 
into a wide practice. He wrote for several papers and medical journals, 
much of which was copied by foreign journals. He was preceptor to John 
B. Price, (the first one who applied to this Society for examination, which 
he passed, and became a member of the Society,) the late Dr. Peter Haas, 
Dr. John Honeyman, of New Germantown, Dr. Henry Field, of Clinton, the 
late Dr. John Gaddis, of Fairview, HI., Dr. Andrew Otterson, of Brooklyn, 
Dr. Jacob Field, of Salterville, N. J., and his own two sons, Drs. Thomas and 
John y. C. Johnson. 

He was the first Vice-President at the formation of the Society, and the 
next year the same, and again in 1848, and again in 1856. He was Presi- 
dent of our Society in 1824, 1836, 1849, 1857. 

He was one of the Board of Censors for, 1823-26-27-28-47-48-51-52-54 

On May 13th, 1823, he was elected Third Yice-President of the Medical 
Society of New Jersey. (See page 12 of the Transactions of the Medical 
Society of New Jersey, 1867. Motion of Dr. Blane.) 

He was a very attentive member of this Society as long as his health and 
sight would admit of his traveling. In his intercourse with his patients he 
was kind and affectionate, soothing where he could not heal. In his inter- 
course with his brother practitioners, he needed no written code of ethics to 
keep him in the line of duty. With him it was natural to be courteous and 
honorable with every one. 

He was for more than fifty years a member, and mbst of the time ruling 
elder in the Reformed Church, at Rockaway, and died triumphing through 
the merits of the Saviour at his residence, at Whitehouse, N. J., on Sabbath 
morning, January 13th, 1867, being in the 78th year of his age. He retained 
full control of his mental faculties until but a few moments before his death. 

His funeral took place 17th, when an impressive and eloquent discourse 
was delivered by the pastor, Rev. Mr. Van Slycke, from Joshua, 1st chap., 
2d V. : " Moses my servant is dead." His remains were interred in the ceme- 
tery attached to that church, there to remain until called forth at the resur- 
rection of the just. 





HENRY B. POOLE. Dr. Poole is the sixth name in the commission for 
instituting our Society. He was the .first Secretary, which office he held five 
years, being a very efficient officer. His manner of keeping the records 
. shows him to have been a man of business tact. 

He was bom in Enfield, England, eleven miles from London, April 24th, 
ifoi, came to this country 1801, spending his tenth birthday on board the 
ship. His parents, Cyn^ and Jane Poole, landed in New York and re- 
mained in that city two years, and then removed to New Brunswick, N. J., 
where the father was known as a popular and very efficient school-teacher, 
and where young Henry was educated at Rutgers College, graduating at 
eighteen, receiving the first honors of his class. 

He then spent several years as teacher of a high school, and also as a pri- 
vate teacher, receiving a thousand dollars a year from the patroon of Albany 
for teaching his children, four or five in number, being a veiy uncommon 
salary in those days. 

In 1816 he married, and commenced the study of medicine with Dr. 
Augustus R. Taylor, of New Brunswick, and in 1818 he applied for exami- 
nation to the Censors of the District Medical Society of Somerset County, 
who, owing to the shortness of his pupilage, gave him a thorough and 
scrutinizing examination, and recommended him for license, which he 
received. At the formation of the Society, and for some time both before 
and afterward, he was practising in Flemington, from whence he removed 
to Sidney and vicinity, where he practiced some three or four years, 
living one year or more in Philip Grandine's house, the same in Abm. Shurt^s 
house, and the same in the large stone mansion of Charles Coxe, Esq. 

In 1821, (semi-annual meeting,) he was one of the first delegates to the 
^•^' Medical Society of New Jersey, and was likewise appointed a Censor, and 

in 1822 he was elected Vice-President of the Medical Society of New Jersey. 
In 1826 he was Vice-President of this Society. 

In 1827 he removed to New York, where he resided two years, and then 
went to South River, in Middlesex County, where he continued his profes- 
sional duties until 1855, when he was attacked with paralysis, from which he 
partially recovered, but was not able to practice much. He died December 
2d, 1861. ■ His remains were interred in the cemetery of that place. I have 
not been able to get the inscription on his monument. 

He married Miss Olivia M^ Jaques, daughter of Samuel Jaques, of Middle- 
sex, who with one daughter and four sons survived him. None of the sons 
are in the profession. Three went to California, enterprising men making 
their mark in the world. 



The Dr. was indeed a man of genius, high-minded and honors 
selfish enough to appropriate to himself wb&t rightfully belong* 

WILLIA.U P. CLARE. Dr. Patterson Clark, the seventh ni 
charter, was one of the founders of this Society. He was the 
. Joseph Clark, pastor of the First Presbyterian Church in New 
and brother of Col. Peter L Clark, of FlemiDgton. Hegr&duati 
ton, 181Q. After receiving his medical education, he practiced 
in Wilkesbarre, Pa,, from which place he removed to or near CI 
called Hunt's Mills,) in Hunterdon County. Here we find bin 
the formation of the Society, and at the semi-annual meeting ri 
essay, "A Cursory Analysis of the theory of Health, Predisp 
Disease.'' He was a regular attendant on the meetings of the 
183S, during which time be wa^, in 1833, Chairman of the Sta 
mittee, and in 183G and '37 he was Third Vice-President of 
Society of New Jersey. He moved to Belvidere, in Warren Coui 
where he practiced his profession until he died, which event tool 
tember 4tb, 18ST. 

He waa never married, aad the circle of his immediate telativt 
But when he passed away, the whole community seemed to mo 
a relative, such close attachment had his genial temper and 
thrown around them. 

JOHN BpWNE.* Dr. John Bowne, being the eighth name 
mission, was bom in Monmouth 'County, September 3d, 1767 
ceiving his common-school education, he prepared for his 
studies in the Academy at Freehold, irom which he received a d 
tifying to his proficiency in the " Greek and Latin languages, and 
Bciences, usually taught in Colleges," signed by John Woodhull 
other officers of the institutJon. He read medicine with Moi 
New Brunswick, rfho at that time waa a prominent member of 
sion in New Jersey, being President of the Medical Society of '. 
He attended medical lectures in Philadelphia, and was the offici 
Prof. William Shipman. He was licensed to practice medicine 
in this State August 3d, 1701, by James Kiosey and Isaac Smith 
the Supreme Court of New Jersey, on the certificate of Drs. Ji 
Normandie and Francis Bowes Sayre, [who at that time waa the 

* For oWtnary, tee paga 96 ot vol. S of tha Medical and Surgical Beporti 




Secretary of the Medical Society of New Jersey,) which certificate was 
granted the same day. 

He located at Prallsyille in the autumn of 1791, and moved to the farm 
near Ringoes, where he lived sixty-one and-a-half years. It is now known 
as Barber's Station on the Flemington Railroad. 

He was honored with the honorary degree of M. D. by the Medical. 
Society of New Jersey, ^^pridie ants Idus, Mail Anno Domini miZlesrimo oetin- 
gmtissimo quinqtutgessimo et Soeietatis octogesHmo quarto?'* He was also a 
member of the Cliosophic Society of Nassau Hall, his diploma bearing date 
A. D. 1818. He was for more than fifty years a ruling elder in the Second 
Presbyterian Church of Amwell, during the ministry of the Rev. Messrs* 
Grant, Eirkpatrick and Osmund. He died November 4th, 1857, on his 
farm, now the residence of his only son, Hon. Joseph G. Bowne. 

** Dr. Bowne was a most remarkable man. Although of small stature, he 
^i^ . was blessed with a very robust constitution, was a man of the most indom- 

itable energy, untiring industry, and great perseverance. His practice in his 
palmiest days, extended over an area of more than twenty miles long by dx 
miles wide, at a time when public roads were few and far between, his labors 
being performed principally on horseback. He might, at all times and 
seasons of the year, in fair weather or foul, be seen emerging from his gat-e 
at the earliest dawn, on his daily visits to his patients. As a physician, he 
was bold, and at the same time a sound and judicious practitioner. He 
had the most perfect reliance in the efficacy of his remedies, and adminis- 
tered them without faltering, and with such bearing as secured for him the 
confidence of his patients, among whom his word was law ; a violation of 
which was soon to be visited with such reproof as prevented a repetition. 

He possessed the regard and esteem of all his professional brethren in a 
most unbounded degree. Careful never to overstep the bounds of profes- 
sional etiquette in his intercourse with his brethren, he would never brook 
such breaches in others. One of the original founders of this Society, and 
also one of those to whom it was indebted for its resusci\ation, he remained 
a steadfast member until his death, and active until compelled to rest on 
account of bodily infirmities. 

The character of Dr. Bowne as a citizen, companion, friend and Christian, 
was that of a high-toned gentlemen, very genial in his intercourse with those* 
into whose presence he was thrown, very fond of his joke, quick at repartee, 
close and untiring in his friendship, and an humble Christian, always to be 
found in his seat in the sanctuary, unless kept away by professional duties. 


His faneral was atteoded by a very numerous concourse of sympathizmg 
relatives and friends, among whom were to bo seen a large body of his pro- 
fessional brethren.*' 

His remains were intered in the Barber burying-ground, on the road from 
Head-Quarters to Lambertville, where a beautiful engraved obelisk of Italian 
marble, marks the grave, beariofi: on shaft : 

On the right-band Bide, 
Obrerse side, John Bownk, M. D., 

"Thou Shalt come a . i?^?^ h-a., 

to thy grave in a full age, September 2d 1 / 67, 

„« « «i„>«i, «*•«««, Licensed 

as a shock of com . . . „, Hnn-t 

. Cometh in his season." August 3d 1791, 

On the Die, November 4th, 1857. 

Plfkv years a 
Father, Mother Ruling Elder in the 

*°<i 2d Presbyterian Church, Amwell. 


On the left-hand side. 
On the revenie, 

Ann Coolb, 
Cornelia, Wife of 

B«rn John Bowne, M. D. 

May 5th, 1795, . Bom 

I>ied March 5th, 1770, 

May 16th, 1802. Died 

February 18th, 1856. 

WHiLIAM GEABY. Dr. Geary was named the ninth one in the com- 
mission for founding the Society, but was not present at its organization, 
and there is no evidence that he ever took an active part in the Society. 
His name appears but once on the roll of meetings after the organization. 
He was a Scotchman by birth, and I presume was educated there. He 
lived and practiced in Flemington, succeeding Dr. John Gregg in the early 
part of the present century, who left and went to Pennsylvania. Dr. Geayy 
was a very popular practitioner, particularly as an obstetrician, although 
he professed not to like that branch of the business. He was quick, shrewd, 
active, rode on horseback, and that at a high rate of speed. He entered the 
sick chamber, made his examination and prescription, and was off. In 1832 
he was still in Flemington, but left shortly after for Trenton, where he lived 
but a short time, and died. He left a widow and several sons, but none in 
the profession, and several daughters. 

Had Dr. Geary lived in times when the manners and customs of society 
were different, his talent, his reputation, with his activity in business, would 

■»'■ *. 








kftTe flecmred to him an mdependence, which, to the aoitow of his friends, 
fhey did not poflseao, at least throagh his instrumentality. 

Since writing the aboye, I haye receiyed the following from the pen of the 
late Dr. Johnson : ^ Dr. William Geary was a natiye of Scotland. He was 
a graduate of the literary department of the Uniyersity of Aberdeen ; he 
come to Trenton early in the present century, and was principal of a Latin 
school in that place. Whilst pursuing the employment of a teacher he de- 
yoted himself to the study of medicine, under the superintendence of the 
late Br. Nicholas Belville, of that place. He attended a course of medical 
lectures in Philadelphia, and haying obtained a license to practice from the 
constituted authorities of the State, he established himself at Flemington, 
and from 1808 to 1815 he enjoyed a most extensiye practice, and an enyiable 
reputation. Afler remaining at Flemington for seyeral years, he remoyed to 
Trenton, and died there. He was small in stature, of pleasing address, and 
of great decision of character. At the time of his death he was a member 
of the Presbyterian Church." 

HENRY S. HARRIS. Dr. Harris, whose name stands tenth on our roll, 
was one of the founders of the Society, is still liying, and was by a yote of 
our Society, (April ISth, 1871,) made an honorary member of the same, which 
fact was .communicated to him by me by letter (agreeably to your instruc- 
tions to that effect) on June 1st, 1871. On July 8th, 1871, 1 receiyed the 
following acknowledgment from Dr. Harris : ^* For the honor conferred by 
said Society, please accept, dear sir, on my behalf, my yery sincere thanks, 
and tender to the members of said Society my yery grateful acknowledgments 
for their memorial record." And haying requested of him a sketch of his 
medical history, I receiyed the following, and not seeing how to render it of 
more import by condensing, I giye it as he wrote it to me : 

John Blane, M. D. BuLyiDERE, July 6th, 1871. 

Dear Doctor : As you requested a sketch of my medical history, I will 
gratify you for your hind notice in as brief a manner as possible. Beginning 
at the commencement — 

First, I read, studied and practiced medicine under the superyision of 
that eminent physician, Henry Vandeveer, of Bedminster, Somerset County, 
N. J., for the term of four years ; then attended a course of lectures in Phil- 
adelphia the winter of 1817-18. (Dr. Wistar died about the middle of the 
course.) The spring ensuing, I returned to New Brunswick, and entered the 
office of the yenerable Charles Smith, M. D., to prepare for examination at 


aeeting of the Medic&l Bociety of Hiddleaex Cotmty, in Jnne of that 
when I presented mjBelf^ with Beveial others, and was passed SJid given 
tificate for a diploma, which was granted by the President of the State 
cal Society of New Jeraej, Dr. John Van Cleve. Then, baoyont with 
88 and hope of being nseful in the healing art, I commenced the prac- 
>f my profession in Hunterdon Count;, two years previous to the for- 
m of your Society, and continued it for nine years afler, at Milford and 
it Pleasant, frequently riding several milea into Pennsylvania. Although 
Bsful, yet not satis&eS with the income, I made arrangements, and 
d to Marlborough, Monmouth County, N. J. ; remained there four 
, and returned to the vicinity of my preceptor, and resided there three 
, expecting to succeed him. But the prospect of long life, and his con- 
nce in the practice, induced me to seek my fortune at Allamuchy, War- 
iounty, N. J., where I have labored assiduouBly in the practice of my 
ssion for the space of thirty-five years, with usual and approved suc- 
till last spring, when I retired from the practice of physic and all active 
ess at the age of nearly seventy-six years, and have moved to the town of 
dere, to rest and enjoy church privileges together with the society of 
Aildrtn, for the remaining few days of my life, and, alun ended, trust 
hope, through the proviuons of a merciful Providence, I may receive 
'elcome plaudit: " Wdldont! enter thou into the joys of thy Lord." 
Yours, fraternally, 

H. B, TTiubtb, 

HN A. HENDRY. Dr. Eendiy, tha eleventh name on our list of 
hers, was one of the founders of this Society. He practiced at Ringoes, 
in the house since occupied by Dr. Cicero Hunt ; sold out to Dr. Mer- 
^hitney Williams in 1837. He was an active member of the Society 
I this time, when he took a certificate and was honorably discharged, 
ice wiifing the above, I received a letter from Dr. Cicero Hunt, con- 
ig Infonnation from Dr. Hendry's daughter, in which ^e says : " Dr. 
Hendry was the oldest son of CapL Hendry and Elizabeth Anderson ; 
3om at Burlington, N. J., in 1786. 

ter completing his studies, he went to Morristown for examination, 
e he received the following 

lese are to certify, That, in pursuance of an appointment of the Honor- 
the Justices of the Supreme Court, and in contbrmity of an act of the 
slMore of the State of .New Jersey, passed the twenty-aizth day of M(^■ 



vember, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-three, and a supplement 
thereto, passed the second day of November, one thousand seven hundred 
and eighty-six, 

We, Drs. William Camfield and Louis Condict, have this day examined 
John A. Hendry, and he having given satisfactory proof of his knowledge 
and skill in physic and surgery, we do hereby recommend him as a fit and 
proper person to practice in the said faculties throughout the State of New 

In Testimony Whereof, we have hereunto subscribed our names, and 
affixed our seals to this instrument, at Morristown, this twenty-eighth day of 
May, one thousand eight hundred and eight. ^ 

[l.s.] William Camfield, 

[l.8.] Lewis Condict, M. D. 

Upon the presentation of Vhich to the Justices of the Supreme Court, he 
received the following 

T0<illto vihom thue PretenU shall com» or may concern : 

Know Ye, That in pursuance of an act of the Council and General As- 
sembly of the State of New Jersey, passed the twenty-sixth day of Novem- 
ber, Anno Domini one thousand seven hundred and eighty-three, entitled An 
act to regulate the practice of Physic and Surgery within the State of New 
Jersey, and a supplement thereto, passed the second day of November, Anno 
Domini 1786, John A. Hendby having been duly examined in phyMc and 
surgery by Drs. William Camfield and Lewis Condict, as appears by their 
certificate. They having approved of his skill, 

We, the subscribers, two of the Justices of the Supreme Court of the State 
of New Jersey, do admit him hereby as a Physician and Surgeon, to practice 
in the said faculties thrqughout the State of New Jersey. 

In Testimony Whereof, we have hereunto subscribed our names, and affixed 
our seals to this insti ument, this thiity-first of May, in the year of our Lord 
one thousand eight hundred and eight. 

[l.8.] Kirefatbicx, 

[L.B.] Fbnninqton. 

He commenced the practice of medicine at Ringoes in June or July, 
1808. He was married to Abby Chambers, third daughter of Robert and 
Frances Reeder Chambers, at Mill Hill, Trenton, N. J., April 18th, 1810. 

They had nine children, six of whom are still living. Montgomery Cham- 
bers and Henry Holcombe studied with him some time at Ringoes. He was 
commissioned by Gov. Aaron Ogden surgeon of the militia of Hunterdon 
County. Drs. Pyatt and Geary were his associates. 

He became a member of the Society of the Cincinnati of New Jersey 
after the death of his father, Capt. Samuel Hendry, who was an officer in 
the Revolutionary War, and stood by the side of General Washington at 
the time that Mf^or Andre was executed. 


' " ' fnv 


Dr. Hendry remoyed with his family to the city of New York in 1827, and 
there commenced the practice of medicine. He became a member of the 
Medical Society of the City and County of New York, (incorporated A. D. 
1806,) on July 12th, 1831. 

He was appointed (at the time the cholera prevailed in 1882) by the City 
Councils, Chief Physician of the Tenth Ward, and so skillfully and satis- 
factorily did he discharge the arduous duties imposed on him. that he was 
not only highly complimented by the Corporation, but they requested him 
to deliver an address and dine with them July 4th, 1888, which he respect- 
fully declined he being a member of the Cincinnati Society, and having 
promised to dine with them. 

The late Dr. Isaac B. Munn, of Chatham, N. J., finished his studies with 
him, and was a partner of his at the time of his death. 

He died at noon on June 28d, 1884, by the breaking of a blood vessel, at 
his residence, No. 168 Grand street, New York, aged 48 years, and was 
buried at Stuyvesant Church." 

HENRY H. SCHENCE, Jr. Dr. Schenck, one of the founders of the 
Society, was practising at Quakertown in 1820. Name stands twelfth on the 
roll He was the oldest son of Dr. Henry Schenck and his wife, Ellen Har- 
denberg, daughter of the Rev. Jacob R. Hardenberg, minister of the 
Reformed Church at Raritan, Somerset County, N. J. He was bom in the 
State of New York, in February, 1782, his father afterward removing to 
Neshamie, N. J. 

He appears at an early age to have been largely imbued with the spirit of 
adventure, and enlisted in the United States Army, but being a minor, his 
fiftther would not suffer him to stay in the army. At the age of seventeen 
he married Miss Jane Herder, aged sixteen years. He studied his profession 
with his father, but such was his love of adventure and excitement, that he 
again joined the army of the United States, some time before the war of 
1812, in which he served (part of the time under General Scott) seven years, 
was taken prisoner at the battle of Queenstown Heights, being to the close 
of the war, when he again betook himself to his profession ; practiced at 
Quakertown in 1820, shortly after which he removed to Readington, where 
he had practiced some time before. His abilities as a physician are acknow- 
ledged both by the profession and the public, with whom he was popular. 
Had he given his whole energy to the profession, he would have been one of 
its brightest ornaments. He left a widow and several children, none of them 
in the profession. 



He is said to have settled in Keadington abqjiit 1810, and lived in the 
house once occupied as a parsonage by the Rev. Simeon Vonartsdalen, about 
Jwo miles from the church, on the road leading from Readington to White- 
house. He afterward moved to the brick building known as she '^Ten 
Eyck house," on the old York road, about one and a half miles east of the 
church, where he lived about two years, when he moved a few hundred yards 
further east, on the place now occupied by Mr. Titus, where he died. He 
had, as before stated, practiced some of that time in Quakertown, where he 
was in 1820. 

His remains rest in the church-yard at Readington. On his headstone 
may be foimd the following : 


Memory of 

Dr. Hei^ry Schenck, Jr., 

Who departed this life 

Dec. 20th, 1823, 

4 Aged 41 years and 10 months. 

• Our labor's done, securely laid. 
In this our last retreat ; 
Unheeded o'er our silent dust, 
The storms of life shall beat. 

EDMUND PORTER Dr. Porter, whose name stands thirteen on our 
roll of members, was a native of Connectic^ut. He c&me to Easton 
and mairied Miss Mary Moore, and practiced ihetfi a short time. He 
then moved to Union County, in Pennsylvania, where he practiced some 
time ; then went to the West Indies and spent some time, which he consid- 
ered a great advantage to him, but it was probably an injury. The forma- 
tion of the Society found him at Frenchtown. He took an active part, and 
was one of the first delegates to the Medical Society of J^ew Jersey. In 
1823 he read a dissertation before the Society on Dysentery. 

His last appearance at the roU-caU was May 2d, 1826. He probably died 
soon afterward. He was buried in the Ringwood Presbyterian church-yard. 
His family, consisting of widow and three sons, Edmund, Samuel Moore 
Leonidas, and Thomas Miner, went back to Easton. They are said to be all 
dead, which is certainly true in regard to all except Samuel M. L. He went 
to Oregon, and has not been heard from in so long a time, that the presump- 
tion is that he, too, is dead. One of his sons, (Edmund,) had his remains 
removed from Ringwood church-yard to the cemetery at Easton, where the 
remains of his wife and son Thomas arp buried, and where a stone is erected 
with this inscription : 



In Memory of 
Edmund Pouter, jM. D., 
Died at Frenchtown, N. J., July 12tli, 1826, 
Aged 35 years, 11 months and 25 days. 


ffis wife, died in Easton, July 2d, 1838, 

Aged 53 years, 7 months and 14 days. 

Thomas Miner, 

Son of Edmund and Mary Porter, 

Died Oct. 19th, 1856, 

Aged 33 years, 7 months and 11 days. 

His son Edmund was a printer, is represented as being a very worthy man ; 
died of small pox at Harrisburg lately. S. M. Leonidas is represented as a 
young man of good parts, very eccentric, and not bound to business ; went 
to Oregon; has not been heard of for many years; presumed to be dead. 
Thomas Miner was an apothecary. They left no descendants. 

He is represented as a good scholar, energetic in business, a ready writer, 
a person of gentlemanly mien, very sociable, and more so since his short 
residence in the West Indies. He stood high in the Masonic Fraternity. 

A cotemporary in the profession says of him : *' He had a turn for 
politics, and while at Frenchtown ran for Assemblyman at the Hunterdon 
caucus twice, the last time with success. He had naturally a good mind, 
possessed great social qualities, was a successful practitioner while at 
Frenchtown, and would have risen to eminence and great usefulness, had he 
cultivated carefully his God-given genius, and abstained altogether from 
the intoxicating cup« Instead of doing that,, he yielded to temptation, like 
many other bright stars of that day, whose lights set in obscurity." 

This agrees with and reminds me of an anecdote I often heard in the first 
years of my practice. It was related of him that he said, ^^ He could not 
turn water into wine, but he could turn Brandy into Porter." 

Since writing the above, I received a letter from Samuel Moore, Esq., his 
brother-in-law, of Easton, Pa., which I feel under obligation to offer as I 
received it 
Doctor Blanb: Easton, August 11, 1871. 

Bear Sir — Agreeable to your request, I have made diligent search for the 
papers beloDgiug to the late Dr. Edmund Porter, and have found but One, 
which contains bome principal important facts, which speak for themselves, 
in his own handwriting. 1 regret very much the loss ot his papers, as some 
of them were interesting and valuable. 

Those of his Recipes, showing the practice of Medicine at that time — his 
certificate from the Societies, one of which was in Spanish (that of St* Bar- 
tholomewsj, and all on parchment. 




His paper books, in which he noted down all his " caseSj^^—the 83rmptoms, 
disease, prescriptions, medicine administered, quantity, doses, and the effects 
produced from day to day, and the result. All his writings, published and 
unpublished, were written in books kept fdr that purpose. Medical, politi- 
cal, and various subjects, or miscellaneous, separate, with a great number of 
loose papers. He was very particular in noting the state of the weather — 
the changes and the effects upon his patients. In all these matters he was 
yery careful — the whole constituting a valuable and useful diary of events. 
I was not aware of the loss until I made strict inquiry ; and it was caused 
by the intolerable nuisance of ** house cleaning ^^ semi-annually, that caused 
the destruction. 

I forward you an excellent likeness of the Doctor, which I found in the 
trunk of his son Edmund, which you will please present to the " Medical 
Society of Hunterdon County ,^^ as a gift from me, believing tbat^ they would 
prize it more highly than any others I could leave it. All the family of 
Porters are gone— all of my sisters and brothers in law. There is none left 
that have any recollection of Dr. Porter. Please accept it as a gift to the 
Medical Society firom the last survivor. 

.1 am, very respectfully yours, &c., 
^ S. MOORE. 

An exact copy of the aforementioned paper. 

To futurity I address myself in. the year of our Lord 1828 — Perhaps this 
memento may be of service or curiosity to future generations, it found 
among the rubibh of this mansion errected by order of Edmund Porter M. D. 
Physician and Surgeon — Member of and principle founder of the Medical 
Society of Hunterdon County N. Jersey Licentiate of the Connecticut Med- 
ical Society also of the Medical Society of Saint BartholemewSf »nd Union 
Medical Society of Pennsylvania, and author of a number of Medical Essays, 
Political pieces to be found in the New York Medical Repository and Amer- 
ican Medical Recorder, The New England Journal of Medicine and in the 
Newspapers viz The Trentoa True American — The Spirit of Penn* The 
Eastern Centinel &c &c — ^Edmund Pobteb aetis 82. 

listing facts 
James Munro President of the United States. 

W. H. Williamson Governor of New Jersey. 

Architects of this Building Eneas Rose first Mason 

Ashton second 

do. David Everett Joiner and House Carpenter, — Names of Persons, who 
assisted at the several parties in digging Seller — tending masons quarrying 
stone and carting the same — viz John Powers Blacksmith John B. Tomer 
Sadler Joshua Hogeland Blacksmith, John Price Shoemaker Andrew Curtis 
Blacksmith, Reuben Warford and Allen Rittenhouse apprentice Blacksmiths 
Ralph Matthews and John Grossman Cabinet Makers Jacob Weltz Silver 
Smith George Frees Inn keeper, Frank Peltz an old soldier of the w^ar of 
1812.13.14 & 15 Henry Crout Farmer, Jesse Waric Hatter Peter Snyder 
weaver Z. Larush farmer, Charles Birch Laborer, Major Rose of the Militia 
Carters of stone Uriah Bonum Benjamin Jacoby, John Rodenback, Mat«- 
thiaa Salter, Philip Slout, Captain Benjamin Metier Henry Lott John Yoor- 



his John Hootman, Garner Thatcher, Joseph Everitt Henry Wurtz, John 
Weltz aged .... Daniel Opdikeall farmers Mr. Jones, Samuel Wurtz, John 
Gorden, John Thatcher Mr. Sipes, Sam' & John Snyder, Daniel Everit 
Charles Wolverton Nathaniel Thatcher &c &c These persons were among 
the first persons previously to the deposition of this memorandum in the 
seller wall — 
To them I am under particular obligations — 

Paul H. M. Presoit Esquire is the Principle owner of the Property in this vi- 
cinity — David Warford Post Master, and Merchant, Widow Naomi Frees mis- 
tress of the Alexandria Hotel — The fourth of July is to be celebrated in this 
town on the approaching aniversary, it being the 47 of American Independ- 
ence William Voorhis & John Clifford Esquires and Sam'- Powers and David 
R. Warford Presidents and Vice Presidents of the day. Doctor Albert Tyler 
is to deliver the Oration, Doctor Luther Towner the Invocation, and the 
Honourable Joshua B. Colvin is to read the Declaration of Independence — 
The Rev**- Mr- Hunt is requested to make a short address. 

Capt. John Scott is appointed marshal of the day and Capt. Ezra Brews- 
ter will appear with the Kingwood Uniform Company Equiped and in 
Uniform A dinner. Toasts, music, and the roar of cannon to conclude the 
festivities of .the day — 

Edmund Porter was bom in Haddam Connecticut June 18*** 1791— Emi- 
grated to Penn» in 1815 — married Mary Moore September the 28* 1816 — 
Have three children viz. — Edmund Porter J'- Born January 10* 1820 — Sam- 
uel Mooi-e Leonidas Porter, born March 26* 1821--Thomas Miner Porter, 
born March 8* 1823. 

Commenced the practice of Medicine in this town 10* June, 1820,~Inter- 
mltting fever makes its appearance after an absence of 20 years — has been 
common along the banks of the Delaware River, and Dysenteria interiorly — 
Charcoal pulverized proved a useful adjunct in the latter complaint — 

The seasons for five years past, has been remarkably dry — The present 
year 1823, has thus far been cold and inclement; frost and ice seen on the 
5* and 6* May — Crops look well June 21st. 

Finder of this document know sir that I wrote it to amuse ; if it should 
afford you any, remember the end of all things, and prepare yourself to die 
as all of us have done, whose names you see enrolled on this memorial, — We 
all had our virtues (and vices) each of us was of service to society in their 
several capacities in life — We are no more. We look to future generations to 
preserve unimpaired the liberty and Independence which thus fiBir we have 
assisted to perpetuate at the risque of our lives and fortunes — 

This voice from the TOMBS 

admonishes yon to do the same as we have done for you I ! ! 



^tt * 

This Memorial Written June 21*' 1828 


Deposited a pint of Whiskey or apple Brandy; That you may hare a 


taste of what your ancestors once drank— It will be a curiosity to taste of 
the necter of United Republican America now containing 24 Independent 

Deposited — also several newspapers containing the intelligence of the 


The original of the above was deposited in the wall of the house, and 
remained there say about thirty years. Curiosity prompted its removaL 

JOHN SLOAN. Doctor Sloan, one of the founders of the Society, being 
the fourteenth on its roll of members, was the son of Rev. William B. 
Sloan, for many years pastor of the Presbyterian Church in Greenwich, 
Warren county. New Jersey. He resided near Bloomsbury. Dr. Sloan's 
name appears as present with the Society for the last time, 22d October, 
1822, at which time he read a dissertation on intermittent fever. Shortly 
after which he left his location at filoomsbury to Dr. Hughes and went to 
Washington in Warren county, where Dr. Hughes had been practicing six 

He continued in Washington but a short time, then went to the city of 
New York, and opened an apothecary shop ; stayed some time, and removed 
to Eastern Pennsylvania, where he practiced and kept an apothecary shop, 
and where, with a little more perseverance, he would have been no doubt, 
very successful. 

As a practitioner he was popular, and only required time and adherence 
in a steady course to arrive at eminence, which quality he did not seem to 
cultivate. He removed to Utica in the State of New York, staid a short 
time, and thence to Asbury, in Warren county, where he staid but a few 
weeks or months (this was about the year 1835) and then moved back agun 
to Easton, where he continued to practice until his death. 

His remains were interred in the ground attached to the First Presbyterian 
Church of Easton, where a stone standing at the head of the grave bears this 
inscription : 

This Stone 
Marks the mortal resting place 
of ^^ 

John P.* Sloan, M. D. 
son of the 
Rev'd William B. Sloan, 

Born May 26th, 1799 
Died February 10th, 1849. 

And of hia wife 


Daughter of Henry Hankinsc 

Born July 28th, 1801 ; 

Died October lath, 1S53. 

Their lives and profesaiun eutil 

To trust that they sleep in Jesi 

They lefl three children. John Bloan is a painte 
Dr. A. C. Smith, at that time of Riegelsville, eiuce 
deceased) ; and one married, and sud to be living 

JOHN LH-LT. Dr. Lilly, one of the first mem 
fifteenth on the roll, was bom in BtafTordshire, 1 
Came to this country when b, child with hw parenti 
city of New York. 

Hia father, Samuel Lilly, had been a barrister i 
arrival in this country, adopted the profession cf 
fine claasical and belles-lettres scholar. From Ni 
Albany, N. Y., where, at the instance of a warm 
orders in and became a minister of the Protestant 
afterivard became Rector of St. John's Church, Eliz: 
time he perfortoed the marriage ceremony for I 
resident of that ancient borough. 

During the residence of his father at Albany, Di 
ticed (as was the custom in those days) to Dr. Sam 
celebrated physician and surgeon of that city, and 
of four years ; at the expiration of which, (in the 
license to practice, and settled at Lansingburg, a ff 
remaining; there about one year. He removed to I 
in 1808, succeeding Dr. John Van Horn, then recei 
diatriy applied for license to practice his professioi 
duly granted, the venerable Dr. Mosea Scott of Nev 
the examiners. The same year he was married by i 
pastor of the Reformed Church at Readington, 
Btuddiford of Lambertville, to Miss Julia Moodie, 
come acquainted at Lansingburg, and who was at 
the family of Oire — Lane, a respectable and promii 

In the Spring of 1809 Dr. Lilly removed to I 
Georgetown), where he practiced his profession as 
son, who had then recently died. Here he n 

i^>.;.:i' ;.' 



laborious duties of his profession (interrupted only by a service of two years 
as member of the Legislative Council, to which body he was elected in 
1840 and 1841) until June, 1848, when he died, followed in less than one 
month by his beloved wife. 

Dr. Lilly never had children. His mantle fell upon the shoulders of hia 
nephew Dr. Samuel Lilly, who was educated by him and succeeded to his 

Dr. Lilly was, physically, a delicate man, his height five feet seven inches, 
his weight never exceeding one hundred pounds. His mind and character 
were those of a refined gentleman ; scrupulously neat in his personal habits, 
pure and chaste in all his acts and words. The writer, during a close inti- 
macy of nearly twenty years, during which he has seen him in all kinds 
of company, never heard a word or an intimation pass his lips, which could 
not have been uttered in the most refined circle. This purity and refine- 
ment was very prominent in all his writings ; he being a frequent contribu- 
tor to the periodicals of the day, and frequently appearing before his fellow- 
citizens in the character of a lecturer before the local literary societies. 

As a physician, he was very attentive to his patients ; his judgment sound 
and clear, and his practice in emergent and dangerous cases prompt and 
energetic. He was not slow to adopt any new or improved mode of treat- 
ment, if it had the approbation of his judgnfent. 

His success was as marked as that of the most successful. He was always 
a stickler for the more rigid professional ethics. He never permitted himself 
to be betrayed into a violation of the strictest code, and was not slow to 
« condemn such violations on the part of others. He became a member of this 
Society on its first organization, and was one of the petitioners for a resusci- 
tation of the same in 1836, and again in 1846, and continued to be an 
active member until his death. 

He was also Corresponding Secretary of the New Jersey Medical Society 
in 1827 and 1882, and of the Standing Committee in 1831, and Chairman of 
the same in 1847. 

At the time of his death he was Senior Warden of Saint Andrew's Church, 
Lambertville — on one of the walls in the interior of which edifice is a tablet 
erected to his memory, the inscription on which ends with these words : 

"In pace dormet." 

OLIVER WAYNE OQDEN. Dr. Ogden, one of the first members of the 
Society, being sixteenth on the roll, lived at that time in New Qermantown, 
He was a nephew of Dr. Isaac Ogden, of that place. 



A brother in the profession, and neighbor, Dr. John Honeyman, says of 
him : '' I know nothing of his medical education except that he attended 
lectures in Philadelphia. He married a niece of Dr. O. Bamet, a Miss 
Wisner, who lived with Dr. 0. Bamet. The latter took him under his 
patronage. He practiced medicine a short time, but soon gave it up ; be- 
came Marshal of the State of New Jersey, and made money easier and faster 
than when following his profession. He attained quite a fortune, but lost it 
in nnfortunate speculations in the vicinity of New York. He died about 
the year 1840 from pulmonary consumption, aged about 62 years. He don't 
appear to have taken an active part in the affairs of the Society, as his name 
does not appear as among those present at any meeting of the Society after 
his initiation. 

Our late brother in the profession, the venerable Dr. Johnson, says of him : 
"About sixty years ago, (or about the year 1811,) Dr. O. W. Ogden was 
Engaged in a very extensive practice in New Germantown and its surround- 
ings. He studied medicine under the superintendence of his uncle, the late 
Dr. Isaac Ogden. He attended lectures in Philadelphia, and was a licentiate 
of his native State. He was a more energetic practitioner than his uncle. 
His address was prepossessing, his manners easy, and he had an exuberance 
of animal spirits. He did not continue a great many years in practice. 
Having received the appointment of United States Marshal for the District 
of New Jersey, he let the practice go, and devoted himself to the duties of 
his new office. He died some years since of phthisis pulmonalis." 

His remains, as well as the remains of his wife, and his sister and only 
daughter, were interred in the private cemetery of Dr. 0. Bamet, uncle of 
Mrs. O. W. Ogden. But there is no other evidence of it than the assertion 
of the aged people of the vicinity ; no stone or monument of any kind, and 
scarce a mark where the earth has been disturbed. 

WILLIAM BARNET. Dr. Bamet, one of the first members of this Soci- 
ety, being seventeenth on the roll of members, lived and practiced at the 
time of joining the Society, in New Germantown. 

"Dr. William Bamet was the nephew of Dr. O. Bamet He read medi- 
cine with his uncle. Dr. O. W. Ogden, attending lectures in Philadelphia. 
He commenced practice in this place a little before the war of 1812, became 
an officer in the same, contracted habits of intemperance thereby, and died 
early m life. He was talented, courteous, and very highly esteemed, but 
yielding to the tempter, fell prematurely." 



HiB name appears on the roll of those present at the semi-iainnal meeting 
October 23d, 1821, and it is presumed be died ^shortly afterward. 

It is currently asserted that his remains were interred in the family buy- 
ing-gronnd of Dr. Oliver Bamet, near the village. Bat a careful examination 
of that beautiful situation for the reception of the dead, now so lamentably 
gone to decay, reveals no evidence of it by inscription or otherwise. 

ISAAC OGDEN. — Dr. Ogden, one of the first members of the Society, 
being the eighteenth on the roll of members, lived and practiced at the time 
in New Germantown. He was bom near Elizabethtown, and descended 
from one of the most respectable families of his native State. He graduated 
in the College of New Jersey, 1784, and entered upon the study of medicine. 
Having obtained a license from the State authorities to practice in his pro- 
fession, be settled at Six Mile Run, near New Brunswick. Here he formed 
a matrimonial connection with Miss Stoothoff, daughter of Elder Peter 
Stoothoff, of that place. From this alliance there was but one issue, a 
daughter, who was married in early life to the Rev. Isaac N. Wyckofi*, D. D., 

of Albany, N. Y. 

Dr. Ogden soon removed from Six Mile Run to Whitehouse, and after 
remaining here a few years, settled himself at New Germantown, practicing 
his profession until after the death of Dr. O. Bamet, in 1809, after which he 
withdrew from the most burdensome part of the business, relinquishing it 
into the hands of his nephew. Dr. O. W. Ogden, attending to obstetrics, and 
attending to the management of the large business of his sister, Mrs. Oliver 
Bamet, who recompensed him liberally, and thus enabled him to dispense 
with much of his medical practice, and gave him time to cultivate the 
science of astronomy, of which he was very fond. For several years he pub- 
lished a yearly almanac, prognosticating the weather and its changes, and 
that mostly in rhyme. It had a wide circulation. 

He was much devoted to scientific pursuits, though otherwise of an indo ^ 
lent turn. He spent much time in observing through his telescope the 
motion of the heavenly bodies. He was a disciple of CuUen ; his practice 
was expectant. He was dignified in his manners, urbane and gentlemanly. 
He was a consistent professor of religion, a member and officer of the Pres- 
byterian Church. He had cataract in both eyes ; was operated on by Dr. 
Physic, of Philadelphia, successfully on one eye. His two sisters, Mrs. Bur- 
net and Mrs. Haines, became blind from cataract also. A few years before 
his death, which occurred suddenly from apoplexy, he removed to New 
Brunswick, where he is buried. His widow survived him many years, and 


died but a short time since at the residence of her son-in-law at i^lbany. 
He was President of the Society in 1823, and at the annual meeting May 
2d, 1826, was elected the first honorary member of this Society. 

HENRY nOLCOMBE. Dr. Holcombe, one of the first members of the 
Society, being nineteenth on its roll, was a native of Hunterdon County. 
Head medicine with his cousin, Dr. George Holcombe, of Allen town, Mon- 
mouth County, N. J., a gentleman who, at that time, stood in the front 
rank in the profession in New Jersey, and was the intimate friend of Prof. 
David Hosack, of New York, by whom he was frequently quoted as author- 
ity in his lectures on the theory and practice of medicine. He likewise 
spent some time as the student of Dr. J. A. Hendry, of Ringoes. 

He commenced practice at 'Rowland's Mills, on the south branch of the 
Raritan, staid but a short time, and removed to Everittstown, in Alexandria 
Township, where he resided until his death, attending to a very extensive 
practice in Hunterdon County, and riding frequently into Pennsylvania, 
which he attended to in all weathers and all conditions of roads, and they 
were frequently in very bad order in those days. 

He was an honorary member of the Medical Society of Philadelphia, a 
good practitioner, rather conservative ; never gave a patient up while there 
was the least hope, and where there was none, would endeavor to soothe 
where nothing else could be done ; was honest with his brother practitioners. 

He was a stout-built fleshy man, with thin hair, blue eyes, and florid com- 
plexion ; was very active considering his corpulency, and may be literally 
said to have died in the harness, in the midst of his usefulness, several 
patients being prescribed for to a time beyond his death, and took medicine 
prepared by his hand after he was gone. He died of acute rheumatism, 
first attacking the limbs, and thence removing to the muscles of the chest. 

He was very fond of agriculture, and together with his other business, 
superintended the concerns of his farm with great skill. No one in the 
county killed better stock than he, or had a better garden. 

He was gentlemanly in his intercourse, modest and instructive in conver- . 
sation. After an acquaintance of thirty years, I cannot call to mind an 
anecdote or conversation by him that would not bear to be repeated in any 
company — a rare thing among the profession— too many of whom are not 
guarded 'enough. 

He married Miss Catharine Case, only child of Samuel Case, Esq., and his 
wife Elizabeth. He left but one child, Elizabeth, wife of Baltus Pickel, Esq., 
of Trenton, to inherit his valuable property, partly acquired by his parents, 



partly by marriage, and much increased by his own industry and good man- 

His remains were interred in the cemetery of the Mount Pleasant Presby- 
terian Church, Alexandria, where a handsome obelisk bears this inscription : 

On the obverse, Hknry Holcombe, M. D., 

On the reverse, Qrad u ated 

at the 

College of New Jersey, 1818, 

At the University of Pennsylvania, 1821. 

Practiced Medicine in 

this township 

87 years. 

On right-hand side, Henby HolcoImbb, M. D„ 

Born • 
August 5th, 1797, 

April 7th, 1859. 
On left-hand side, Cathabine Holcombe, 

August 25, 1799, 

• Dec. 6th, 1866. 

JOHN B. PRICE. Dr. Price, our twentieth member, the first one 
recommended by the Board of Censors of this Society to the President of 
the Medical Society of New Jersey for license to practice, and the first to 
join it by application for that purpose, was the son of General Nathan Price, 
of Ringoes, in this county. He read medicine with Dr. William Johnson, of 
Whitehouse ; was examined by the Board of Censors, Drs. John McKelway, 
John Lilly, Wm. P. Clark and Henry B. Poole, October 22d, 1822, before our 
Society, and recommended for license, and became a member of this Society 
by regular admission. May 23d, 1823. Very shortly afterwrard he moved to 
Sunbury, in Northumberland County, Pa., where he resided and practiced. 
He is said to be dead. 

ISRAEL L. CORIELL. Dr. Coriell was admitted a member of the Soci. 
ety May 24th, 1*824, being the twenty-second name on the roll. He was then 
living in Milltown, Kingwood Township, and practicing there ; was popular. 
At the annual meeting, 1826, he read a paper on ** Cynanche Trachealis," 
and at the next annual meeting was elected President of the Society, and 
the same year was one of its Board of Censors. He was an active member 
of the Society during the first stage of its existence. He obtained the body 
of Jim Bunn, the black boy who was hung in Flemington, November 28th, 
1828, for the murder of Mrs. Beachs, with a horse yoke, because she would 


not lend him a gnn. and with Dr. J. F. Scheuck dbsected h: 
mill of John Runk, Esq., at Milltown. The Ekeleton was givei 
B. Fex^son, who then resided at Pittstown, where it ie assertei 
Pelts, for a quart of whiskey given to him for that parpose, aw 
its eyes, which, D*niel said, ataid down very weil, but a snake 
said himself, afterward, swallowed by him, would not stay down 
alleged by him to hare been thrown up from his stomach, 11 
time exhibited in the Museum in Philadelphia. 

Dr. Coriell was killed by being thrown fromhissnikyinfher 
of Locktowo. He was a native of Somerset County, and bb 
his remiuns to his native place for interment. He left no family 
married. * 

A stronger resolution to resixt the temptations so common ii 
might have saved one capable of doing much good both in soc 

His worth was acknowledged by the profession, and valv 
friends who monmed his fate. 

JOHN P. 80HENCK. Dr. Shenck, the twenty-first name c 
the son of Dr. Henry H. Schenck and his wife, Ellen Hardenhe 
of the Rev. Jacob Hardenberg, minister of the Reformed Uhu 
tan, Somerset County, N. J. He was bom at Neshamie, in 
studied Medicine with his father and Dr. Henry Van Derveer, 0: 
attended lectures at the College of Phyaiciana and Surgeons, 
commenced practice at the head of Raritan river, in Someiset 
maining there about a year, when he removed to Flemiogt 
admitted to the Society in 1823, is its oldest member in the 
with the exception of Dr. W. A. A. Hunt, the oldest practit 
county. He has held all the offices in the Society with satisf 
Society, and was on the ISth of May, 1868, elected an honorar 
the Society. 

GEORGE W. CASE. Dr. Case was admitted to membei 
Society Hay 3d, 1825. His name stands twenty-fourth on the 
bera, He lived in Hopewell, and practiced there; never marrie 
have been a good practitioner, somewhat eccentric in hia wt 
heard my preceptor, Wm. D. McKissach, speak of him during 
and wish now I could remember what he sud of him. I onl; 
he spoke of him as an able practitioner, with some eccentriciti 



i>«. ,'■ 






to managiDg his own affairs. He was buried in Hopewell, and " not a stone 
tells where he lies." 

Since writing the above, I have received from a member of the profession 
the following : " Dr. G. W. Case, of the township of Hopewell, a native of 
one of the Eastern States, practiced in that lo:ation about thirty years. He 
was a well educated man, cannot say of what medical school. I have ad- 
vised with him very often professionally. Although taciturn and eccentric 
in his manners, he was a popular and successful practitioner, and one of 
those rare men that was never married. Part of his time he did his own 
household business, seemed to be very frugal in his affairs, and yet amassed 
no pecuniary property, and died about the- year 1840, his own executor. 
Dr. Case was, however^much respected in the circle of his movements, and 
his reticent manners passed off for wisdom." 

" His level life was but as smouldering fire, 
Unquenched by want, unfanned by strong desire." 

DAVID P. HUNT. Dr. David P. Hunt was the son of Rev. Gardner 
Hunt, of Warren County, N. J., a graduate of Princeton in the Closs of 
1818. He read with his cousin, Dr. W. A. A. Hunt, of Clarksville ; was 
examined by the Board of Censors, Drs. John Bowne, John McKelway, H. 
B. Poole and John Lilly, May 4th, 1824, and on May 2d, 1826, admitted to 
membership, being the twenty-fifth name on the roll of members. He moved 
to Marksborough, in Warren County, where he practiced but a short time, 
and died there, not leaving any family.* He commenced business life with 
very flattering prospects of success, was very popular as a practitioner, a 
young man of more than ordinary talent, but not endowed with sufficient 
resistence to the allurements and temptations of the times. He died pitied 
and regretted by all who knew him. 

JOHN HONEYMAN. Dr. John Honeyman was admitted a member of 
the Society May 1st, 1827, his name standing twenty-sixth on the roll. He 
continued a member until May 13th, 1856, when, asking a dismission, he was 
honorably discharged. He is still living and practicing in New German- 

I am under obligations to him for his promptly answering my letters in 
regard to the profession in that place, and for much valuable information 
that I could not receive elsewhere. 


MERRILL WHITNEY WILLIAMS. Dr. Williams was an Eastern man 
He taught school in Ricefield, Somerset County, and read some time with 


'5 r 


Dr. Lawrence Van Derveer. Commenced practice in Ringoes, in 1827, oi^ 
the removal of Dr. John A. Hendry. Was admitted to the Society in 1828, 
being twenty-seventh on the roll, anfl was made Vice-President. He con- 
tinued there one and a half or two years, when he left. Dr. Cicero Hunt pur- 
chasing the property, where he still lives. Dr. Williams married Miss Dur- 
yea, of Millstone, before commencing practice. When they left Ringoes 
they went to SomerviUe, staid a short time, and from thence to the city of 
New York. 

JACOB E. HEDGES. Dr. Hedges was admitted to the Society May 8d, 
1836, the twenty-ninth on the roll. He was then, and for some time after- 
ward, practicing at.Milford. He was a native of Somerset County, son of 
Wm. J. Hedges, Esq., a merchant of SomerviUe. Was a popular practitioner, 
and might have been still more useful. He married Miss Disborough, 
daughter of Daniel Disborough, Esq., of Milford, a beautiful and accom- 
plish^ lady. They had no children. 

During the first of his practice. Dr. John McQlougher was living, with 

whom he was ' on very friendly terms. He recommended him highly, and 

Dr. Hedges soon acquired a good practice, of which he was cut short at an 

early day by death. His remains were interred in the grave yard attached 

to the Presbyterian Church in Mount Pleasant, Alexandria, where a stone at 

the head of the grave bears this inscription : 


To the Memory of 

Dr. Jacob E. Hedges, 

Who Died 

• July 22d, 1841, 

Aged 29 years and 3 months. 

Noble, generous, free-hearted, he 

Was early called away from friends 

Who deeply mourn his untimely death 

Art is long, and time is fleeting, 
And our hearts though strong and brave, 

Still like muffled drums are beating, 
Funeral marches to the grave. 

WM. DURYEA. Dr. Duryea, the thirtieth name on the roll, was admit- 
ted May 3d, 1836, and marked honorably discharged. At the time he was 
admitted he was practicir ^ in Flemington. He was a graduate of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, (1838.5 Was the son of Col. H. B. Duryea, of 
Blawenburgh, Somerset County. He staid but a short time in Flemington, 
and removed to the West, where it is said he died. 


, » I 


LEWIS RANDOLPH NEEDHAMl Dr. L. R. Needham was bom in 
£!ast Haddam, Conn. His father died while he was young ; he was brought 
up by his mother^s brother, Col. White, of that place. He came to Still- 
water, in Sussex, engaged in teaching school there, and afterward taught 
school on the east end of* Long Hill. Read medicine a short time with Dr. 
Jeptha B. Munn, of Chatham, then came to Perryyille, and finished his 
reading with Dr. J. Blane ; attended medical lectures in Kew l^ork, and was 
examined by, the Board of Censors of the Eastern District of the Medical 
Society of New Jersey, in Mprristown, 1835. The Boaid of Censors con- 
sisted of Drs. L. A. Smith, A. Camiield, G. R Chetwood, D. M. Sayre, L. 
Condit, J. B. Munn. They met in Morristown. He was recommended for 
and received his diploma to practice. He then ent^ed into partnerEhip 
with his friend, Dr. Blane, which continued until his decease. He joined 
our Society at the remodeling ot the same, in 1886, being thirty -ilrst on the 
roll, and was its Secretary. He married Miss Susan F. Sayre, of Madison, Mor- 
ris County, by whom he had two children. Electa is buried by his side. 
The other, a son, was bom since his decease, and is still living. 

Dr. Needham was about five feet seven inches high, system well devel- 
oped, florid complexion, light blue eyes, hair inclining to sandy and quite 
thin, nearly bald. He was possessed of a good share of energy, and made 
his way to a good standing in the profession through many difiiculties. He 
was cheerful in company, fond of anecdotes, industrious in the practice of 
his profession, and jealous of its dignity. He died of tuberculosis, which 
commenced immediately after a fall or upset of his sleigh, in the winter 
preceding his death. 

His remains were buried in the Bethlehem Presbyterian Church-yara, in 

Union Township. A stone standing at the head of his grave, bears this 

inscription : 


Memory of 


Lewis li. Needham, 

•Who Died 

Nov. 12th, 1841, 

Aged 85 years 

And 4 months. 

JOSEPH A. LANDIS. Dr. Landis was admitted into the Society on the 
reorganization of the same. May 8d, IB^p, and stands thirty- third name 
on the roll. He located at liingoes, staid say two years, and went thence 
to Pennington, Mercer County, and from thence went South, and afterward 



settled in Hollidaysburg, Penn. He was a weU educated young man, of the 
Baltimore Medical School. ' 

JOSEPH WELLING. Dr. Welling, a graduate of Jefferaon Medical 
College, was, on the reorganization of the Society, admitted a member, his 
name standing thirty-fourth on the roll. In the division of the county we 
lost him. 

JOHN MANNERS. Dr. Manners, whose name stands thirty-fifth on the 
roll, was the son of John and Rachel Manners, and a native of Hunterdon 
County. He went to Philadelphia and read medicine with Drs. Benjamin 
Rush and Thomas Cooper, and graduated at the Medical Department of the 
University of Pennsylvania, in 1812, and in 1816 received the honorary de- 
gree of A. M. from the College of New Jersey. Some time after which he 
returned to his native county, and located at Flemington a short time ; af- 
terwards locating between Hamden and Hunt^s Mills (now Clinton), calling 
his place '^ Bel voir," and still later at Clinton, where he resided until he 

He was admitted a member of the Society May 8d, 1886, on the re-organi- 
zation of the Society. After its second re-organization he took but little inter- 
est in the Society ; his last appearance there was on May 7th, 1850. He was 
a member of the Senate of New Jersey for three years just before his decease, 
the last year of which he was President of that body. 

He likewise read law with the late Jai^es M. Porter, of Easton, Penn., and 
was licensed to practice in the highest courts in the United States. 

He had a very exalted opinion of blooded stock, kept horses, fowls, &c., 
of that kind ; had a very retentive memory in regard to their pedigree. He 
w^ a great admirer of Southern Chivalry, and their peculiar institutions. 
He rode on horse-back a good deal, a mode of traveling for which he was 
not well calculated, having at an early day had some disease of the hip-joint^ 
one limb was something shorter than the other, and prevented his managing 
his horse gracefully. He was dignified, and many people thought him vain ; 
he had his own peculiar views and ways, but withal, was a very genial com- 

As a practitioner he was honol*able with his neighbors in the profession. 
He died of dropsy of the chest, June 24th, 1853, and by his will which is 
duly recorded in the surrogate's office, ordered his body to be buried in the 
cemetery at Trenton, where he ordered a monument of the best Italian mar- 
ble to be erected over his grave, bearing this inscription : 







" Erected to the memory of Hon. John Maitners, Esq., A. M., 
M. IT., and Counsellor at Law of the Sup. Ct., U. 8. A. The friend 
and Medical pupil of Benj. Rush, M. D., LL.D., Philadelphia. 
The friend, the pupil, and the son-in-law of Thomas Cooper, M. D., 
LL.D., &c., of South Carolina. And the friend and correspondent 
of Thomas Jefferson, L.L.D., of Virginia, formerly President of 
the United states. 

Bom AprU 8th, 1786, and Died ." 

And he ordered the remains of his wife to be removed f]:om Clinton and 
buried by his side, with the same kind of monument, bearing this inscrip- 

** This monument is erected to the memory of Eliza Manners, 
wife of the Hon. John Manners, Esq., A. M., M. D., &c., and daugh- 
ter of the late Thomas Cooper, M. D., L.L.I)., &c., of South Caro« 
Una. Bom in the city of Manchester, England, February 1790. 
Married in Philadelphia, August 2d, 1810. And died in Clinton, 
New Jersey, April 16th, 1840." 

All to be inclosed in an iron fence, which was scrupulously performed by 

his executors. They left no children. 

HENRY SOUTHARD. Dr. Southard was a* native of Somerset Coun- 
ty, son of the Hon. Isaac Southard, and grandson of Hon. Henry Southard, 
of Revolutionary fame. He located at Flemington, and moved to Reaville, 
in our county, and was one of the commissioners to re-organize the Society 
in 1846, July 14, being the thirty-eighth name on the roll, was Secretary of 
that meeting. He was appointed by the Medical Society of New Jersey a 
Censor for 1847, and acted as such at the annual meeting May 8d, of that 
year. On October 26th, 1847, he asked for and received an honorable dis- 
charge for the purpose of joining the Somerset Society. 

Before locating in otir county, he had lived and practiced in Ashbury, in 
Warren county in 1884 ; a short time he had lived in Danville, Belvidere apd 
Phillipsburg, where he married Miss Louisa Maxwell. 

On May 1st, 1849, being present with us, he acted by our invitation as 
Censor in the examination of Drs. Wm. Schenck and Sylvester Van SycW. 
He was an excellent Censor. \ 

He lived and practiced in Somerville, where he died, pitied, beloved, re- \ 
gretted. In that beautiful ^^ city of silence" on the bank of the Raritan at 
Somerville, standing at the head of his grave, I find a stone with this in- 
scription : V 

Henry Southard, 


March 27th, 1811, 


Oct. 13th, 1859. 

Beside two little graves of the children of Henry and Louisa Southard. 


BENJAMIN DAVIDSON. Dr. Davidson being thirty-ninth name men- 
tioned on our roll, was one of the commissioners to re-organize our Society ' 
in 1846, July 14, a duty he did not perform, Dr. John Bbwne being substi- 
tuted in his place. He was considered as honorably discharged by 

The only claim he has on us to notice was his being appointed a commis- 

JOSIAH QUINBY. Dr. Quinby, admitted May 8d, 1847, being the for- 
tieth on our list, was the son of Josiah Quinby of Hanover township, Mor- 
ris county, was bom February 2d, 1783. He read with Dr. John 8. Darcy, 
attended lectures in New York 1815 and 1816, and located at Readington 
shortly afterwards, where he continued to practice until he died. He mar- 
ried, in March, 1818, Miss Margaret Dalley, daughter of William Dalley, 
Esq., of Readington township, whom he left a widow with five children, 
William D., now practicing Dentistry at Mount Pleasant, Phoebe Ann, 
Catharine, Josiah and Margaret. He lived on the road leading from Read- 
ington to Centreville, about equi-distant between them ; he afterwards lived 
on a farm on the road leading to Pleasant Run, known as the Aray Farm, 
where he died. 

He was a man of easy and kind disposition, very moderate in his charges^ 
and very diffident in his collecting, of which fact, w doubt, some took ad- 
vantage, to his and his family^s injury. 

In the new cemetery attached to the Readington Church, on a large head* 
stone you will find the following memorial : 


Memory of 

Josiah Quinby, M. D., 

Who died 

Febi-uary 14 th, 1854, 

Aged 61 years and 12 days. 

Let friends forbear to mourn and weep. 

Whilst sweetly in the dust I sleep ; 
The toilsome world I left behind, 

A glorious crown t hope to find. 

JOHN H. PHILIPS. Dr. Philips became the forty-second member of 
our Society May 3d, 1847 ; afterwards honorably discharged, he becoming 
a member of the Mercer county Society. He joined us because they had no 
Society at that time in Mercer. 

ALBERT S. CLARK. Dr. Clark, elected by the Society May 1st, 1849, 
whose name stands forty-sixth on our roll. He was then practicing at Quaker- 

■ 1 



town. He took honorable leaye of the Society at the annual meeting, 1856, 
and went to Bushnell, Illinois, where he still lives, practicing and specu- 
lating in merchandise and other property. 

JAMES PYATT. Dr. Pyatt was admitted into the Society November 
15th, 1849, being the forty-seventh on the roll In 1851 he was elected 
Vice-President and the following year was elected President, but refused to 
serve. He was a native of Middlesex county, read medicine with Dr. Free- 
man, of Woodbridge, attended medical lectures in New York, and located 
at the Boards Head in then Amwell, where he resided until his death, con- 
tinuing to practice until within a short period of that event. He married 
Miss Sarah King,- daughter of Jeremiah King, a wealthy land holder in that 
neighborhood, whom he left a widow with three children ; John, who is since 
deceased, leaving no children, J. King Pyatt living in Flemington, and 
daughter Rachel, who married Mr. Daniel Rittenhouse living at Flemington. 
He was active, energetic and healthy, had, a good part of the time, a large 
practice, most of which was at that time in a neighborhood of poor roads. 
He likewise for several years kept the Boar*s Head Hotel. His remains were 
interred in the burying-ground attached to the Old School Church, in Bap- 

It is a beautiful spot for the repose of the weary ; but like many more such 
places, not kept with th^ care that might be expected by a stranger to the 
place, and particularly when they see everything else done up in neat and 
seasonable style. 

On a good-sized stone stranding at the head of the grave I find the follow- 

Db. James Pyatt, 

October 26th, 1864, 
Aged 80 years and 29 days. 

Death is the path that must be trod, 
If we would pass from Earth to God ; 

Clap our glad wings and fiy away. 
To join the blescfed in endless day. 

JACOB R. LUDLOW. Dr. Ludlow a graduate of the University of Penn- 
sylvania, class of 1845, was admitted to the Society on May 6th, 1851, being 
the forty-ninth on the list of members, and was elected Secretary same day. 
On October 28th, 1851, he resigned and asked for his discharge ; an honor- 
able discharge was granted, and at the same time he was elected an honorary 
member of this Society. He removed to Easton, where he practiced until 


the late war broke out, when he went in the anny as surgeon, and since the 
close of the war has removed to Enoxyille, in Tennessee. 

ABM. T. B. VAN DOREN.— Dr. Van Doren was admitted May Cth, 
1851, his name stands fiftieth on the roll, at that time he was practicing at 
Ringoes. He was a Somerset county man, was bom June 15th, 1828. Mar- 
ried Miss Joanna Morehead, daughter of John Morehead,E8q., June 10th, 1846 ; 
practiced from Oct 20th, 1848 to 1848 in Readington, went thence to Rin- 
goes in the fall of 1850, staged two years, and from there went South for his 
health. He returned in the spring of 1853 to Branchville, where he died. 

His remains were interred in a private burying-groimd on the farm on 
which he wa& raised, now owned by Mr. Lanning Nevius, near Ccntreville 
and the south branch of the Raritan, where a stone standing at the head of 


his grave tells us that 

He died June 80th, 1858, 

His wife died January 4th 1855, 

Aged 26 years, 8 months and 13 days. 

They left one sod, named John M. Van Doren, who was bom October 2d, 
1849, now living in New York. 

A cotemporary says of him : '^ He made but little headway, owing to his 
health failing, his lungs gave way, and the grave closed over the remains of 
a very worthy and well-educated medical man. Could his health have been 
spared him, his future no doubt would have been happy and prosperous.^' 
He was a graduate of Rutgers College, and stood sixth in his class. 

WnJARD F. COMBS. Dr. Combs was bom near Delhi, State of New 
York, was the son of Joseph Coombs of that place. Came to New Jersey 
and read medicine with his cousin, Alfred S. Combs, M. D., (son of Seth 
Combs, of Delhi), who then practiced medicine in Qerman Valley, Morris 
county. He attended medical lectures in New York, and was examined by 
the Board of Censors : Wm. Johnson, J. R. Ludlow, John Blane, G. P. Rex 
and Samuel Lilly, before our District Society at its semi-annual meeting in 
1851, and passed a satisfactory examination. He was admitted in the So- 
ciety on the following annual meeting May 4th, 1852, and stands fifty- 
second on the roll, and was elected Secretary the same day (that office be- 
.coming vacant by the resignation and removal of Dr. J. R. Ludlow from the 
county), which office he held, filling it efficiently and promptly, until his 
decease. * 

He commenced practice at Stanton, where he stayed but a short time, 
when he moved to Flemington. 






He married Miss Elizabeth Jones, daughter of Asa Jones, Esq., of Fleming- 
ton, by whom he had two children, Frank and Caroline, whom together 
with their mother are still living. He was a member of the Baptist church 
of that place. 

A gentleman of prepossessing manners, comely in person, and very sociable, 
which gave him a popularity seldom possessed by one so young in the pro- 

He died, as was ascertained from a post-mortem .examination, of pericar- 


ditis, which was not clearly manifested by the symptoms of his disease while 
living. His remains were interred in the cemetery of the Presbyterian church 
of Flemington, where a monument standing at the head of hi^ grave bears 
this inscription : 

In Memory of 
WiLLABD F. Combs, TAj D., 

A native of 

Delaware County, New York, 

He died August 16th, 1854, 

Aged 26 years. 

Past his sufferings, past his pains, 

Cease to weep, for tears are vain ; 
Why should friends be thus oppressed ? 

For he who suffered is at rest. 

It is a remarkable fact, that, although Flemington has had a resident phy- 
sician for more than a century, and sometimes several of them, this is the 
only one whom we have any record of dying or being buried there. 


CHARLES BARTOLETTE.* Dr. Bartolette was admitted a member 
May 8d, 1853, and is fifty-fourth name on the roll of members. In 1854 he 


was appointed one of the Censors. 

He was bom in Flemington, was the son of Rev. Charles Bartolette, Bap- 
tist minister of that place. His mother was Martha Rush, daughter of Peter 
and Hannah Rush, of Philadelphia. He read medicine with Richard Mer- 
shon, M. D., of Flemington, and attended the medical lectures of Jefferson 
Medical College, where he graduated in the spring of 1846, when he com- 
menced practice in Milford, succeeding Dr. William Taylor of that place, 
where he continued until his death, attending to a large practice, in which 
he was very successful. • 

He was a good practitioner of both medicine and surgery. He married 

For Obituary, see page 208 of Transactions of Medical Society of New Jersey, 1867. 



Hub Anna Carpenter, daughter of George Carpeoter, Esq., anc 
■wife, of Milford, on the 8th of March, 1851, and left her sorvivinj 
children, namely ; Ellen, Peter, Louisa and Charles. 

He was about five feet eight inches in height, well proportio: 
hair, expressive blue eyes,, frank open countenance, good coi 
powers, pleasing in address, and in every way calculated to win 
the confldeuce and affection of his patients, as well as of all < 
knew him. 

Eis remuns were carried to their last resting place, th» TJnic 
of Milford, where a beautiful engraved stone, bearing the insigni 
ty to which he belonged, bears this inscription : 

Chables BAnTOLBTTE, M. D., 

April 8th, 1825, 


_ March lOlh, 1866. 

The warm heart that throbbed for other's sorrows, and 

open hand of charity, are now still in death; and 

await the awards of the great Physician. 

A. J. McKELWAT. Dr. McKelway, then residing at Ringi 
mitted to membership in the Society, of which his father was 
founders. May Bd, 1853, and is the Efry-fifth name on its roll. I 
two years, and was honorably discharged. In the war for the su] 
the rebellion, he was surgeon In the Eighth infantry regiment, 
commissioned Sept. 14th, 1861, and resigned April 7th, 1804. 

JAMES RILEY. Dr. Riley, then rceiding at Lambertville, w 
to membership May 8d, 1853, occupying the fifty-siith place c 
was nest year honorably discharged, and remuved to Succasunn 
County. In the late Far he was surgeon of the Twenty-Fifth i 
fantry, N. J. VoIf., commissioned October 4th, 1862, and disch 
30th, 1863; and afterward to Thirty -third regiment infantry, co 
July 13th, 1863, discharged July 17th, 1865. He died* in Sue 
March, 1772. 

A. H. KOON. Dr. Koon, onr fifty-seventh member, was, at 
admittance, (May 9th, 1854,) a resident of Lambertville, where h 
till 1856, when he removed to Keyport, being honorably dischargi 
about, at length locating at Niagara Falls, where he is said to rt 
practitioner, he has but few ec|ualj). 


SIMEON. S. DANA, Dr. Dana, who became our fifty-ninth member, Oct- 
ober 25th, 1854, had lately removed from Finesville, Warren County, to 
Clover Hill, succeeding Dr. Rex there. He was a graduate of Jefferson 
Medical College, and took his diploma from the Medical Society of New 
Jersey, from the hand of J. H. Phillips, M. D., President, in 1852, while 
residing at Finesville. The following record was made on the journal of the 
Society, May 7th, 1861: 

First, Hesohed, That in the decease of our brother member of the medical 
profession, in the prime and vigor of manhood, we see and acknowledge the 
dealings of God with us, and bow submissively to the mandate of an all-wise 
and good Creator. 

Second, Besohed^ That the members of this Society recognized in Dr. Dana 
a conservative and good practitioner, a gentleman in deportment, and per- 
fectly correct in his intercourse with his professional brethren, and as such 
we cherish his memory. 

Third, Eeaolved, That we tender our sincere sympathy to the family, rela- 
tives and friends of the deceased. 

Fourth, Besolved, That these resolutions be published in the County 
papers, and a copy sent to the relatives of the deceased. 

He died while he and his family were on a visit to the place of his nativity 
in Massachusetts. The family staid some time there, returned to New Jer- 
sey, where, after residing a short time, they sold out their property, going 
back there again, where they are now residing. He married Miss Julia, an 
adopted daughter of Miss Ann Hall, of Somerset County. They had several 

HENRY G. WAGONER. Dr. Wagoner is the son of William Wagoner, 
of Stanton, in this County, a graduate of the University of Pennsylvania, 
Class of 1853; was admitted May 8th, 1855, ss the sixty -second of our mem- 
bers. He was then residing in Stanton. In 1859, being honorably dis- 
charged, he moved to Somerville, where he continues to reside. 

DeWITT CLINTON HOUGH. Dr. Hough was, 6n May 8th, 1855, ad- 
mitted our sixty-third member ; was then living in Frenchtown, where he 
continued till 1856,. when being honorably discharged, he removed to Rah- 
way, where he still resides. He was surgeon of the Seventh infantry regi- 
ment, N. J. Vols., in the late war, conmiiflsioned September 5th, 1861, and 
discharged October 7th, 1864. 

ALEXiANDER BARCLAY, Jr.* Dr. Barclay, the sixty-ninth name' 
on our roll, was born in Scotland, a few months before the emigration of his 

* See page 180, Transactions 1866. 


father to this country. He read medicine with his father, who practices in 
Newburgh, N. Y. He was admitted to our Society, May 8th, 1860. ^e 
practiced his profession in New Germantown and Lebanonville, in this coun- 
ty, where he resided at the time of his death. It was occasioned by fracture 
of the cranium, which resulted in effusion and in death at the end of three 
days. The injury was caused by being thrown from his carriage in conse- 
quence of his horse taking fright and running away, in the vicinity of New 

On September 15th, 1862, he received the appointment of assistant sur- 
geon in the Thirtieth regiment N. J. Vols., which he resigned March 5th, 

His remains were interred in a beautiful cemetery near the village, where, 
on entering the gate, is to be seen a square block or base of marble intended 
to be surmounted by a shaft, with its capital broken off; instead of which, 
the broken shaft lies by its side, which, being turned over by my accom- 
panying friends, Drs. Honeyman and Farrow, we found thereon this inscrip- 

Erected by * 

Dr. Alexander Barclay, 

Of Newburg, N. Y., 

In Memory of 

Dr. Alexander Barclay, Jr., 

Born in Aberdeen, 


Jan. 9th, 1832. 

Died at his post here, 

June 18th, 1865, 

Aged 83 years. 

They sorrowfully replaced it and visited the grave, at which stands a fine- 
ly carved stone, bearing this inscription : 

Alexander Barclay, M. D., 


June 18th, 1865, 

Aged 33 years, 5 months. 

And 9 days. 

When pondering on the mutability of all earthly objects we left. 

He married Miss Waldron, of New Germantown, whom he left a widow 
with two children, a son and a daughter. He was a man of a diversity of 
talent, and capable of succeeding in almost any business that he set his 
mind on. 








THOMAS MILES BARTOLETTE.* Dr. Bartolette, the youngest son of 
Rev. Charles Bartolette, already mentioned, was born in fHemington, Novem- 
ber 4th, 1827. He read medicine with his brother, Charles, at Milford ; 
attended medical lectures at Jefferson College, where he graduated, 
in 1855. He then commenced the practice of medicine at Mount Pleasant, 
succeeding Dr. Jacob Winters, where he continued till April, 1864, when he 
moved to Asbury, Warren County, where he died, September 29th, 1866. 
He was admitted a member of the Society at the annual meeting, at Perry- 
ville. May 13th, 1862, being seventy-second on our roll. He was Town 
Superintendent of Public Schools, some time, in Alexandria Township. He 
married Miss Amy K. Johnson, daughter of Henry W. Johnson, Esq., and 
Sarah, his wife, of Milford, Apiil 2d, 1855, and leaves one child, named 

His remains were taken to the Union Cemetery, at Milford, and interred 
there, not far from his brother. 

" In this our world thy work is done, 

We wish thee peaceful rest, 
Ami joy which earth could never give, 

The glory of the blest. 
Our friend sincerely loved and mourned, 

With us no more thou'lt dwell. 
We murmur through our blinding tears, 

Farewell, a long farewell." 

BERIAH A. WATSON. Dr. Watson, the seventy-second name on the 
roll, then living at Whitehouse, was admitted to the Society at the annual 
meeting, *held at Perry ville. May 13th, 1862. He received the appointment 
of assistant surgeon to the Fourth infantry regiment, N. J. Vols., March 26th, 
1863, was promoted to surgeon November 25th, 1864, and left the army July 
9th, 1865. He now lives and practices in Jersey City. 

JAMES HERVEY STUDDIFORDf. Dr. Studdiford was elected the sev- 
enty-sixth member of this Society at its semi-annual meeting, held in Lam- 
bertville^ October 25th, 1864. He took an active part, and was at the annual 
meeting of 1866 elected First Vice-President, and 1867, President, which 
offices he filled to the entire satisfaction of the Society. 

At the annual meeting of the Society, held in Flemington, April 19th, 
1870, Dr. S. Lilly announced his death, and offered the following resolutions, 
which were unanimously adopted : 

♦ See page 205, Transactions Medical Society of New Jersey, 1867. 

t For obituary, see page 97, Transactions Medical Society of Now Jersey, 1870. 


Besohed, That this Society has heard with profound sorrow of the death 
of their fellow member, J. Hervey Studdiford, M. D. 

Besolved, That in the death of J. Hervey Studdiford, this Society has lost 
one of its most useful and honored members, the profession an intelligent, 
skillful and successful practitioner, the community a genial, honorable and 
highly respected citizen, the church a consistent, humble christian, an efficient 
officer and shining exemplar, and his family and friends a son, brother and 
companion of whom the most favored might well be proud. 

Besohed^ That the members of this Society, while they condole most sin- 
cerely with all the bereaved in the loss sustained, can point to the conso- 
lation, that he is now reaping the reward of a well-spent life, however short, 
in the mansions of bliss beyond the skies. 

Besolved^ That a copy of these resolutions, properly attested, be sent to the 
family of Dr. Studdiford, and published in the LambertviUe, Clinton and 
Flemington papers, and the Medical and Surgical Reporter. 

He died in the town in which l\e was bom ; was the son of Rev. P. O. 
Studdiford, D. D., who for forty-five years was the pastor of the Piesbyte- 
rian Church of that place, and grandson of Rev. Peter Studdiford, for many 
years the beloved pastor of the Reformed Church at Readington. 

"He graduated at the College of New Jersey, with high honors, in 
1852 ; read medicine with his uncle, Dr. Josiah Simpson, of the medical 
staff, U. S. A. Attended his first course of lectures at the University of Penn- 
sylvania, and his second course at the University of New York, from which 
he received his degree as Doctor of Medicine, in June, 1854." 

In May, 1856, he settled in Quakertown, succeeding Dr. A, S. Clark. In 
August, 1857, removed thence to St Paul, Minnesota ; returned to his native 
place, September, 1859, whei'e he continued to reside, until his death, and 
practiced hb profession until within a short period of that event. 

His remains were interred in that beautiful depository for the dead, the 
Mount Hope Cemetery, being placed in the grave by the tender hands of 
brethren in the the profession. 

" His resting-place is noted by a stone 
Of whitest marble : truthful words are those 
Inscribed thereon. The scene of his repose 
Befits his life — 'twas beautiful and calm — 
In meekness and in love he went his way. 
Uprightly walking — filling up the day 
"With useful deeds. He often poured the balm 
Of healing into wounded breasts ; nor sought 
The praise of men in doing good." 


This massive slab, resting on a foundation from the bottom of the grave 



to the surface, laid in the Moravian style, is very neat and appropriate. It 
bears this inscription : 

Jambs Hervkt Studdiford, M. D., 

A Ruling Elder 

In the Presbyterian Church, 

Of Lambertville, 

Bom Sept. 12th, 1832, 

Died March 23d, 187D. 

JOHN R. TODD. Dr. Todd graduated in the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons, New York, March 10, 1864 ; was commissioned assistant surgeon of 
the Second Ca¥alry, N. J. Vols., April iSth, 1864, discharged November 1st, 
1865, when he located at Lebanonville, January, 1866, and on October 23d, 
of that year, was admitted to membership in the Society, his name occupy- 
ing the eighty-second place on the list or roll of members. At the annual 
meeting of the Society, April 18th, 1871, Dr. Todd having asked for dismis- 
sion, on motion it was voted to give Dr. Todd a certificate that he is in good 
standing in this Society. Signed by the officers of this body. He moved 
to Omaha City. 

This brings us to the fiftieth anniversary of our Society, which met April 
18th, 1871, and continued by adjournment to May 23d, at which time the 
Medical Society of New Jersey met with us, when we elected Drs. John 
McKelway and Henry S. Harris honorary members of our Society, and delegates 
tp the American Medical Association, J. F. Schenck, J. Blane, and M. Abel, 
with which Association we have held ourselves represented since 1848. 

We have of late sent delegates to our neighboring Societies, and received 
delegates from them, a custom which, if continued, may be the means of 
doing much good to the profession. 

All things considered, we have been prosperous and favored far beyond 
what might have been anticipated. 

This has been to me a duty, and under any circumstances but ill health 
would have yielded the greatest pleasure. I remember well what pleasing 
assurances I had, two years ago, on my appointment, that I would receive 
help from all the members of the Society, and that it has been several times 
reiterated, and when called on for it by letter, I have the pleasure to say 
that my friend, Dr. John Honeyman, was the first to respond, and gave me 
such information as I could not receive elsewhere. ' Our brother member, 


Dr. 8. Lilly, responded timely and acceptably ; bo did our young brother, Dr. 
Theo. Studdiford, and likewise Dr. N. Case, who took me to many diflferent 
places in quest of information, and did himself collect valuable information 
for me. Dr. Henry S. Harris responded to my letter, and gave me such in 
formation as I could not get elsewhere, and Dr. M. Abel gave me some val- 
uable information. I received two letters in answer to many sfent) from 
members of the profession not of our Society, which are perfect models of 
vagueness and want of information on the subjects sought for. 

And this is all, except in relation to Dr. E. Porter. I received a letter 
from Mr. H. Hamman, of Easton, through whom I received valuable infor- 
mation, aud more particularly the one from Samuel Moore, Esq., which 
you have just heard read. I feel under obligations to them all. And I have 
charity enough to believe that every one of you who- so kindly offered to 
assist me, meant at that time to do bO, and if yoh could only realize what a 
little help from each one of you, which would not have cost you much time 
or anxiety, would have saved me in time and traveling, I am sure you would 
have done it, and the work would have been completed. I only wish that 
you should feel as sorry for it as I do. 

I heartily thank you for the honor conferred on me by the appointment, 
and hope that when your memory comes to be embalmed, some one more 
worthy of the station than the present incumbent, will be found to attend to it- 
We are making history. ' Time is blotting out its remembrances, tin order 
to save, we must store up, not one alone, but one and all, then the labor of 
the future historian will be light, and the labor a pleasant one. 

Before bAiging this report or history to a close, let us, from this stand- 
point, look back upon the past. At the time we came into existence as a 
Society, our country was poor, having cleared lip the debris of the second 
war for our Independence, many, very many, just emerging from a state bor- 
dering on bankruptcy, and many really bankrupt, and the farming interests 
of our country badly crippled. Wheat was but little raised, rye and com from 
twenty-five to thirty cents per bushel, oats from twelve to fifteen cents per 
bushel, butter from eight to ten cents per pound, and all other products of 
the soil in proportion. There was but little to encourage except that indom- 
itable energy for which our people are so noted Labor was low, and much 
competition even at that. There was but little encouragement to enter the 
professions. Many who did so had their faces turned toward the West, just 
then opening on the vision of Europe and the *^ rest of mankind," and such 
of them as went there with proper views of their situation, and accommo- 


dated themselyes to it, became bright and shining lights in our profession. 
Some who commenced reading Chesaelden^s Anatomy, Cooper's First Lines 
on Surgery, Bard's Compend of Midwifery, Bichat's Physiological Research- 
es, Cullen's First Lines on the Theory and Practice, and Murray's Materia 
Medica, mostly all printed in Europe, (chemistry as a branch of the healing 
art was comparatively little known then,) assisted in having at their side a 
copy of Quincy's Lexicon, which, owing to the great demand for such a work 
had been reprinted in New York, in 1802, and who were fortunate enough 
to have the opportunity of attending a course of medical lectures, in one of 
the five or six schools then open in our country, and enjoyed the enviable 
privilege of riding on horseback two or three times a week with the old 
Doctor — ^having got this start, and making a judicious use of it, arrived at 
eminence. I need not mention names, your recollection will furnish them^ 
Those who staid here, whether graduates or not, had to undergo Examina- 
tion from the Boards of Censors of the dififerent.District Societies, which were 
generally much more rigid and exact than the examinations by the Profes- 
sors of the Colleges. Some were accused of being personally so, from fear 
of the applicant becoming a rival in business. But I think such instances 
were rare. But in the face of all this, such has been the growth of our popu- 
lation and the development of our resources, that not we alone, but our 
whole country, has grown exceeding all comparison. 

When so much has been done the past fifty years, with no better start, 
what may not be expected the next fifty, with all the improvements of the 
profession in your hands, with your Societies all in operation, with the foun- 
dations and underground wbrk done, and naught for you to d(ybut rear the 
superstructure ? 

Having brought the dul^ assigned me to a close, as near as the difiSculties 
of the undertaking will admit, I humbly submit them to you, for your appro- 
val or disapprobation, as in your judgment you shall see fit to decide. 

Flemington^ October 17, 1871. 

Which having been read before the Society, at its semi-annual meeting 
1871, the Society adopted the same, and appointed Drs. Samuel Lilly and 
Henry B. Nightingale a committee, together with the historian, to bring this 
•history before the Medical Society of New Jersey, at its next annual meeting, 
for their action in the matter, and requested the historian to continue his 
medical history of the county, and prepare the same for the same purpose. . 

And now let us examine if this is our whole duty to our brethren in the 


profession. Why should we cherish the memory of the members of our 
Society who have lived in the last fifty years, while that of others, equally 
worthy, be left to " fade as doth the leaf; " why not preserve the memory 
of those who lived one hundred years ago, nay, even from the first settlement 
of our county ? As much as we might wish to do so, it is impossible, as even 
facts are fast dying out around us ; much, nay most that could be had fifty 
years ago of the fifty preceding years, is now forever gone, and much more so, 
all that preceded that time. The mere rilune gathered from some old half- 
obliterated record on the head or tombstone, 

" Over which creeps the hiding moss. 
Blotting the graven words with fingers slow 
But sure," 

is the most we have. Legendary history, without corroborating evidence, is 
not to be depended on. In my late acting the part of ^^ Old Mortality," 
trying to rescue the memory of some of our brethren in the profession from 
'oblivion, I have run on strange ground and found several facts, and remem- 
bering the injunction of the head of our profession, ** Gather up the frag- 
ments, let nothing be lost," I have endeavored to do so, and have saved 
them alL Here they are ; I present them to assist your future historian, and 
render his labors more easy, as well as be of service to him who shall write 
the history of our profession for the State. I give them now : no time like 
the present. They will never appear more plainly than they do now. 

" Time knows not the weight of sleep or wearing 
And night^s deep darkness has no chain to bind 
His rushing pinions." 

It becomes us to be up and doing, working while it is day, remembering 
that '^ the night cometh when no man can work." * 

■"ii ••■ 

I* . 




• (as its boundaries now kxist,) 

Fbom its First Settlement to the Pbesent Time, 1871. 

Hunterdon County was taken from Burlington, (eesBion of 
the Legislature, 1713-14,) and included what now constitutes 
its territory, as well as what now constitutes part of Mercer, 
Morris, Sussex and "Warren Counties. These ijounties were 
cut off March 15th, (session of 1738-9,) and just a hundred 
years afterward, the south part, containing the Capital of our 
State, became a part of Mercer, which brought us to our pres- 
ent bounds. As it is presumed that the profession in e&ch 
county will take care of the memory of its own members, I 
will confine myself to the profession as it existed within its 
present bounds, and with those living in our immediate vicin- 
ity, and practicing within our borders. 

Who the first physicians of our county were,^cannot at this 
time be ascertained, from any source of information within 
my reach or knowledge. As we now exist, we are strictly an 
agricultural county, and this part has always been such. Its 
trade at an early day was through Burlington, its then county- 
town, and thence to Philadelphia, and afterward through 
Trenton and across her bridge to Philadelphia. 

The main road over which its produce was carried, ran 
through New Hampton, via Pittstown, Quakertown, Ringoes, 


FenaingtOD and Trenton. The great east and west line was 
the old York road, entering the county at Clover Hill, former- 
ly called Cuxtown, and rnoDing west, via Ringoea, left the 
county at Lamhertville, formerly called Coryell's Ferry and 
aince then Georgetovrn. Along these routes of travel of course 
sprung up some of our first settlements, and we might suppose 
afforded locations for some of her first physicians. 

In addition to this, other causes operated in the settlement 
of different places. Furnaces, forges, Ac, were eBtablished 
at an early day along the northern line of the county, and 
they DO doubt had their medical assistants. Some religions 
societies, too, formed or were transplanted from others to this 
place, and might be supposed to bring something of medical 
knowledge with them, but of all this I can find no reliable 
evidence. Every neighborhood appears to have had some one 
who could bleed and extract teeth ; some (generally German, 
or of that descent,} could cup. Occasioually a " handy man " 
could straighten a crooked .bone, if'it was broken, got great 
credit for doing so, and were called Doctors. Female accouch- 
eurs were plenty, particularly among the German and English 
part of the population. 

In nearly all cases, the remedies were the growth of the 
soil, but very little "apothecary medicine" being used, and 
that of the most simple kind. Lingering cases among the 
wealthy received attention from a great distance, Burlingtoiy 
Bucks County and Philadelphia. Easton was not known to ' 
most of them, as at that time itfwas of little note. Bomerville 
bad not come into existence, end as a general thing not much 
intercourse of the north part of the county, either east or 

In looking over the map of our county, and gathering all 
the iLformation tangible on the subject, I find the following 
named places have been used as locations and centres for the 


profession, it carries ns as far back as there is any certainty 
or reliability to be placed on the information, to a period be- 
yond which " gather all the clouds and darkness of dim uncer- 

They are arranged according to the date of the first physi- 
cian locating there, namely : 

First — PiTTSTOWN — 1748. 

John Rochill, from 1748 to 1798. x * • 

Aaron Forman, from 1794 to 1805. x 

Wm. H. McKissack, from 1805 to 1807. x 
. John Wall, from 1807 to 1826. x 

Charles B. Ferguson, from 1826 to 1881. x 

Hugh Homer Abemethy, from 1830 to 1832. Now in Jersey City. 

George Mauhby, from 1882 to 1835; from 1835 to '6, at Taylorsville. 
Now in the Navy. 

Richard Gagen, from 1835 to 1837. x 

Little Christie Osmun, from 1837 to 1848; he went to Virginia; is there 

Thomas Theodore Mann, from* 1848 a shprt time, about six months ; went 

Henry Race, from 1843 to the present time. 

Greenleaf Dearborn Daggett, from 1847 to 1849. x 

Second— SoTTTH Branch asd Thbeb BBmoss — 1750. t 

George Andrew Viesselius, from 1749 to 1767. x 
Abraham Bertron, from about 1784 to — 

^ Third — Bbthlbhbm and Uppeb past op KmawooD — 1760. t 

Rev. John Hanna, from 1760 to 1801. x ^ 

George Campbell, from 1785 to 181'3! x 

Fourth — Nbw Gbrmantown — 1765. 

Oliver Bamet, from 1765 to 1809. x 

Richard Eroesen, from 1798 to 1801 ; went to Ringoes. x 

Isaac Ogden, from about 1805 to 1880. M. S. x 

** Names having x afler thorn aro deceased, and places having t after them have ceased 
to be locatioDB for physicians ; M. S., Member of Society. 


Oliyer Wayne Ogden, from 1810 to 1840. M. 8. x 

William Bamet, from to say 1721. M. S. x 

John Honeyman, from .1826 to the present time. 

George T. Blake, from 1858 to 1857 ; went to Elizabeth, x 

Alexander Barclay, from to 1862 ; went to Lebanonyille. M. 8. x 

Byron Thornton, from Sept. 9, 1859, to April 1, 1866 ; now at Peapack. 

Willianr Pennington, from 1867 to the present time. 

Fifth — FiiEMiKaTOH — 1765. 

Dr. Creed was there in 1765 to 

John Gregg, from to 1808. x * 

William Geary, from 1808 to about 1884. M. 8. x 
John Manners, from 1818 to 1819 ; moved near to Clinton. M. 8. x 
Henry B. Poole, from 1819 to 1828. M. 8. x 
John F. Bchenck, from 1823 to present time. 
• William Duryea, from 1836 to M. 8. 

Richard Mershon, from 1843 to 1844 ; now in Newark. * 

Henry 8onthard, from 1846 to ; went to Reayille. M. 8. x 

Willard F. Combs, from 1852 to 1854. M. 8. x 

Justus Lessey, from 1854 to 1858 ; went to Philadelphia. 

J. Alfred Gray, from 1855 to the present time. 

George R. 8ulliyan, from 1865 to the present time. 

Wm. 8chenck, from 1848 to 1850, and from 1867 to the present time. 

Henry B. Nightingale, from 1866 to the present time. 

8ixth~QuAKERTOWN— 1 766. 

Aaron Forman, from 1766 to 1794 ; went to Pittstown. x 

Henry H. 8henck, from 1820 to 1821. M. 8. x 

William Watson, from 1831 to 1833 ; came from Delaware 8tate ; went to 

Albert 8. Clarke, from 1848 to 1856 ; M. 8. ; went to Illinois. 

James Hervey 8tuddiford, from May, 1856, to August, 1857 ; went to St. 

Matthias Abel, from 1857 to the present time. 

Seventh — Rinoobs — 1771. 

Gershom Craven, from 1771 to 1819. x 

Richard Eroesen, from 1801 to 1802 ; went to Lambertville. 

John A. Hendry, from 1808 to 1827. M. 8. x 

t^i?tg?«f ••,■• ■; 

V ■ 



Merrill Whitney Williamg, from 1827 -to late in 1828. . M. S. 
Cicero Hant, from 1828 to present time. 
Joseph A. Landis, from 1829 to 1831. M. S. 

Reynolds, from 1881 to 1883. x 

A- T. B. Van Doren, from 1850 to 1862. M. 8. x 
Jacob Williamson, in 1848 to x 

* Wm. Shenck, from 1850, a few months ; went to New York. 
Alexander McEelway, from 1852 to 1854. 
Cornelias W. Larison, from 1863 to present time. 

• Eighth— HAMDEN--1788. 

John F. Grandin, from 1783 to 1811. x 
Henry B. Poole, from 1828 to 1820. M. S. x 
John F. Grandin, from 1852 to present time. 

Ninth — Rbadington — 1 784. 

Jacob Jennings, from 1784 to 1789 ; went to Virginia, x 
John Van Horn, from 1787 to 1807. x 
Richard Kroesen, from 1792 to 1798 ; went to Germantown. 
Peter Vredenberg, from 1804 or 1805, staid one year ; went to Millstone. 
Ebenezer Sherwood, from 1807 to 1814; went to German Valley. 
John Lilly, from 1808 to 1809; went to Lambertville. 
Isaac Coe, from 1815 to 1816. 

Wm. A. A. Hunt, from 1817 to 1819 ; moved to Clarksyille. 
Josias Quinby, from 1817 to 1854. M. S. x 

Henry H. Shenck, from to , and from 1821 to 1828. M. S. x 
C. C. Hoagland, from 1836 to 1840 ; moved to Harlengen. x 
A. T. B. Van Doren, from Oct, 20th, 1828 to 1848 ; went to Ringoes. M. 
S. X 
Henry P. Salter, from 1850 to 1851 ; went to Lebanonville. 
Wesley Creamer, from 1854, staid six months ; went to Lebanonville. 
Thomas Johnson, from July 4th, 1858, (o the present time. 
Isaac Stryker was some time at Pleasant Run. 

Tenth— MiLFOKD —1 790. 

WnUam McGill, from 1790 to 1815. x 

Mershon, from 1815 to 1819; can hear nothing of him. 

Henry 8. Harris, from 1819 to 1827. M. S. 
Wm. P. Woodruff, from 1830 to 1836 or '7. x 





Jacob E. Hedges, from 1885 to Jaly, 1841. M. S. z 
Wm. Taylor, from 1841 to 1846 ; went to Schooley's Mountain, now in 
Thomas Theodore Mann, from July, 1841, to 1843; went to Pittslown. 
Charles Bartolette, from 1846 to 1866. M. S. z. 
David R Warman, from 1859 to 1860. 
Thomas M. Bartolette, a short time M. S. x 
Asher Riley, from 1866 to 1872 ; went to Frenchtown. 
George T. Kibble, from 1866 to present time. 
John K. Lowe, from 1871 to present time. 

Eleventh^OAKDALB, ob Barbeb Station — 1790. f 

Clark practiced in this section of country in 1790 ; was then an old 

man. I can learn nothing more of his history. 
John Bowne, from 1795 to 1857. M. 8. x 

Twelfth— Pballsvillb— 1791. t 
John Bowne, from 1791 to 1795 ; removed to Oakdale. 

Thirteenth— Reavillb— 1791. 

William Prall, from 1793 to 1825. x 

Zachur Prall, from 1816, a short time, x ^ 

Henry Southard, from to Oct., 1847. M S. x 

G. P. Hex, from 1854 to 

Claudius R. Prall, from 1857 to 1859 ; went to Monmouth. 

Johnson, in 1858, a short time. 

Claudius R Prall, from 1860 to 1861 ; now near Philadelphia. 
Irenus R Glen, from 1865 to 1871 ; moved to Pluckamin. 
G. P. Rex, from 1871 to present time. 

Fourteenth — Nbw Hampton — 1800 

Holmes, the first decade of the present century. 

Jonathan Axford, from 1808 to 1812; went to Clarksville. x 
William Morelan, from 1810 to 1820, there and in the vicinity, x 
Allen Wilson, a short time in 1881. Son of J. J. Wilson, of Trenton. 
Thomas Eastbum, from 1831 to 1838. 

Pierson, from 1883 to 1834. x 

R M. McLenahan, from 1836 to 1864. x 
Howard Sends, from 1863 to the present time. 

1 1 



Fifteenth—BLooiCBBXTBT— 1 800. 

Thomas Elder, the first decade of the present centary. x 

John $oan, from 1820 to 1822. M. S. x 

Hugh Hughs, from 1822 to 1856. x • 

J. M. Junkin, from 1850 to 1851 ; moved to Mount Pleasant. 

Isaac C. Stewart, ftom 1852 to present time. 

Joseph Bird, from 1862 to 1864 ; went to Perryville. 

Jeremiah 0. Hoff, from 1869 to 1870; went to Eyerittstown. 

Sixteenth— White House— 1800. 

Isaac Ogden, from 1800 to about 1805 ; went to G«rmantown. M. S. x 

Wm. Johnson, from 1811 to 1867. M. S. x 

John B. Price, in 1823, a short time, assisting Dr. Johnson, M. S. x 

Henry Field, from 1828 to 1832, assisting Dr. Johson ; went to Lebanon. 

John Van Cleye Johnson, from 1844 to ; went to Someryille, and 

from 1858 to the present time. 

Thomas Johnson, from 1846 to July 4, 1858, assisting his father; went to 

B. A. Watson, from 1861 to the fall of 1862, when he went into the army. 

Seyenteenth— Lambertville— 1802. 

Richard Kroesen, from 1802 to 1807. x 

Thomas Bills, from 1807 to 1808}; was a Monmouth man; did not suc- 

John Lilly, from 1809 to 1848. M. S. x 

Wm. Coryell, from 1826 to 1829. x 

Samuel Lilly, from 1837 to present time. 

Seba A. Pierson, from 

Lewis G. Cook, in 1888, six months; now at Hackettstown. 

William Wetherell, from 1847 to present time. 

A. H. Koon, from 1853 to 1856. M. S. 

James RUey, from 1853 to 1854. M. S. Died in March, 1872, at Saoca- 

J. H. Studdiford, from 1859 to 1870. M. S. x 

G. H. Larison, from 1859 to the presene time. 

Theodore H. Studdiford, from 1866 to the present time. 

McCourt, from 1867 to 1868. A natiye of Ireland. 

Lewis C. Rice, from 1869 to the present time. 

I- 1 



Eighteenth— Lower pabt op Kingwood akd Milltown — 1807. t 

David Forst, from 1807 to Aug. 6, 1821. x 

Israel L. Coriell, from 1824 to 1830 or '31. M. S. x 

Nineteenth— Clinton, (Formerly Hunt's Mills,)— 1810. 


Benj. Van Cleve Hunt, from 1810 to 1818. x 

Wm. Patterson Clark, from 1821 to 1825. M. B. x 

Conyngham Crawford, from 1829 to 1882. x ' . 

Henry 1fe*ield, from 1832 to the present time. 

John Manners, here and vicinity, from 1819 to 1853. • M. B. x 

Moore, from 1845 to 1846. Baid to be in Texas. * 

Sylvester Van Syckel, from 1849 to present time. * 

Joseph B. Bird, from 1866 to the present time. 

Twentieth— BoAB'fl Head— 1812. t "^ 

Jauies Pyatt, from 1812 to 1864. M. S. x 

Twenty-first — Clarksvillb — 1812. -« 

Jonathan Axford, from 1812 to 1819. x ■} 

Wm. A. A. Hunt, from 1819 to the present time. 

David P. Hunt, in 1826 a short time ; went to Marksborough. M. B. x . .f 

Wm. R. Hand, from 1826 to 1827 ; went to Barbertown. x * > 

John Blane, from Jan. 1828 to 1831 ; went to Perryville. '^ 

T. Edgar Hunt, from 1846 to the present time. 1 

Luther C. Bowlsby, a short time. 

Robert Fentnek, from 1870 to the present time. ':- 

Wm. Hackett, from 1872. i 

Twenty-second — Bpbing Mills, (formerly called Hell Town,) — 1815. t 's 

John McGloughen, from 1815 to Bept., 1835. x 

Twenty-third — ^Fbenchtown— 1820. « ; 

Edmund Porter, from June 10, 1820, to Oct. 29, 1826. M. B. x 

Charles Merrick, from 1828 some four or five years; went to Riegelsville. 

Wm. Taylor, from 1840 to r841 ; went to Milford. 

John C. Purcell, from 1841 to 1848. 

DeWitt Clinton Hough, from 1848 to 1856 ; went to Rahway. 

John C. Purcell, from 1856 to 1867 ; sold to Dr. Cowdrie. 

S. Rosenberger, from 1856 to 1861 ; removed to Philadelphia. 



Wm. Rice, from 1861 to 1870; went to Trenton. 
C. R. Covdric, from 1867 to Dec. 31, 1871. M. B. x 
Emanuel E. Deemy, from 1868 to present time. 
Aflher 8. Riley, from Jan., 1872, to present time. 

Twenty-fourth— EvkbAtstoww — 1821 . 

Henry Holcombe, from 1821 to 1858. M. 8. x 

N. B. Boileau, from 1858 to 1868 ; went to Perryville. 

John Q. Bird, from 1868 to 1870 ; went to Jersey City. • 

Jeremiah O. Hoff, from 1870 to present time.« 

Twenty-fifth — Mount Pleasant. 

Henry 8. Harris, from 1827 to 1830. M. 8. 
Purman Field, from 1848 to 1851 ; went to Roslin, L. L 
J. M. Junkin, in 1851 a short time; went to Holmsburg, army, now at 
Easton. , 

Jacob Winter, from 1852 to 1855 ; went to his father^s, and died there, z 
Thomas M. Bartolette, from 1855 to 1864. M. 8. x 
Joseph Creveling, from 1870 to 1871 ; went to Auburn, N. Y. 

Twenty-sixth — Babbertown — 1828. t 
Wm. R. Hand, from 1828 to 1870. x 

Twenty-seventh— LEBANONViLiiB. — 1831. 

Henry Field, from 1832 a short time; moved to Clinton. 

George Trumpore, from Aug., 1842, to 8ept, 1845 ; went to Essex. 

George Trumpore, from May, 1856, to -Sept., 1858 ; went to California, 
Hunt County. 

J. W. Blackfan, from Dec, 1845, to the present time, Sept. 20, 1861. En- 
listed in Ninth Reg., N. J. Vols., March 17, 1868 ; promoted to assistant sur- 
geon First N. J. Cavalry. While a private, was in all the battles that the 
Ninth were engaged in, and bore himself most gallantly, and was a good 
cavalry officer. 

Robert Fenwick, from April, 1856, to August, 1857; went to western New 

Byron Thornton, from April, 1858, to Sept., 1859 ; went to Germantown. 

Henry F. Salter, in 1850 odd, a short time ; went to Raritan, now At 
Montezuma, Iowa. 

Aaron Burgess, from 1850 to Oct. 21, 1861 ; said to be in Longsdale, Pa. 


* ) 



Alexander Barclay, from 1863 to 1866. M. S. z \ 

John R. Todd, from Jan., 1866, to 1871 ; removed to Omaha. M. S. | 

Wm. Knight, from 1871 to 1872; moved to Annandale. .V 

John R Todd, from 1872 to present time. . :^ 

Wesley Cramer, was here a few months after leaving Headington. ;^ 

Twenty-eighth— Pekbtttllb — 1831. 

John Blane, from 1831 to present time. .| 

Lewis ?. Needham, from 1835 to 1841. M. S. x 

Alfred S. Com6s, from 1848 to 1844; went to German Valley, thence to '\ 

Ohio. ; 

Henry L. K. Wiggin, from 1846 to 1847 ; now at Auburn, Maine. 

W. S. Creveling, from 1851 to 1852 ; went to Stanton. 

Isaac S. Creamer, from 1854 to 1855 ; to Sergeautsville. 

Matthias Abel, in 1856, six months; went to Quakertown. 

Wm. B. Labaw, from 1857 to 1858, some time; now at Riceville, Mon- 
mouth County. 

Charles A. Voorhies, from 1864 to 1865^ a short time ; now in Easton, Pa. 

Joseph Bird, from 1864 to 1866 ; went to Clinton. 

Levi Farrow, from 1865 to 1866 ; went to Middle Valley, Morris County. 

George B. Young, in 1867, six months. 

N. B. Boileau, from 1868 to the present time. 

Nathan Case, from 1868 to 1869; went to Asbury, thence to Musconet- 
cong, Warren County. M. 8. 

Twenty-ninth — Clover Hill — 1836. 

George P. Rex, from 1834 to 1854. 
Simeon P. Dana, from 1854 to 1860. M. S. x 

B. B. Matthews, from 1866 to 1869 ; went to Bound Brook. *• 

John N. Lowe, from 1869 to 1870 ; went to Milford ; Rahway in 1870 to 
A. S. Pitinger, from 1870 to the present time. ] 

Thirtieth— Rock Town— 1838. t 
Dunn, in 1838, (a grandson of J. Stevenson, Esq.) ; went west 

Thirty-first — Serge antsvillb — 1840. 

Richard Mershon, from 1840 to 1842 ; went to Flemington. 
John Stout, from 1842 about six months. 



Justus Lessey, from 1850 to Oct, 1654 ; went to Flemington, now in Ptula- 
delphia, coring cancers. 
L 8. Cramer, from 1855 to present time. 

Thirty-second — ^Littlb Yobk — 1840. 

Thomas Theodore Mann, from 1840 to 1841 ; went to Hilford. 
Jeremiah Roseberrj, from 1842 to 1847 ; went west, to Wisconnn or Min- 
Robert Orton, in 1B54 a few days. 
Moses D. Entght, frofn 1861 to present time. 

Thirty-third— RosKMONT— 1841. 

John Barcrofl, frx)m 1841 to 1842; reffldes in Virginia. 

Wm. Stout, from to 1850 z ; went to Princeton and died there. 

H. B. Nightingale, from 1850 to 1853. 

Theodore M. Large, from 1853 to 1859 z; went to Holington, Pa., and 
died there. 

H. B. Nightingale, from 1859 to 1866 ; w.ent to Flemington. 

John C. Purcell, in 1866 a short time. 

Charles M. Lee, from 1866 to Oct., 1867 ; now teaching school in King- 

George B. Young, from 1867 to Dec., 1868. 

C. H. Thompson, from 1868 to present time. 

Thirty-fourth — Staston — 1841. 

Henry Augustus Eirkpatrick, from 1841 to 1851. z 
Willard F. Combs, from 1851 to 1852 ; went to Flemington. M. 8. z 
William 8. C reveling, from 1852 to present time. 
, Henry G. Wagoner, from 1853 to 1859 ; now in Somerville. 
Aaron H. Burgess, from 1856 to 1859 ; went to Lebanonville. 

Thirty-fifth— WooDsviLLE— 1846. 

Frederick Gaston, in 1846 a few months, z 

John H. Robinson, in 1852; stayed till fall, then went to Camden. 
John H. Robinson, from March 14, 1853, to July, 1855. 
Tracey E. Waller, from Bordentown, in 1856, stayed three or four weeks. 
Wm. 8. Janney, from Pa., from 1856 till 1869 ; was in the army ; moved 
to Virginia. 
Austin W. Armitage, from May 5th, 1869, to present time. 



Thirty-sixth — Oalitobnia — 1851. t 
Jacob E. Stryker, from 1849 to 1862. x 

George F. Trampore, from May, 1863, to June, 1864; army; now at 
Taylor, a short time ; he was a Southern man. 

Thirty-seventh — Centrbyillb — 1851. 

Joseph Stevenson, from 1851 to 1860 ; died in Somerville 1860. x 
J. D. McCauley, from 1866 to 1869, and from 1869 to present time. 

Thirty-eighth— Paihmount, (former Fox ffill,)— 1863. f 

George T. Heston, from Bucks County, from 1853 to 1854 ; went back 

Byron Thornton, from August, 1854, to April, 1858 ; removed to Lebanon- 

Howard Servis, from 1858 to 1863 ; went to New Hampton. 

Thirty-ninth — Annandale, (formerly Clinton Station,) — 1855. 
Robert Fen wick, from 1855 to 1856, removed to Lebanonville. 
Wm. Enight, from January, 1872, to the present time. 

Fortieth — Wertsville— 1855. f 

Blackwell, from (say) 1855, to 1857. 

. Martin, from 1858 to 1860. 

Forty-first — Mechaihcsvillb — 1 860. 


John H. Bedell, from 1860 to 1862. 

Thomas B. Fritts, from 1868 to the present time. 

Forty-second — Baptist Town — 1860. 
John Leavett, from 1854 to the present time. 

Forty- third — Mountaihtville — 1 861 . 
John S. Linaberry, from 1861 to the present time. 


Forty-fourth— Stockton— 1866. 

O. H. Sprowl, from 1866 to the present time. 
11 # 


rorty-fifth— JuNCTiOK— 1866, 

Robert Fenwick, from 1866 to 1870; moyed to ClarksyiUe. 

Philip Creveling, from 1866 to 1872. 

T. M. A. Hem, from 1872 to the present time. 

Forth-sixth— CoKESBURG — 1868. t 
Wm. C. Allpaugh, from 1868 to 1869 ; went to High Bridge. 

Forty-seventh— High Bridgb— 1869. 


Wm. Hackett, from 1869 to 1872 ; went to ClarksyiUe. ^ 
Wm. C. Allpaugh, from 1869 to present time. 

Forty-eighth — New Market — t 
Robertson, a few months, but when I cannot ascertain. 

Making in all 48 stations, 14 of which, namely, South 
Branch or Three Bridges, Bethlehem and Kingwood, Pralls- 
ville. Barber Station, Milltown and Lower Kingwood, 
Boarshead, Spring Mills, Barbertown, Rocktown, California, 
Fairmount, Cokesbury, Wertsville and New Market (being 
marked thus, f) have ceased to be the abode of medical men, 
they generally, at this day, preferring villages for their resi- 
dences : making at this time 34 different locations or stations 
now occupied. 

The whole number of stations have been occupied by 206 
different persons as those who practiced medicine, living in 
the bounds of our county since 1748. Of these 84 belonged 
to the District Society, the other 6 being cut oft* in the division 
of the county ; 28 lived and passed oft* the stage of action 
before there was a Society, and 94 lived cotemporaneously with 
the Society ; 23 of whom are now living in the county — making 
all the practitioners of our county at this time to number 54, 
being an increase of 12 since 1866, our centennial celebration, 
.when we had in the county 42 members, one-half of whom 
belonged to the Society. 





JOHN ROCKHILL. The first reliable record we have of a regular phy- 
sician locating in our county is that of Dr. John Rockhill, son of Edward 
Rockhill, of Burlington county, who located in Pittstown in 1748, and was 
physician to the Society of Friends settled in that neighborhood, and was 
probably induced by them to locate there. He was bom in Burlington 
county, New Jersey, 22d day of March, 1726, studied his profession with 
Dr. Thomas Cadwallader of Philadelphia, and moved to this place as soon 
as he acquired his profession (eighteen years before the formation of the 
State Society), where he 'practiced fifty years. He died 7th day of April, 
1798. His remains rest in the Friends^ burying-ground in Quakertown. He 
was descended from an English family in Linconshire, England. His prac- 
tice was very extensive, being confined only by the Blue Mountains on the 
north, the Delaware on the west, and meeting the practitioners of Burling- 
ton and Raritan and New Brunswick on the south and east. 

He was a very energetic man, and in addition to his professional duties 
did much public business, and was a surveyor to the West Jersey board of 
land proprietors. Several of his descendants reside in that neighborhood. 

Dr. Rockhill had a case that excited a good deal of interest at the time. 
The Indians north of the mountains had made a descent on the settlements 
along the Delaware, burning buildings and plundering: They destroyed 
the house of a Mr. Wedges, and his daughter, in running to escape, was shot 
through the lungs, the ball comiDg out in front She was not found until 
the next morning, being in an extremely exhausted state. Dr. Rockhill was 
sent for, a distance of nearly forty miles, and attended her until she got 
well. She was twelve years old at the time, and afterward married a son of 
Edward Marshall, proprietor of Marshall's Island, by whom she had twelve 
children. The elder Marshall was the one who took the long walk along 
the Delaware, so much spoken of in the history of the times. 

Mr. Rockhill married a Miss Robeson, and hei' brother married the Doctor's 
Bister, the great-grandmother of our present Secretary of the Navy. 

WM. D. McKISSACK. Doctor McKissack was bom in Somerset county, 
New Jersey. His father. Dr. Wm. McKissack, practiced many years in Bound 
Brook, and was a very active and zealous whig during the Revolutionary 
war. *^ His mother was the daughter of CoL Wm. McDonald, who was a 



valiant soldier in the British anny, and emigrated to this country before the 
Revolution, and became an active and zealous opposer of British oppression 
and avarice." He was their only son, was educated at Baskingridge and 
Princeton, where he graduated in the class of 1802 ; and then pursued his 
professional studies in the office of Dr. Nicholas Belville of Trenton, at that 
time one of the most prominent men in the profession in New Jersey. He 
attended medical lectures in New York, and in 1805-6 located in Pittstown, 
where he resided say two years, when he^removed to Millstone, and was elect- 
ed Recording Secretary of the Medical Society of New Jersey, which office 
he held twelve years. He was several times Vice-President of the Society, 
and in 1826 the President of the same. 

He was an attentive, active and zealous member of his District Society, 
frequently acting in its board of censors. * 

Besides professional duties, he filled several offices of trust and honor in 
his native county. In the war of 1812 he commanded a company of volun- 
teers in defence of the State, and afterward rose to the rank of Brigadier- 
General in the mtlitia of New Jersey, which office he held as long as he 
lived ; and for one who had not graduated at a mililaij school, was as well 
skilled in military matters as any man 'in the State. 

In 1885-6 he was a member of the State Legislature. 

He died at his residence in the village of Millstone, 6th March, 1858, and 
was interred in the grounds of the Reformed Church of that place, where a 
beautiful monument marks the spot. 

He married Miss Margaret Ditmars, only daughter of Peter Ditmars of 
that place. They had five children, who reached maturity, Wm. D. McKis- 
sack, Jr., who graduated at West Point, went into the army, spent some 
time at Prairie du Chien, served in the Mexican War as Captain, died on his 
way home, and lies buried at his father^s side. His other son, Peter D. 
McKissack, M. D., lives on the heights above'the village of Millstone. I have 
just received the sad intelligence of his decease. 

If Dr. Wm. D. McKissack had been a good financier, from the amount of 
business he did, and the ability of the population among whom he was 
located, he might have been one of the weatthiest physicians in New Jersey. 
He was not avaricious, a quality he inherited from his father. In them the 
poor had real friends in time of need. No poor person was ever distressed 
by the collection of bills made by the hands of either of them. He had 
a handsome competency, and with that was content 

He was about five feet nine inches in height, fiorid complexion, rather 


slender build, an expressive countenance, straight as a rush, genteel in man- 
ner, affable in intercourse, a gentleman in the profession and*out of it. He 
was fond of. a good horse, and kept the best blooded ones ; he was an excel- 
lent rider, and held his seat as if he were a part of it. In the military 
parades of that day, there was not in the whole brigade one who managed 
his horse with as much ease and grace as he did — and that, too, in a 
county proverbial for good horses and good riders. 

It may be asked, why say so much about one who spent so short a time 
among us, and why not leave all this to be written by the historian of the 
District Medical Society of Somerset ? In reply,! say, pray pardon me, he 
was my Friend and Preceptor.* 

JOHN WALL. Doctor John Wall succeeded Dr. McKiasack at Pitts- 
town, in 1807; was a native of Solebury, Bucks county, Pennsylvania, where 
he read with Dr. John Wilson of that place. 

He seemed to be a physician almost by intuition ; would prescribe for and 
conduct a case through safely, and could hardly tell why he prescribed this 
or that remedy. He had great success, which rendered him very popular. 
He rode over a large district of country ; charged little, and did not collect 
that. He was fond of hunting and fishing, and of the company of the free 
and easy. He was a great favorite with many of his employers, who made 
it a business to treat him, as they thought, very kindly, but which was really 
to his very great injury ; it was all that many people ever paid him or ex- 
pected to pay. 

He used the words '* that is," and " that is to say," very frequently, and 
.. almost on all occasions. Being called on to meet a neighboring physician 
in consultation, he showed great tardiness, so much so that Dr. 0. called on 
Dr. Wall himself to induce him to go. Dr, Wall, after hearing a statement 
of .the case, said . " Well, * that is to say,' you must try the old remedy." 
Dr. C. says, " I have prescribed it, and it don't answer the purpose ; this 
is an extreme case." " Well then," says Dr. W., " * That is,' if the case is 
an extreme case, ^ that is to say,' you must use extreme remedies." 

Mrs. C, whose daughter was sick, had called on Dr. Wall to attend her. 
Mrs. C. considered the Dr. was not giving the attention that the case required, 
and attributing his neglect to the doctor's spending too much time in com- 
pany, drinking, etQ. She said, "Dr. Wall, you doctors know that intemper- 

* For resolutions, see p. 289, and for biography, p. 414 of vol. VI. of the New Jersey 
Medical and Smigical Reporter. 




ance is very injuriouB, don't you ? " The Dr. replied, " ' That is,' we do 
know it" " You know that it unfits for business ? " " * That is to say,' we 
do know that, too." *^ And that in the end it will destroy both body and 
soul ? " replied, ** * That is to say,' we have been told so." " Well then," said 
Mrs. C, '* why do you doctors drink so ? " The reply was, " * That is to say,' 
Mrs. C.J the reason is we get so dry/' 

He never married. When he died his remains were interred in the bury- 
iiig-ground of the Bethlehem Presbyterian Church, now in Union township. 
At the head of his grave stands a stone with this inscription : 


Memory of 

Doctor John 'Wall, 

who. departed this life 

September 12th, A. D. 1826,